Kriza Educa

Kriza Educa


Top 20 JavaScript Autocomplete Libraries

JavaScript Autocomplete is known as a feature in which an application helps in predicting the rest of a word a user is typing.

It works by allowing users to click on the tab key to accept a suggestion or click to the down arrow key to accept one of several suggestions in graphical user interfaces.

This feature helps in saving us a lot of our time whenever we are typing our queries.

In this article, I will explain to you 21 best Javascript Autocomplete libraries that will assist you in query creation, reduce keystrokes and help avoid typographical errors.

1. Typeahead.js

We can say typeahead.js is a flexible JavaScript library for providing a powerful foundation for building strong typeahead. The developer of this library took inspiration from the autocomplete search functionality found on Twitter.

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  • This JavaScript library comprises two components: the suggestion engine and the UI view
  • The suggestion engine’s duty is helping you compute suggestions for a given query
  • The role of the UI view is to render suggestions and control DOM interactions

#javascript #programming #web development #ux #ui

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Top 20 JavaScript Autocomplete Libraries

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Nice, thanks.

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Top 20 Most Useful Python Modules or Packages

 March 25, 2021  Deepak@321  0 Comments

Welcome to my blog, In this article, we will learn the top 20 most useful python modules or packages and these modules every Python developer should know.

Hello everybody and welcome back so in this article I’m going to be sharing with you 20 Python modules you need to know. Now I’ve split these python modules into four different categories to make little bit easier for us and the categories are:

  1. Web Development
  2. Data Science
  3. Machine Learning
  4. AI and graphical user interfaces.

Near the end of the article, I also share my personal favorite Python module so make sure you stay tuned to see what that is also make sure to share with me in the comments down below your favorite Python module.

#python #packages or libraries #python 20 modules #python 20 most usefull modules #python intersting modules #top 20 python libraries #top 20 python modules #top 20 python packages

RobustStats.jl: A Collection Of Robust Statistical Tests in Julia


This package contains a variety of functions from the field robust statistical methods. Many are estimators of location or dispersion; others estimate the standard error or the confidence intervals for the location or dispresion estimators, generally computed by the bootstrap method.

Many functions in this package are based on the R package WRS (an R-Forge repository) by Rand Wilcox. Others were contributed by users as needed. References to the statistics literature can be found below.

This package requires Compat, Rmath, Dataframes, and Distributions. They can be installed automatically, or by invoking Pkg.add("packagename").


Location estimators:

  • tmean(x, tr=0.2) - Trimmed mean: mean of data with the lowest and highest fraction tr of values omitted.
  • winmean(x, tr=0.2)- Winsorized mean: mean of data with the lowest and highest fraction tr of values squashed to the 20%ile or 80%ile value, respectively.
  • tauloc(x) - Tau measure of location by Yohai and Zamar.
  • onestep(x) - One-step M-estimator of location using Huber's ψ
  • mom(x) - Modified one-step M-estimator of location (MOM)
  • bisquareWM(x) - Mean with weights given by the bisquare rho function.
  • huberWM(x) - Mean with weights given by Huber's rho function.
  • trimean(x) - Tukey's trimean, the average of the median and the midhinge.

Dispersion estimators:

  • winvar(x, tr=0.2) - Winsorized variance.
  • wincov(x, y, tr=0.2) - Winsorized covariance.
  • pbvar(x) - Percentage bend midvariance.
  • bivar(x) - Biweight midvariance.
  • tauvar(x) - Tau measure of scale by Yohai and Zamar.
  • iqrn(x) - Normalized inter-quartile range (normalized to equal σ for Gaussians).
  • shorthrange(x) - Length of the shortest closed interval containing at least half the data.
  • scaleQ(x) - Normalized Rousseeuw & Croux Q statistic, from the 25%ile of all 2-point distances.
  • scaleS(x) - Normalized Rousseeuw & Croux S statistic, from the median of the median of all 2-point distances.
  • shorthrange!(x), scaleQ!(x), and scaleS!(x) are non-copying (that is, x-modifying) forms of the above.

