知っておくべき「null」と「undefined」に関する 6 つの秘密

長年仕事をしているのに、nullとのすべてを知らなかったことを恥ずかしく思います。undefined

あなたが私と同じように混乱しているなら、この記事がすべてを教えてくれます。

誰もが知っている基本

これは非常に興味深い図であり、おそらく と の本質的な違いを表現していnullますundefined

と はどちらも「null」nullundefined表しますが、主な違いは何ですか?

  1. undefined変数がまだ定義されていないことを意味します。
  2. null変数は定義されていますが、メモリ内のオブジェクトを指していないことを意味します。

これは、 と の最も基本的な違いでnullありundefined、よく知っておく必要があります。

1. 「typeof null」が「オブジェクト」を返すのはなぜですか?

nullと同じ{}ではなく、オブジェクト型のデータではありませんが、なぜtypeof nullオブジェクトを返すのですか?


typeof null  // 'object'
typeof undefined  // 'undefined'

実際、これは設計当初から JavaScript に存在するバグであり、現在まで修正できませんでした。

JavaScript の初期バージョンでは、すべての値が 32 ビットで格納されていました。最初の 3 ビットはデータ型のトークンを表し、残りのビットは値です。

すべてのオブジェクトについて、オブジェクトの最初の 3 ビットはタイプ タグ ビットとして 000 でマークされます。以前のバージョンの JavaScript では、null は C の null ポインターに対応する特別な値と見なされていました。ただし、JavaScript には C のようなポインターがないため、null は何もないか無効であることを意味し、すべて 0 で表されます (32)。

したがって、JavaScript が null を読み取ると、最初の 3 ビットはそれをオブジェクト型として扱います。これがtypeof null「オブジェクト」を返す理由です。

2. == と === が異なる結果をもたらすのはなぜですか?

このコードがまったく異なる結果をもたらす理由を知っていますか?

null == undefined  // true
null === undefined  // false
!!null === !!undefined  // true

ECMA は、第 11.9.3 章で明確に次のように述べています。

  1. x が null で y が定義されていない場合は、true を返します。
  2. x が未定義で y が null の場合、true を返します。

3. null + 1 と undefined + 1 が異なる結果を返すのはなぜですか?

undefined + 1  // NaN
null + 1  // 1
Number(undefined)  // NaN
Number(null)  // 0

これには、加算演算を実行する前に、式内の変数を数値型に変換しようとする JavaScript の暗黙的な型変換が含まれます。たとえば、'1' + 1 は 11 になります。

null を数値に変換すると、0 に変換されます。

undefined を数値に変換すると NaN に変換されます

4. Object.prototype.toString.call(null) が '[object Null]' を出力するのはなぜですか?

toString() は Object のプロトタイプメソッドです。このメソッドを呼び出すと、デフォルトで現在のオブジェクトの [[Class]] が返されます。これは、[object Xxx] という形式の内部プロパティです。ここで、Xxx はオブジェクトのタイプです。


Object.prototype.toString.call(null)       // '[object Null]'
Object.prototype.toString.call(undefined)  // '[object Undefined]'

5. undefined をオーバーライドできるのはなぜですか?

このたわごとのようなコードを書くことはまずありませんが、すべての仕様を満たしています。

const changeUndefined = (name) => {
  const undefined = 'fatfish'
  return name === undefined
}
changeUndefined()           // false
changeUndefined(undefined)  // false
changeUndefined('fatfish')     // ture

let undefined = 'fatfish'  // Uncaught SyntaxError: Identifier 'undefined' has already been declared

JavaScript は、グローバル環境で読み取り専用の undefined を作成しますが、ローカルの未定義変数の定義を完全に無効にするわけではありません。

したがって、関数内で変数を未定義として宣言することはできますが、それは悪魔です。やめてください。

6. JSON.stringify が未定義の値を持つコンテンツを削除するのはなぜですか?

JSON.stringify({ name: undefined })  // '{}'
JSON.stringify({ name: null })  // '{"name":null}'
JSON.stringify({ name: undefined, age: null})  // '{"age":null}'

