Blockchain X

Blockchain X

1628005113

What are NFTs and what will their evolution be?

The popularity of non-fungible tokens or Non-fungible tokens (NFT) has skyrocketed in recent months and, with it, the doubts surrounding this new phenomenon. Therefore, and to clarify possible doubts about what exactly this concept consists of, in this article we explain what NFTs are and we predict their evolution in 2021.

What are NFTs?

We could define a token as a “contract” in which it is stipulated that a person owns a unique and irreplaceable copy of a digital asset, along with that asset. To ensure that the “contract” is safe and truthful, it is stored on a public network, which is blockchain technology . The fact of being on the blockchain development company guarantees that it is auditable and that if these buyers decided to sell said contract for the possession of a single asset, it could be followed up.

Tangible assets that can be touched and seen, such as stamps, works of art, or jewelry are often given value. Now more and more it is also being done with intangible goods that, although we see, are not material. Although cryptocurrencies come close to this definition, NFTs go further, applying this concept to objects oriented, especially to collecting.

Unlike cryptocurrencies, NFTs are not interchangeable because they are unique, although there may be copies outside. However, an NFT can be sold to someone else. Also, most of these “tokens” are written on the Ethereum network .

The relevance of the NFT’s comes from the fact that its origin can be assured by introducing a code in the programming . This allows that if the work is sold to another owner, the transaction is recorded in this public network, which can be ethereum or another, and the creator or artist will be remunerated with a percentage for each transmission of the same. In this way, digital targets with many business possibilities can be uniquely represented.

Examples of NFT’s

As in the world of cryptocurrencies, tokens work as something speculative. One of the most famous sales of NFT’s was carried out by the renowned American boxer and youtuber Logan Paul. A few months ago he put 3,000 NFT’s of Pokemon cards up for sale and in a few days he sold all the assets for 5 million euros.

The interesting thing about this action is the value that these cards will have in the future , since in 2021 they have cost 2,000, but it is estimated that in 2030 it could increase to 30,000.

Another well-known case is that of artist Mike Winkelmann, nicknamed Beeple, who sold his NFT “EveryDay — The First 5000 Days” in March for $ 69 million.

On February 19, the GIF of Nyan Cat or “cosmic cat,” probably the best-known cat meme since 2011, sold for $ 500,000.

 

A few weeks later, Canadian singer Grimes sold a collection of digital works for more than $ 6 million. But art is not only sold through NFTs. Jack Dorsey, the founder of Twitter, decided to put his first tweet on the social network up for sale for $ 2.9 million.

NFT ARTWORK THEFT

With the rise of NFTs, thefts of digital works of art have also increased . At the end of March, the NFT platform Nifty Gateway reported the theft of its entire collections of NFTs being their accounts hacked, which triggered the theft of digital assets valued at $ 150,000 and the purchase of others through their credit cards.

The platform assured that users who had been hacked for not having two-step authentication activated. This is the main problem with tokens. Even if there is an original version of the artistic product, it does not prevent multiple copies from being made. However, there is only one original, whose ownership is recorded on the blockchain.

How to do an NFT step by step

An NFT is simply the stamp we put on something to say that it has a single or multiple owner. We can make NFT’s with everything, with music, images, with land in a virtual field, etc. It is a new way of verifying ownership.

We can all create an NFT and the process is very simple. You just have to follow the following steps:

1. Scan a file

The first thing we have to do is digitize a file. Although it sounds very complicated, we all do it day by day. For example, when we take a photo with the mobile, a screenshot, when we record an audio on WhatsApp, etc. We are making something that surrounds us something digital. If we take a picture of a plant and upload it to a social network there we already have an image that, if we wanted, we could create an NFT with it.

2. Register a “node” on the blockchain network

We could auction this image that we have created so that someone could buy it from me for a value of one ether, for example. Let us remember that this contract that we put on the image to say that it belongs to someone, what we do is deliver the digital asset (image) with the seal.

In order to transfer this image with the seal to someone, you must be within the blockchain network, which is the one that works. To do this, you have to register a node. This is like registering your IP address on the blockchain network. It has an associated cost that is moderately low, currently ranging between 19 and 40 dollars.

3. Minting or coined

Finally, once inside the network, all that remains is to put the seal on your digital asset, which is the process called minting or coining. It is currently a fully automatic process with many platforms. One of the platforms with which you can do it is Open Sea.