Confidence interval or standard error estimates:

  • trimse(x) - Standard error of the trimmed mean.
  • trimci(x) - Confidence interval for the trimmed mean.
  • msmedse(x) - Standard error of the median.
  • binomci(s,n) - Binomial confidence interval (Pratt's method).
  • acbinomci(s,n) - Binomial confidence interval (Agresti-Coull method).
  • sint(x) - Confidence interval for the median (with optional p-value).
  • momci(x) - Confidence interval of the modified one-step M-estimator of location (MOM).
  • trimpb(x) - Confidence interval for trimmed mean.
  • pcorb(x) - Confidence intervale for Pearson's correlation coefficient.
  • yuend - Compare the trimmed means of two dependent random variables.
  • bootstrapci(x, est=f) - Compute a confidence interval for estimator f(x) by bootstrap methods.
  • bootstrapse(x, est=f) - Compute a standard error of estimator f(x) by bootstrap methods.

Utility functions:

  • winval(x, tr=0.2) - Return a Winsorized copy of the data.
  • idealf(x) - Ideal fourths, interpolated 1st and 3rd quartiles.
  • outbox(x) - Outlier detection.
  • hpsi(x) - Huber's ψ function.
  • contam_randn - Contaminated normal distribution (generates random deviates).
  • _weightedhighmedian(x) - Weighted median (breaks ties by rounding up). Used in scaleQ.


For location, consider the bisquareWM with k=3.9σ, if you can make any reasonable guess as to the "Gaussian-like width" σ (see dispersion estimators for this). If not, trimean is a good second choice, though less efficient. Also, though the author personally has no experience with them, tauloc, onestep, and mom might be useful.

For dispersion, the scaleS is a good general choice, though scaleQ is very efficient for nearly Gaussian data. The MAD is the most robust though less efficient. If scaleS doesn't work, then shorthrange is a good second choice.

The first reference on scaleQ and scaleS (below) is a lengthy discussion of the tradeoffs among scaleQ, scaleS, shortest half, and median absolute deviation (MAD, see BaseStats.mad for Julia implementation). All four have the virtue of having the maximum possible breakdown point, 50%. This means that replacing up to 50% of the data with unbounded bad values leaves the statistic still bounded. The efficiency of Q is better than S and S is better than MAD (for Gaussian distributions), and the influence of a single bad point and the bias due to a fraction of bad points is only slightly larger on Q or S than on MAD. Unlike MAD, the other three do not implicitly assume a symmetric distribution.

To choose between Q and S, the authors note that Q has higher statistical efficiency, but S is typically twice as fast to compute and has lower gross-error sensitivity. An interesting advantage of Q over the others is that its influence function is continuous. For a rough idea about the efficiency, the large-N limit of the standardized variance of each quantity is 2.722 for MAD, 1.714 for S, and 1.216 for Q, relative to 1.000 for the standard deviation (given Gaussian data). The paper gives the ratios for Cauchy and exponential distributions, too; the efficiency advantages of Q are less for Cauchy than for the other distributions.


#Set up a sample dataset:
x=[1.672064, 0.7876588, 0.317322, 0.9721646, 0.4004206, 1.665123, 3.059971, 0.09459603, 1.27424, 3.522148,
   0.8211308, 1.328767, 2.825956, 0.1102891, 0.06314285, 2.59152, 8.624108, 0.6516885, 5.770285, 0.5154299]

julia> mean(x)     #the mean of this dataset

tmean: trimmed mean

julia> tmean(x)            #20% trimming by default

julia> tmean(x, tr=0)      #no trimming; the same as the output of mean()

julia> tmean(x, tr=0.3)    #30% trimming

julia> tmean(x, tr=0.5)    #50% trimming, which gives you the median of the dataset.

winval: winsorize data

That is, return a copy of the input array, with the extreme low or high values replaced by the lowest or highest non-extreme value, repectively. The fraction considered extreme can be between 0 and 0.5, with 0.2 as the default.

julia> winval(x)           #20% winsorization; can be changed via the named argument `tr`.
20-element Any Array:

winmean, winvar, wincov: winsorized mean, variance, and covariance

julia> winmean(x)          #20% winsorization; can be changed via the named argument `tr`.
julia> winvar(x)
julia> wincov(x, x)
julia> wincov(x, x.^2)

trimse: estimated standard error of the trimmed mean

julia> trimse(x)           #20% winsorization; can be changed via the named argument `tr`.

