This is the Stage README file, containing an introduction, license and citation information. Stage is a 2(.5)D robotics standalone simulator and can also be used as a C++ library to build your own simulation environment. Up-to-date documentation can be found here.
For release notes see RELEASE.txt For installation notes see INSTALL.txt
Copyright Richard Vaughan and contributors 1998-2011 Part of the Player Project (http://playerstage.org)
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
A copy of the license is included with the sourcecode in the file 'COPYING". Copying and redistribution is permitted only under the terms of the license.
Stage is a robot simulator. It provides a virtual world populated by mobile robots and sensors, along with various objects for the robots to sense and manipulate.
There are three ways to use Stage:
Stage provides several sensor and actuator models, including sonar or infrared rangers, scanning laser rangefinder, color-blob tracking, fiducial tracking, bumpers, grippers and mobile robot bases with odometric or global localization.
Stage was designed with multi-agent systems in mind, so it provides fairly simple, computationally cheap models of lots of devices rather than attempting to emulate any device with great fidelity. This design is intended to be useful compromise between conventional high-fidelity robot simulations, the minimal simulations described by Jakobi , and the grid-world simulations common in artificial life research . We intend Stage to be just realistic enough to enable users to move controllers between Stage robots and real robots, while still being fast enough to simulate large populations. We also intend Stage to be comprehensible to undergraduate students, yet sophisticated enough for professional reseachers.
Player also contains several useful 'virtual devices'; including some sensor pre-processing or sensor-integration algorithms that help you to rapidly build powerful robot controllers. These are easy to use with Stage.
If you use Stage in your work, we'd appreciate a citation. At the time of writing, the most suitable reference is either:
Or, if you are using Player/Stage:
Please help us keep track of what's being used out there by correctly naming the Player/Stage components you use. Player used on its own is called "Player". Player and Stage used together are referred to as "the Player/Stage system" or just "Player/Stage". When Stage is used without Player, it's just called "Stage". When the Stage library is used to create your own custom simulator, it's called "libstage" or "the Stage library". When Player is used with its 3D ODE-based simulation backend, Gazebo, it's called Player/Gazebo. Gazebo without Player is just "Gazebo". All this software is part of the "Player Project".
Funding for Stage has been provided in part by:
The names "Player" and "Stage" were inspired by the lines:
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players
from "As You Like It" by William Shakespeare.
 Nick Jakobi (1997) "Evolutionary Robotics and the Radical Envelope of Noise Hypothesis", Adaptive Behavior Volume 6, Issue 2. pp.325 - 368.
 Stuart Wilson (1985) "Knowledge Growth in an Artificial Animal", Proceedings of the First International Conference on Genetic Agorithms and Their Applications. Hillsdale, New Jersey. pp.16-23.
Source Code: https://github.com/rtv/Stage
License: GPL-2.0 License
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C and C++ are the most powerful programming language in the world. Most of the super fast and complex libraries and algorithms are written in C or C++. Most powerful Kernel programs are also written in C. So, there is no way to skip it.
In programming competitions, most programmers prefer to write code in C or C++. Tourist is considered the worlds top programming contestant of all ages who write code in C++.
During programming competitions, programmers prefer to use a lightweight editor to focus on coding and algorithm designing. Vim, Sublime Text, and Notepad++ are the most common editors for us. Apart from the competition, many software developers and professionals love to use Sublime Text just because of its flexibility.
I have discussed the steps we need to complete in this blog post before running a C/C++ code in Sublime Text. We will take the inputs from an input file and print outputs to an output file without using
freopen file related functions in C/C++.
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If you are familiar with C/C++then you must have come across some unusual things and if you haven’t, then you are about to. The below codes are checked twice before adding, so feel free to share this article with your friends. The following displays some of the issues:
The below code generates no error since a print function can take any number of inputs but creates a mismatch with the variables. The print function is used to display characters, strings, integers, float, octal, and hexadecimal values onto the output screen. The format specifier is used to display the value of a variable.
A signed integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes an integer in the range [-2147483648 to 2147483647]. An unsigned integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes a non-negative integer in the range [0 to 4294967295]. The signed integer is represented in twos-complement notation. In the below code the signed integer will be converted to the maximum unsigned integer then compared with the unsigned integer.
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In this article, we’ll take a look at using the isdigit() function in C/C++. This is a very simple way to check if any value is a digit or not. Let’s look at how to use this function, using some simple examples.
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In this Video We are going to see how to use Loops in C++. We will see How to use For, While, and Do While Loops in C++.
C++ is general purpose, compiled, object-oriented programming language and its concepts served as the basis for several other languages such as Java, Python, Ruby, Perl etc.
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