How to measure the price of an NFT

To understand how the price of an NFT is measured, you have to understand where the value resides. It depends fundamentally on three factors:

1. Rarity or scarcity

When we talk about rarity or scarcity, the fact that an element is unique or that there are very few series of something gives it a lot of value. Imagine a painting by Picasso. We have a unique copy of a painting that has been hand painted by Picasso. It is scarce because only that painting exists, despite the fact that there are thousands of replicas. No matter how similar they are to the original, that does not make the copies have value, since the value of the painting is given by the fact that it was painted by Picasso.

Therefore, that scarcity and that rarity is what gives value to that digital asset.

2. Utility

Second, the usefulness of the asset must be taken into account. You may be selling tokens of something that has a value. For example, you can sell a piece of land from a virtual world, since that virtual world is a kind of game and people can do things in it. This has a specific utility which is that you can later build a house or whatever you want.

In short, if the token is useful this will give it a value.

3. Property history

Lastly, the ownership history is also very important. If I have created an image because I am a digital artist, I auction it off and a very famous person you know buys it, this will also add a lot of value to the NFT.

If you try to sell any digital asset, they can buy it from you but surely you cannot give it the value you want because it does not depend on you.

The Future of NTFs and the Blockchain Industry

This market for crypto art and Non-fungible tokens or NFTs is expected to maintain the same growth curve despite the slight drop in popularity in recent weeks. In fact, according to a study carried out by the firm Invezz, there are no signs that the NFT market is a bubble and the volume of operations is expected to reach 145 million euros by October .

It is true that the NFTs have had a boom in the press for these large purchases that we have mentioned above. There have been a lot of purchases that apparently may seem useless to us. These large purchases are likely to stop because in the end it is a technology that is being born.

However, it is a great opportunity for digital artists to have control over the ownership of assets and then they can have a greater right to royalties. It is a system that greatly benefits artists and creators of digital content.

Apart from what happens with NFTs, blockchain technology and decentralized finance have come to stay. A fairly large growth is anticipated in the market and it will create a huge disruption in terms of the accessibility and availability of basic financial products.

What did you think of this article about what NFTs are ? Leave your comments and share!

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What are NFTs and what will their evolution be?
Annie  Emard

Annie Emard

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HAML Lint: Tool For Writing Clean and Consistent HAML

HAML-Lint

haml-lint is a tool to help keep your HAML files clean and readable. In addition to HAML-specific style and lint checks, it integrates with RuboCop to bring its powerful static analysis tools to your HAML documents.

You can run haml-lint manually from the command line, or integrate it into your SCM hooks.

Requirements

  • Ruby 2.4+
  • HAML 4.0+

Installation

gem install haml_lint

If you'd rather install haml-lint using bundler, don't require it in your Gemfile:

gem 'haml_lint', require: false

Then you can still use haml-lint from the command line, but its source code won't be auto-loaded inside your application.

Usage

Run haml-lint from the command line by passing in a directory (or multiple directories) to recursively scan:

haml-lint app/views/

You can also specify a list of files explicitly:

haml-lint app/**/*.html.haml

haml-lint will output any problems with your HAML, including the offending filename and line number.

File Encoding

haml-lint assumes all files are encoded in UTF-8.

Command Line Flags

Command Line FlagDescription
--auto-gen-configGenerate a configuration file acting as a TODO list
--auto-gen-exclude-limitNumber of failures to allow in the TODO list before the entire rule is excluded
-c/--configSpecify which configuration file to use
-e/--excludeExclude one or more files from being linted
-i/--include-linterSpecify which linters you specifically want to run
-x/--exclude-linterSpecify which linters you don't want to run
-r/--reporterSpecify which reporter you want to use to generate the output
-p/--parallelRun linters in parallel using available CPUs
--fail-fastSpecify whether to fail after the first file with lint
--fail-levelSpecify the minimum severity (warning or error) for which the lint should fail
--[no-]colorWhether to output in color
--[no-]summaryWhether to output a summary in the default reporter
--show-lintersShow all registered linters
--show-reportersDisplay available reporters
-h/--helpShow command line flag documentation
-v/--versionShow haml-lint version
-V/--verbose-versionShow haml-lint, haml, and ruby version information

Configuration

haml-lint will automatically recognize and load any file with the name .haml-lint.yml as a configuration file. It loads the configuration based on the directory haml-lint is being run from, ascending until a configuration file is found. Any configuration loaded is automatically merged with the default configuration (see config/default.yml).

Here's an example configuration file:

linters:
  ImplicitDiv:
    enabled: false
    severity: error

  LineLength:
    max: 100

All linters have an enabled option which can be true or false, which controls whether the linter is run, along with linter-specific options. The defaults are defined in config/default.yml.