trimci: (1-α) confidence interval for the trimmed mean

Can be used for paired groups if x consists of the difference scores of two paired groups.

julia> trimci(x)                 #20% winsorization; can be changed via the named argument `tr`.
(1-α) confidence interval for the trimmed mean

Degrees of freedom:   11
Estimate:             1.292180
Statistic:            3.469611
Confidence interval:  0.472472       2.111889
p value:              0.005244

idealf: the ideal fourths:

Returns (q1,q3), the 1st and 3rd quartiles. These will be a weighted sum of the values that bracket the exact quartiles, analogous to how we handle the median of an even-length array.

julia> idealf(x)

pbvar: percentage bend midvariance

A robust estimator of scale (dispersion). See NIST ITL webpage for more.

julia> pbvar(x)

bivar: biweight midvariance

A robust estimator of scale (dispersion). See NIST ITL webpage for more.

julia> bivar(x)

tauloc, tauvar: tau measure of location and scale

Robust estimators of location and scale, with breakdown points of 50%.

See Yohai and Zamar JASA, vol 83 (1988), pp 406-413 and Maronna and Zamar Technometrics, vol 44 (2002), pp. 307-317.

julia> tauloc(x)       #the named argument `cval` is 4.5 by default.
julia> tauvar(x)

outbox: outlier detection

Use a modified boxplot rule based on the ideal fourths; when the named argument mbox is set to true, a modification of the boxplot rule suggested by Carling (2000) is used.

julia> outbox(x)
Outlier detection method using
the ideal-fourths based boxplot rule

Outlier ID:         17
Outlier value:      8.62411
Number of outliers: 1
Non-outlier ID:     1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20

msmedse: Standard error of the median

Return the standard error of the median, computed through the method recommended by McKean and Schrader (1984).

julia> msmedse(x)

binomci(), acbinomci(): Binomial confidence interval

Compute the (1-α) confidence interval for p, the binomial probability of success, given s successes in n trials. Instead of s and n, can use a vector x whose values are all 0 and 1, recording failure/success one trial at a time. Returns an object.

binomci uses Pratt's method; acbinomci uses a generalization of the Agresti-Coull method that was studied by Brown, Cai, & DasGupta.

julia> binomci(2, 10)           # # of success and # of total trials are provided. By default alpha=.05
p_hat:               0.2000
confidence interval: 0.0274   0.5562
Sample size          10

julia> trials=[1, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0]
julia> binomci(trials, alpha=0.01)    #trial results are provided in array form consisting of 1's and 0's.
 p_hat:               0.5000
 confidence interval: 0.1768   0.8495
 Sample size          12

julia> acbinomci(2, 10)           # # of success and # of total trials are provided. By default alpha=.05
p_hat:               0.2000
confidence interval: 0.0459   0.5206
Sample size          10


Compute the confidence interval for the median. Optionally, uses the Hettmansperger-Sheather interpolation method to also estimate a p-value.

julia> sint(x)
Confidence interval for the median

 Confidence interval:  0.547483       2.375232

julia> sint(x, 0.6)
Confidence interval for the median with p-val

 Confidence interval:  0.547483       2.375232
 p value:              0.071861


Compute Huber's ψ. The default bending constant is 1.28.

julia> hpsi(x)
20-element Array{Float64,1}:


Compute one-step M-estimator of location using Huber's ψ. The default bending constant is 1.28.

julia> onestep(x)

bootstrapci, bootstrapse

Compute a bootstrap, (1-α) confidence interval (bootstrapci) or a standard error (bootstrapse) for the measure of location corresponding to the argument est. By default, the median is used. Default α=0.05.

julia> ci = bootstrapci(x, est=onestep, nullvalue=0.6)
 Estimate:             1.305811
 Confidence interval:  0.687723       2.259071
 p value:              0.026000

julia> se = bootstrapse(x, est=onestep)

mom and mom!

