Logistic Regression from Scratch with Only Python Code

In this article, we will build a logistic regression model for classifying whether a patient has diabetes or not. The main focus here is that we will only use  python  to build functions for reading the file, normalizing data, optimizing parameters, and more. So you will be getting in-depth knowledge of how everything from reading the file to make predictions works.

If you are new to machine learning, or not familiar with logistic regression or gradient descent, don’t worry I’ll try my best to explain these in layman’s terms. There are more tutorials out there that explain the same concepts. But what makes this tutorial unique is its short and beginners friendly high-level description of the code snippets. So, let’s start by looking at some theoretical concepts that are important in order to understand the working of our model.

Logistic Regression

Logistic Regression is the entry-level supervised machine learning algorithm used for classification purposes. It is one of those algorithms that everyone should be aware of. Logistic Regression is somehow similar to linear regression but it has different cost function and prediction function(hypothesis).

Sigmoid and hypothesis function

Sigmoid function

It is the activation function that squeezes the output of the function in the range between 0 and 1 where values less than 0.5 represent class 0 and values greater than or equal to 0.5 represents class 1.

sigmoid plot

Cost Function

Cost function finds the error between the **_actual value _**and predicted value of our algorithm. It should be as minimum as possible. In the case of linear regression, the formula is:-

cost function for lienar regression

But this formula cannot be used for logistic regression because the hypothesis here is a nonconvex function that means there are chances of finding the local minima and thus avoiding the global minima. If we use the same formula then our plot will look like this:-

nonconvex plot

So, in order to avoid this, we have smoothened the curve with the help of log and our cost function will look like this:-

cost function for logistic regression

where m=number of examples or rows in the dataset, xᶦ=feature values of iᵗʰ example, yᶦ=actual outcome of iᵗʰ example. After using this, our plot for the cost function will look like this:-

convex plot

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Logistic Regression from Scratch with Only Python Code
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619518440

top 30 Python Tips and Tricks for Beginners

Welcome to my Blog , In this article, you are going to learn the top 10 python tips and tricks.

1) swap two numbers.

2) Reversing a string in Python.

3) Create a single string from all the elements in list.

4) Chaining Of Comparison Operators.

5) Print The File Path Of Imported Modules.

6) Return Multiple Values From Functions.

7) Find The Most Frequent Value In A List.

8) Check The Memory Usage Of An Object.

#python #python hacks tricks #python learning tips #python programming tricks #python tips #python tips and tricks #python tips and tricks advanced #python tips and tricks for beginners #python tips tricks and techniques #python tutorial #tips and tricks in python #tips to learn python #top 30 python tips and tricks for beginners

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619510796

Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt

1626775355

Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas. 

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities. 

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly. 

5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps 

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks 

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions. 

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events. 

Simple to read and compose 

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building. 

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties. 

Utilized by the best 

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player. 

Massive community support 

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions. 

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking. 

Progressive applications 

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.

Summary

Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential. 

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1623077340

50+ Basic Python Code Examples

List, strings, score calculation and more…

1. How to print “Hello World” on Python?

2. How to print “Hello + Username” with the user’s name on Python?

3. How to add 2 numbers entered on Python?

4. How to find the Average of 2 Entered Numbers on Python?

5. How to calculate the Entered Visa and Final Grade Average on Python?

6. How to find the Average of 3 Written Grades entered on Python?

7. How to show the Class Pass Status (PASSED — FAILED) of the Student whose Written Average Has Been Entered on Python?

8. How to find out if the entered number is odd or even on Python?

9. How to find out if the entered number is Positive, Negative, or 0 on Python?

#programming #python #coding #50+ basic python code examples #python programming examples #python code

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1626984360

Common Anti-Patterns in Python

Improve and streamline your code by learning about these common anti-patterns that will save you time and effort. Examples of good and bad practices included.

1. Not Using with to Open Files

When you open a file without the with statement, you need to remember closing the file via calling close() explicitly when finished with processing it. Even while explicitly closing the resource, there are chances of exceptions before the resource is actually released. This can cause inconsistencies, or lead the file to be corrupted. Opening a file via with implements the context manager protocol that releases the resource when execution is outside of the with block.

2. Using list/dict/set Comprehension Unnecessarily

3. Unnecessary Use of Generators

4. Returning More Than One Object Type in a Function Call

5. Not Using get() to Return Default Values From a Dictionary

#code reviews #python programming #debugger #code review tips #python coding #python code #code debugging