Linter Options

OptionDescription
enabledIf false, this linter will never be run. This takes precedence over any other option.
includeList of files or glob patterns to scope this linter to. This narrows down any files specified via the command line.
excludeList of files or glob patterns to exclude from this linter. This excludes any files specified via the command line or already filtered via the include option.
severityThe severity of the linter. External tools consuming haml-lint output can use this to determine whether to warn or error based on the lints reported.

Global File Exclusion

The exclude global configuration option allows you to specify a list of files or glob patterns to exclude from all linters. This is useful for ignoring third-party code that you don't maintain or care to lint. You can specify a single string or a list of strings for this option.

Skipping Frontmatter

Some static blog generators such as Jekyll include leading frontmatter to the template for their own tracking purposes. haml-lint allows you to ignore these headers by specifying the skip_frontmatter option in your .haml-lint.yml configuration:

skip_frontmatter: true

Inheriting from Other Configuration Files

The inherits_from global configuration option allows you to specify an inheritance chain for a configuration file. It accepts either a scalar value of a single file name or a vector of multiple files to inherit from. The inherited files are resolved in a first in, first out order and with "last one wins" precedence. For example:

inherits_from:
  - .shared_haml-lint.yml
  - .personal_haml-lint.yml

First, the default configuration is loaded. Then the .shared_haml-lint.yml configuration is loaded, followed by .personal_haml-lint.yml. Each of these overwrite each other in the event of a collision in configuration value. Once the inheritance chain is resolved, the base configuration is loaded and applies its rules to overwrite any in the intermediate configuration.

Lastly, in order to match your RuboCop configuration style, you can also use the inherit_from directive, which is an alias for inherits_from.

Linters

» Linters Documentation

haml-lint is an opinionated tool that helps you enforce a consistent style in your HAML files. As an opinionated tool, we've had to make calls about what we think are the "best" style conventions, even when there are often reasonable arguments for more than one possible style. While all of our choices have a rational basis, we think that the opinions themselves are less important than the fact that haml-lint provides us with an automated and low-cost means of enforcing consistency.

Custom Linters

Add the following to your configuration file:

require:
  - './relative/path/to/my_first_linter.rb'
  - 'absolute/path/to/my_second_linter.rb'

The files that are referenced by this config should have the following structure:

module HamlLint
  # MyFirstLinter is the name of the linter in this example, but it can be anything
  class Linter::MyFirstLinter < Linter
    include LinterRegistry

    def visit_tag
      return unless node.tag_name == 'div'
      record_lint(node, "You're not allowed divs!")
    end
  end
end

For more information on the different types on HAML node, please look through the HAML parser code: https://github.com/haml/haml/blob/master/lib/haml/parser.rb

Keep in mind that by default your linter will be disabled by default. So you will need to enable it in your configuration file to have it run.

Disabling Linters within Source Code

One or more individual linters can be disabled locally in a file by adding a directive comment. These comments look like the following:

-# haml-lint:disable AltText, LineLength
[...]
-# haml-lint:enable AltText, LineLength

You can disable all linters for a section with the following:

-# haml-lint:disable all

Directive Scope

A directive will disable the given linters for the scope of the block. This scope is inherited by child elements and sibling elements that come after the comment. For example:

-# haml-lint:disable AltText
#content
  %img#will-not-show-lint-1{ src: "will-not-show-lint-1.png" }
  -# haml-lint:enable AltText
  %img#will-show-lint-1{ src: "will-show-lint-1.png" }
  .sidebar
    %img#will-show-lint-2{ src: "will-show-lint-2.png" }
%img#will-not-show-lint-2{ src: "will-not-show-lint-2.png" }

The #will-not-show-lint-1 image on line 2 will not raise an AltText lint because of the directive on line 1. Since that directive is at the top level of the tree, it applies everywhere.

However, on line 4, the directive enables the AltText linter for the remainder of the #content element's content. This means that the #will-show-lint-1 image on line 5 will raise an AltText lint because it is a sibling of the enabling directive that appears later in the #content element. Likewise, the #will-show-lint-2 image on line 7 will raise an AltText lint because it is a child of a sibling of the enabling directive.

Lastly, the #will-not-show-lint-2 image on line 8 will not raise an AltText lint because the enabling directive on line 4 exists in a separate element and is not a sibling of the it.

Directive Precedence

If there are multiple directives for the same linter in an element, the last directive wins. For example:

-# haml-lint:enable AltText
%p Hello, world!
-# haml-lint:disable AltText
%img#will-not-show-lint{ src: "will-not-show-lint.png" }

There are two conflicting directives for the AltText linter. The first one enables it, but the second one disables it. Since the disable directive came later, the #will-not-show-lint element will not raise an AltText lint.