実際、この記事を解釈する良い方法はありません。JSON.stringify は、JSON 独自の変換原理である undefined に対応するキーを削除します。

かつて JSON.stringify の変換規則に詳しくなくて大損したことがあったので、こちらの記事をクリックして詳細を確認してください。

ついに

読んでくれてありがとう。

ソース: https://javascript.plainenglish.io/6-secrets-about-null-and-undefined-that-you-should-know-bf759ab59bce

#json 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

知っておくべき「null」と「undefined」に関する 6 つの秘密

SheetJS Community Edition - Spreadsheet Data Toolkit

SheetJS

The SheetJS Community Edition offers battle-tested open-source solutions for extracting useful data from almost any complex spreadsheet and generating new spreadsheets that will work with legacy and modern software alike.

SheetJS Pro offers solutions beyond data processing: Edit complex templates with ease; let out your inner Picasso with styling; make custom sheets with images/graphs/PivotTables; evaluate formula expressions and port calculations to web apps; automate common spreadsheet tasks, and much more! Analytics

Browser Test and Support Matrix

Build Status

Supported File Formats

circo graph of format support

Diagram Legend (click to show)

graph legend

Table of Contents

Expand to show Table of Contents

Getting Started

Installation

The complete browser standalone build is saved to dist/xlsx.full.min.js and can be directly added to a page with a script tag:

<script lang="javascript" src="dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

CDN Availability (click to show)

CDNURL
unpkghttps://unpkg.com/xlsx/
jsDelivrhttps://jsdelivr.com/package/npm/xlsx
CDNjshttps://cdnjs.com/libraries/xlsx
packdhttps://bundle.run/xlsx@latest?name=XLSX

For example, unpkg makes the latest version available at:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

Browser builds (click to show)

The complete single-file version is generated at dist/xlsx.full.min.js

A slimmer build is generated at dist/xlsx.mini.min.js. Compared to full build:

  • codepage library skipped (no support for XLS encodings)
  • XLSX compression option not currently available
  • no support for XLSB / XLS / Lotus 1-2-3 / SpreadsheetML 2003
  • node stream utils removed

Webpack and Browserify builds include optional modules by default. Webpack can be configured to remove support with resolve.alias:

  /* uncomment the lines below to remove support */
  resolve: {
    alias: { "./dist/cpexcel.js": "" } // <-- omit international support
  }

With npm:

$ npm install xlsx

With bower:

$ bower install js-xlsx

dist/xlsx.extendscript.js is an ExtendScript build for Photoshop and InDesign that is included in the npm package. It can be directly referenced with a #include directive:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"

Internet Explorer and ECMAScript 3 Compatibility (click to show)

For broad compatibility with JavaScript engines, the library is written using ECMAScript 3 language dialect as well as some ES5 features like Array#forEach. Older browsers require shims to provide missing functions.

To use the shim, add the shim before the script tag that loads xlsx.js:

<!-- add the shim first -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="shim.min.js"></script>
<!-- after the shim is referenced, add the library -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

The script also includes IE_LoadFile and IE_SaveFile for loading and saving files in Internet Explorer versions 6-9. The xlsx.extendscript.js script bundles the shim in a format suitable for Photoshop and other Adobe products.

Usage

Most scenarios involving spreadsheets and data can be broken into 5 parts:

Acquire Data: Data may be stored anywhere: local or remote files, databases, HTML TABLE, or even generated programmatically in the web browser.

Extract Data: For spreadsheet files, this involves parsing raw bytes to read the cell data. For general JS data, this involves reshaping the data.

Process Data: From generating summary statistics to cleaning data records, this step is the heart of the problem.

Package Data: This can involve making a new spreadsheet or serializing with JSON.stringify or writing XML or simply flattening data for UI tools.

Release Data: Spreadsheet files can be uploaded to a server or written locally. Data can be presented to users in an HTML TABLE or data grid.