Returns a modified one-step M-estimator of location (MOM), which is the unweighted mean of all values not more than (bend times the mad(x)) away from the data median.

julia> mom(x)


Compute the bootstrap (1-α) confidence interval for the MOM-estimator of location based on Huber's ψ. Default α=0.05.

julia> momci(x, seed=2, nboot=2000, nullvalue=0.6)
Estimate:             1.259646
Confidence interval:  0.504223       2.120979
p value:              0.131000


Create contaminated normal distributions. Most values will by from a N(0,1) zero-mean unit-variance normal distribution. A fraction epsilon of all values will have k times the standard devation of the others. Default: epsilon=0.1 and k=10.

julia> srand(1);
julia> std(contam_randn(2000))


Compute a (1-α) confidence interval for a trimmed mean by bootstrap methods.

julia> trimpb(x, nullvalue=0.75)
 Estimate:             1.292180
 Confidence interval:  0.690539       2.196381
 p value:              0.086000


Compute a .95 confidence interval for Pearson's correlation coefficient. This function uses an adjusted percentile bootstrap method that gives good results when the error term is heteroscedastic.

julia> pcorb(x, x.^5)
 Estimate:             0.802639
 Confidence interval:  0.683700       0.963478


Compare the trimmed means of two dependent random variables using the data in x and y. The default amount of trimming is 20%.

julia> srand(3)
julia> y2 = randn(20)+3;
julia> yuend(x, y2)

Comparing the trimmed means of two dependent variables.

Sample size:          20
Degrees of freedom:   11
Estimate:            -1.547776
Standard error:       0.460304
Statistic:           -3.362507
Confidence interval: -2.560898      -0.534653
p value:              0.006336

Unmaintained functions

See for information about functions that the maintainers have not yet understood but also not yet deleted entirely.


Percentage bend and related estimators come from L.H. Shoemaker and T.P. Hettmansperger "Robust estimates and tests for the one- and two-sample scale models" in Biometrika Vol 69 (1982) pp. 47-53.

Tau measures of location and scale are from V.J. Yohai and R.H. Zamar "High Breakdown-Point Estimates of Regression by Means of the Minimization of an Efficient Scale" in J. American Statistical Assoc. vol 83 (1988) pp. 406-413.

The outbox(..., mbox=true) modification was suggested in K. Carling, "Resistant outlier rules and the non-Gaussian case" in Computational Statistics and Data Analysis vol 33 (2000), pp. 249-258. doi:10.1016/S0167-9473(99)00057-2

The estimate of the standard error of the median, msmedse(x), is computed by the method of J.W. McKean and R.M. Schrader, "A comparison of methods for studentizing the sample median" in Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation vol 13 (1984) pp. 751-773. doi:10.1080/03610918408812413

For Pratt's method of computing binomial confidence intervals, see J.W. Pratt (1968) "A normal approximation for binomial, F, Beta, and other common, related tail probabilities, II" J. American Statistical Assoc., vol 63, pp. 1457- 1483, doi:10.1080/01621459.1968.10480939. Also R.G. Newcombe "Confidence Intervals for a binomial proportion" Stat. in Medicine vol 13 (1994) pp 1283-1285, doi:10.1002/sim.4780131209.

For the Agresti-Coull method of computing binomial confidence intervals, see L.D. Brown, T.T. Cai, & A. DasGupta "Confidence Intervals for a Binomial Proportion and Asymptotic Expansions" in Annals of Statistics, vol 30 (2002), pp. 160-201.

Shortest Half-range comes from P.J. Rousseeuw and A.M. Leroy, "A Robust Scale Estimator Based on the Shortest Half" in Statistica Neerlandica Vol 42 (1988), pp. 103-116. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9574.1988.tb01224.x . See also R.D. Martin and R. H. Zamar, "Bias-Robust Estimation of Scale" in Annals of Statistics Vol 21 (1993) pp. 991-1017. doi:10.1214/aoe/1176349161

Scale-Q and Scale-S statistics are described in P.J. Rousseeuw and C. Croux "Alternatives to the Median Absolute Deviation" in J. American Statistical Assoc. Vo 88 (1993) pp 1273-1283. The time-efficient algorithms for computing them appear in C. Croux and P.J. Rousseeuw, "Time-Efficient Algorithms for Two Highly Robust Estimators of Scale" in Computational Statistics, Vol I (1992), Y. Dodge and J. Whittaker editors, Heidelberg, Physica-Verlag, pp 411-428. If link fails, see

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Author: Mrxiaohe
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License: MIT license

#julia #statistical #tests 

Hire Dedicated JavaScript Developers -Hire JavaScript Developers

It is said that a digital resource a business has must be interactive in nature, so the website or the business app should be interactive. How do you make the app interactive? With the use of JavaScript.