You can use this functionality to selectively enable directives within a file by first using the haml-lint:disable all directive to disable all linters in the file, then selectively using haml-lint:enable to enable linters one at a time.

Onboarding Onto a Preexisting Project

Adding a new linter into a project that wasn't previously using one can be a daunting task. To help ease the pain of starting to use Haml-Lint, you can generate a configuration file that will exclude all linters from reporting lint in files that currently have lint. This gives you something similar to a to-do list where the violations that you had when you started using Haml-Lint are listed for you to whittle away, but ensuring that any views you create going forward are properly linted.

To use this functionality, call Haml-Lint like:

haml-lint --auto-gen-config

This will generate a .haml-lint_todo.yml file that contains all existing lint as exclusions. You can then add inherits_from: .haml-lint_todo.yml to your .haml-lint.yml configuration file to ensure these exclusions are used whenever you call haml-lint.

By default, any rules with more than 15 violations will be disabled in the todo-file. You can increase this limit with the auto-gen-exclude-limit option:

haml-lint --auto-gen-config --auto-gen-exclude-limit 100

Editor Integration

Vim

If you use vim, you can have haml-lint automatically run against your HAML files after saving by using the Syntastic plugin. If you already have the plugin, just add let g:syntastic_haml_checkers = ['haml_lint'] to your .vimrc.

Vim 8 / Neovim

If you use vim 8+ or Neovim, you can have haml-lint automatically run against your HAML files as you type by using the Asynchronous Lint Engine (ALE) plugin. ALE will automatically lint your HAML files if it detects haml-lint in your PATH.

Sublime Text 3

If you use SublimeLinter 3 with Sublime Text 3 you can install the SublimeLinter-haml-lint plugin using Package Control.

Atom

If you use atom, you can install the linter-haml plugin.

TextMate 2

If you use TextMate 2, you can install the Haml-Lint.tmbundle bundle.

Visual Studio Code

If you use Visual Studio Code, you can install the Haml Lint extension

Git Integration

If you'd like to integrate haml-lint into your Git workflow, check out our Git hook manager, overcommit.

Rake Integration

To execute haml-lint via a Rake task, make sure you have rake included in your gem path (e.g. via Gemfile) add the following to your Rakefile:

require 'haml_lint/rake_task'

HamlLint::RakeTask.new

By default, when you execute rake haml_lint, the above configuration is equivalent to running haml-lint ., which will lint all .haml files in the current directory and its descendants.

You can customize your task by writing:

require 'haml_lint/rake_task'

HamlLint::RakeTask.new do |t|
  t.config = 'custom/config.yml'
  t.files = ['app/views', 'custom/*.haml']
  t.quiet = true # Don't display output from haml-lint to STDOUT
end

You can also use this custom configuration with a set of files specified via the command line:

# Single quotes prevent shell glob expansion
rake 'haml_lint[app/views, custom/*.haml]'

Files specified in this manner take precedence over the task's files attribute.

Documentation

Code documentation is generated with YARD and hosted by RubyDoc.info.

Contributing

We love getting feedback with or without pull requests. If you do add a new feature, please add tests so that we can avoid breaking it in the future.

Speaking of tests, we use Appraisal to test against both HAML 4 and 5. We use rspec to write our tests. To run the test suite, execute the following from the root directory of the repository:

appraisal bundle install
appraisal bundle exec rspec

Community

All major discussion surrounding HAML-Lint happens on the GitHub issues page.

Changelog

If you're interested in seeing the changes and bug fixes between each version of haml-lint, read the HAML-Lint Changelog.

Author: sds
Source Code: https://github.com/sds/haml-lint
License: MIT license

#haml #lint 

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What are NFTs | Why NFTs are so expensive | Why people are buying NFTs | Explained

What are NFTs?
Nonfungible tokens are a type of digital asset created to track ownership of a virtual item using blockchain technology. … NFTs have boomed in popularity this year along with a rise in the values of digital currencies, like ether and bitcoin.

Why NFTs are so expensive?
Traditional works of art such as paintings are valuable because they are one of a kind. But digital files can be easily and endlessly duplicated. With NFTs, artwork can be “tokenised” to create a digital certificate of ownership that can be bought and sold.

Why people are buying NFTs?
The CEO of SuperRare, another NFT site, told Insider people are motivated to buy NFTs because it provides a unique connection to the creator that does not exist with any other art form. Crypto art has also spawned entire communities online.

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