A common problem involves generating a valid spreadsheet export from data stored in an HTML table. In this example, an HTML TABLE on the page will be scraped, a row will be added to the bottom with the date of the report, and a new file will be generated and downloaded locally. XLSX.writeFile takes care of packaging the data and attempting a local download:

// Acquire Data (reference to the HTML table)
var table_elt = document.getElementById("my-table-id");

// Extract Data (create a workbook object from the table)
var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(table_elt);

// Process Data (add a new row)
var ws = workbook.Sheets["Sheet1"];
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [["Created "+new Date().toISOString()]], {origin:-1});

// Package and Release Data (`writeFile` tries to write and save an XLSB file)
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Report.xlsb");

This library tries to simplify steps 2 and 4 with functions to extract useful data from spreadsheet files (read / readFile) and generate new spreadsheet files from data (write / writeFile). Additional utility functions like table_to_book work with other common data sources like HTML tables.

This documentation and various demo projects cover a number of common scenarios and approaches for steps 1 and 5.

Utility functions help with step 3.

The Zen of SheetJS

Data processing should fit in any workflow

The library does not impose a separate lifecycle. It fits nicely in websites and apps built using any framework. The plain JS data objects play nice with Web Workers and future APIs.

"Acquiring and Extracting Data" describes solutions for common data import scenarios.

"Writing Workbooks" describes solutions for common data export scenarios involving actual spreadsheet files.

"Utility Functions" details utility functions for translating JSON Arrays and other common JS structures into worksheet objects.

JavaScript is a powerful language for data processing

The "Common Spreadsheet Format" is a simple object representation of the core concepts of a workbook. The various functions in the library provide low-level tools for working with the object.

For friendly JS processing, there are utility functions for converting parts of a worksheet to/from an Array of Arrays. The following example combines powerful JS Array methods with a network request library to download data, select the information we want and create a workbook file:

Get Data from a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook (click to show)

The goal is to generate a XLSB workbook of US President names and birthdays.

Acquire Data

Raw Data

https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json has the desired data. For example, John Adams:

{
  "id": { /* (data omitted) */ },
  "name": {
    "first": "John",          // <-- first name
    "last": "Adams"           // <-- last name
  },
  "bio": {
    "birthday": "1735-10-19", // <-- birthday
    "gender": "M"
  },
  "terms": [
    { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ },
    { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ },
    { "type": "prez", /* (other fields omitted) */ } // <-- look for "prez"
  ]
}

Filtering for Presidents

The dataset includes Aaron Burr, a Vice President who was never President!

Array#filter creates a new array with the desired rows. A President served at least one term with type set to "prez". To test if a particular row has at least one "prez" term, Array#some is another native JS function. The complete filter would be:

const prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez"));

Lining up the data

For this example, the name will be the first name combined with the last name (row.name.first + " " + row.name.last) and the birthday will be the subfield row.bio.birthday. Using Array#map, the dataset can be massaged in one call:

const rows = prez.map(row => ({
  name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last,
  birthday: row.bio.birthday
}));

The result is an array of "simple" objects with no nesting:

[
  { name: "George Washington", birthday: "1732-02-22" },
  { name: "John Adams", birthday: "1735-10-19" },
  // ... one row per President
]

Extract Data

With the cleaned dataset, XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet generates a worksheet:

const worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows);

XLSX.utils.book_new creates a new workbook and XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet appends a worksheet to the workbook. The new worksheet will be called "Dates":

const workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates");

Process Data

Fixing headers

By default, json_to_sheet creates a worksheet with a header row. In this case, the headers come from the JS object keys: "name" and "birthday".

The headers are in cells A1 and B1. XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa can write text values to the existing worksheet starting at cell A1:

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" });

Fixing Column Widths

Some of the names are longer than the default column width. Column widths are set by setting the "!cols" worksheet property.

The following line sets the width of column A to approximately 10 characters:

worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: 10 } ]; // set column A width to 10 characters

One Array#reduce call over rows can calculate the maximum width:

const max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10);
worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ];

Note: If the starting point was a file or HTML table, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json will generate an array of JS objects.

Package and Release Data

XLSX.writeFile creates a spreadsheet file and tries to write it to the system. In the browser, it will try to prompt the user to download the file. In NodeJS, it will write to the local directory.

XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");

Complete Example

// Uncomment the next line for use in NodeJS:
// const XLSX = require("xlsx"), axios = require("axios");

(async() => {
  /* fetch JSON data and parse */
  const url = "https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json";
  const raw_data = (await axios(url, {responseType: "json"})).data;

  /* filter for the Presidents */
  const prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez"));

  /* flatten objects */
  const rows = prez.map(row => ({
    name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last,
    birthday: row.bio.birthday
  }));

  /* generate worksheet and workbook */
  const worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows);
  const workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
  XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates");

  /* fix headers */
  XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" });

  /* calculate column width */
  const max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10);
  worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ];

  /* create an XLSX file and try to save to Presidents.xlsx */
  XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");
})();

For use in the web browser, assuming the snippet is saved to snippet.js, script tags should be used to include the axios and xlsx standalone builds:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>
<script src="snippet.js"></script>

File formats are implementation details

The parser covers a wide gamut of common spreadsheet file formats to ensure that "HTML-saved-as-XLS" files work as well as actual XLS or XLSX files.

The writer supports a number of common output formats for broad compatibility with the data ecosystem.

To the greatest extent possible, data processing code should not have to worry about the specific file formats involved.

JS Ecosystem Demos

The demos directory includes sample projects for:

Frameworks and APIs

Bundlers and Tooling

Platforms and Integrations

Other examples are included in the showcase.

Acquiring and Extracting Data

Parsing Workbooks

API

Extract data from spreadsheet bytes

var workbook = XLSX.read(data, opts);

The read method can extract data from spreadsheet bytes stored in a JS string, "binary string", NodeJS buffer or typed array (Uint8Array or ArrayBuffer).

Read spreadsheet bytes from a local file and extract data

var workbook = XLSX.readFile(filename, opts);

The readFile method attempts to read a spreadsheet file at the supplied path. Browsers generally do not allow reading files in this way (it is deemed a security risk), and attempts to read files in this way will throw an error.

The second opts argument is optional. "Parsing Options" covers the supported properties and behaviors.

Examples

Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):

Local file in a NodeJS server (click to show)

readFile uses fs.readFileSync under the hood:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");

var workbook = XLSX.readFile("test.xlsx");

For Node ESM, the readFile helper is not enabled. Instead, fs.readFileSync should be used to read the file data as a Buffer for use with XLSX.read:

import { readFileSync } from "fs";
import { read } from "xlsx/xlsx.mjs";

const buf = readFileSync("test.xlsx");
/* buf is a Buffer */
const workbook = read(buf);

User-submitted file in a web page ("Drag-and-Drop") (click to show)

For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, File#arrayBuffer is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function handleDropAsync(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  const f = e.dataTransfer.files[0];
  /* f is a File */
  const data = await f.arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDropAsync, false);

For maximal compatibility, the FileReader API should be used:

function handleDrop(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  var f = e.dataTransfer.files[0];
  /* f is a File */
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var data = e.target.result;
    /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */
    var workbook = XLSX.read(data);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(f);
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDrop, false);

https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ demonstrates the FileReader technique.

User-submitted file with an HTML INPUT element (click to show)

Starting with an HTML INPUT element with type="file":

<input type="file" id="input_dom_element">

For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, Blob#arrayBuffer is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function handleFileAsync(e) {
  const file = e.target.files[0];
  const data = await file.arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFileAsync, false);

For broader support (including IE10+), the FileReader approach is recommended:

function handleFile(e) {
  var file = e.target.files[0];
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var data = e.target.result;
    /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */
    var workbook = XLSX.read(e.target.result);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFile, false);

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

Fetching a file in the web browser ("Ajax") (click to show)

For modern websites targeting Chrome 42+, fetch is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

(async() => {
  const url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";
  const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
})();

For broader support, the XMLHttpRequest approach is recommended:

var url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";

/* set up async GET request */
var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("GET", url, true);
req.responseType = "arraybuffer";

req.onload = function(e) {
  var workbook = XLSX.read(req.response);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
};

req.send();

The xhr demo includes a longer discussion and more examples.

http://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ajax.html shows fallback approaches for IE6+.