Does your business need an interactive website or app?

Hire Dedicated JavaScript Developer from WebClues Infotech as the developer we offer is highly skilled and expert in what they do. Our developers are collaborative in nature and work with complete transparency with the customers.

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Mya  Lynch

Mya Lynch


Top 5 JavaScript Libraries to Create an Organizational Chart

In this article, we’ll review five JavaScript libraries that allow you to create online organizational charts. To make this info useful for different categories of readers, we’ve gathered together libraries with different functionality and pricing policy. To help you decide whether one of them is worthy of your attention or not, we’ll take a look at the main features and check if the documentation is user-friendly.

DHTMLX Diagram Library

The DHTMLX diagram library allows creating easily configurable graphs for visualization of hierarchical data. Besides org charts, you can create almost any type of hierarchical diagrams. You can choose from organizational charts, flowcharts, block and network diagrams, decision trees, mind maps, UML Class diagrams, mixed diagrams, and any other types of diagrams. This variety of diagrams can be generated using a built-in set of shapes or with the help of custom shapes.

You can set up any diagram shape you need with text, icons, images, and any other custom content via templates in a few lines of code. All these parameters can be later changed from the UI via the sidebar options in the editor.

Top 9 JavaScript Charting Libraries

The edit mode gives an opportunity to make changes on-the-fly without messing with the source code. An interactive interface of the editor supports drag-and-drop and permits you to change each item of your diagram. You can drag diagram items with your mouse and set the size and position property of an item via the editor. The multiselection feature can help to speed up your work in the editor, as it enables you to manipulate several shapes.

The library has an exporting feature. You can export your diagram to a PDF, PNG, or JSON format. Zooming and scrolling options will be useful in case you work with diagrams containing a big number of items. There is also a search feature that helps you to quickly find the necessary shape and make your work with complex diagrams even more convenient by expanding and collapsing shapes when necessary. To show the structure of an organization compactly, you can use the vertical mode.

The documentation page will appeal both to beginners and experienced developers. A well-written beginner’s guide contains the source code with explanations. A bunch of guides will help with further configuration, so you’ll be able to create a diagram that better suits your needs. At the moment, there are three types of licenses available. The commercial license for the team of five or fewer developers costs $599, the enterprise license goes for $1299 per company, and the ultimate license has a price tag of $2899.

#javascript #web dev #data visualization #libraries #web app development #front end development #javascript libraries #org chart creator

Rahul Jangid


What is JavaScript - Stackfindover - Blog

Who invented JavaScript, how it works, as we have given information about Programming language in our previous article ( What is PHP ), but today we will talk about what is JavaScript, why JavaScript is used The Answers to all such questions and much other information about JavaScript, you are going to get here today. Hope this information will work for you.

Who invented JavaScript?

JavaScript language was invented by Brendan Eich in 1995. JavaScript is inspired by Java Programming Language. The first name of JavaScript was Mocha which was named by Marc Andreessen, Marc Andreessen is the founder of Netscape and in the same year Mocha was renamed LiveScript, and later in December 1995, it was renamed JavaScript which is still in trend.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a client-side scripting language used with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). JavaScript is an Interpreted / Oriented language called JS in programming language JavaScript code can be run on any normal web browser. To run the code of JavaScript, we have to enable JavaScript of Web Browser. But some web browsers already have JavaScript enabled.

Today almost all websites are using it as web technology, mind is that there is maximum scope in JavaScript in the coming time, so if you want to become a programmer, then you can be very beneficial to learn JavaScript.

JavaScript Hello World Program

In JavaScript, ‘document.write‘ is used to represent a string on a browser.

<script type="text/javascript">
	document.write("Hello World!");

How to comment JavaScript code?

  • For single line comment in JavaScript we have to use // (double slashes)
  • For multiple line comments we have to use / * – – * /
<script type="text/javascript">

//single line comment

/* document.write("Hello"); */


Advantages and Disadvantages of JavaScript

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