Local file in a PhotoShop or InDesign plugin (click to show)

readFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"

/* Read test.xlsx from the Documents folder */
var workbook = XLSX.readFile(Folder.myDocuments + "/test.xlsx");

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Local file in an Electron app (click to show)

readFile can be used in the renderer process:

/* From the renderer process */
var XLSX = require("xlsx");

var workbook = XLSX.readFile(path);

Electron APIs have changed over time. The electron demo shows a complete example and details the required version-specific settings.

Local file in a mobile app with React Native (click to show)

The react demo includes a sample React Native app.

Since React Native does not provide a way to read files from the filesystem, a third-party library must be used. The following libraries have been tested:

The base64 encoding returns strings compatible with the base64 type:

import XLSX from "xlsx";
import { FileSystem } from "react-native-file-access";

const b64 = await FileSystem.readFile(path, "base64");
/* b64 is a base64 string */
const workbook = XLSX.read(b64, {type: "base64"});

The ascii encoding returns binary strings compatible with the binary type:

import XLSX from "xlsx";
import { readFile } from "react-native-fs";

const bstr = await readFile(path, "ascii");
/* bstr is a binary string */
const workbook = XLSX.read(bstr, {type: "binary"});

NodeJS Server File Uploads (click to show)

read can accept a NodeJS buffer. readFile can read files generated by a HTTP POST request body parser like formidable:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const http = require("http");
const formidable = require("formidable");

const server = http.createServer((req, res) => {
  const form = new formidable.IncomingForm();
  form.parse(req, (err, fields, files) => {
    /* grab the first file */
    const f = Object.entries(files)[0][1];
    const path = f.filepath;
    const workbook = XLSX.readFile(path);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  });
}).listen(process.env.PORT || 7262);

The server demo has more advanced examples.

Download files in a NodeJS process (click to show)

Node 17.5 and 18.0 have native support for fetch:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");

const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer();
/* data is an ArrayBuffer */
const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

For broader compatibility, third-party modules are recommended.

request requires a null encoding to yield Buffers:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");
var request = require("request");

request({url: url, encoding: null}, function(err, resp, body) {
  var workbook = XLSX.read(body);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
});

axios works the same way in browser and in NodeJS:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const axios = require("axios");

(async() => {
  const res = await axios.get(url, {responseType: "arraybuffer"});
  /* res.data is a Buffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(res.data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
})();

Download files in an Electron app (click to show)

The net module in the main process can make HTTP/HTTPS requests to external resources. Responses should be manually concatenated using Buffer.concat:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const { net } = require("electron");

const req = net.request(url);
req.on("response", (res) => {
  const bufs = []; // this array will collect all of the buffers
  res.on("data", (chunk) => { bufs.push(chunk); });
  res.on("end", () => {
    const workbook = XLSX.read(Buffer.concat(bufs));

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  });
});
req.end();

Readable Streams in NodeJS (click to show)

When dealing with Readable Streams, the easiest approach is to buffer the stream and process the whole thing at the end:

var fs = require("fs");
var XLSX = require("xlsx");

function process_RS(stream, cb) {
  var buffers = [];
  stream.on("data", function(data) { buffers.push(data); });
  stream.on("end", function() {
    var buffer = Buffer.concat(buffers);
    var workbook = XLSX.read(buffer, {type:"buffer"});

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook IN THE CALLBACK */
    cb(workbook);
  });
}

ReadableStream in the browser (click to show)

When dealing with ReadableStream, the easiest approach is to buffer the stream and process the whole thing at the end:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function process_RS(stream) {
  /* collect data */
  const buffers = [];
  const reader = stream.getReader();
  for(;;) {
    const res = await reader.read();
    if(res.value) buffers.push(res.value);
    if(res.done) break;
  }

  /* concat */
  const out = new Uint8Array(buffers.reduce((acc, v) => acc + v.length, 0));

  let off = 0;
  for(const u8 of arr) {
    out.set(u8, off);
    off += u8.length;
  }

  return out;
}

const data = await process_RS(stream);
/* data is Uint8Array */
const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

More detailed examples are covered in the included demos

Processing JSON and JS Data

JSON and JS data tend to represent single worksheets. This section will use a few utility functions to generate workbooks:

Create a new Worksheet

var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();

The book_new utility function creates an empty workbook with no worksheets.

Append a Worksheet to a Workbook

XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, sheet_name);

The book_append_sheet utility function appends a worksheet to the workbook. The third argument specifies the desired worksheet name. Multiple worksheets can be added to a workbook by calling the function multiple times.

API

Create a worksheet from an array of arrays of JS values

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(aoa, opts);

The aoa_to_sheet utility function walks an "array of arrays" in row-major order, generating a worksheet object. The following snippet generates a sheet with cell A1 set to the string A1, cell B1 set to B2, etc:

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  ["A1", "B1", "C1"],
  ["A2", "B2", "C2"],
  ["A3", "B3", "C3"]
])

"Array of Arrays Input" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Create a worksheet from an array of JS objects

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(jsa, opts);

The json_to_sheet utility function walks an array of JS objects in order, generating a worksheet object. By default, it will generate a header row and one row per object in the array. The optional opts argument has settings to control the column order and header output.

"Array of Objects Input" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Examples

"Zen of SheetJS" contains a detailed example "Get Data from a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook"

The database demo includes examples of working with databases and query results.

Processing HTML Tables

API

Create a worksheet by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(dom_element, opts);

The table_to_sheet utility function takes a DOM TABLE element and iterates through the rows to generate a worksheet. The opts argument is optional. "HTML Table Input" describes the function in more detail.

Create a workbook by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page

var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(dom_element, opts);

The table_to_book utility function follows the same logic as table_to_sheet. After generating a worksheet, it creates a blank workbook and appends the spreadsheet.

The options argument supports the same options as table_to_sheet, with the addition of a sheet property to control the worksheet name. If the property is missing or no options are specified, the default name Sheet1 is used.

Examples

Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):

HTML TABLE element in a webpage (click to show)

<!-- include the standalone script and shim.  this uses the UNPKG CDN -->
<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/shim.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

<!-- example table with id attribute -->
<table id="tableau">
  <tr><td>Sheet</td><td>JS</td></tr>
  <tr><td>12345</td><td>67</td></tr>
</table>

<!-- this block should appear after the table HTML and the standalone script -->
<script type="text/javascript">
  var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.getElementById("tableau"));

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
</script>

Multiple tables on a web page can be converted to individual worksheets:

/* create new workbook */
var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();

/* convert table "table1" to worksheet named "Sheet1" */
var sheet1 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table1"));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet1, "Sheet1");

/* convert table "table2" to worksheet named "Sheet2" */
var sheet2 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table2"));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet2, "Sheet2");

/* workbook now has 2 worksheets */

Alternatively, the HTML code can be extracted and parsed:

var htmlstr = document.getElementById("tableau").outerHTML;
var workbook = XLSX.read(htmlstr, {type:"string"});

Chrome/Chromium Extension (click to show)

The chrome demo shows a complete example and details the required permissions and other settings.

In an extension, it is recommended to generate the workbook in a content script and pass the object back to the extension:

/* in the worker script */
chrome.runtime.onMessage.addListener(function(msg, sender, cb) {
  /* pass a message like { sheetjs: true } from the extension to scrape */
  if(!msg || !msg.sheetjs) return;
  /* create a new workbook */
  var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
  /* loop through each table element */
  var tables = document.getElementsByTagName("table")
  for(var i = 0; i < tables.length; ++i) {
    var worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(tables[i]);
    XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Table" + i);
  }
  /* pass back to the extension */
  return cb(workbook);
});

Working with the Workbook

The full object format is described later in this README.

Reading a specific cell (click to show)

This example extracts the value stored in cell A1 from the first worksheet:

var first_sheet_name = workbook.SheetNames[0];
var address_of_cell = 'A1';

/* Get worksheet */
var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[first_sheet_name];

/* Find desired cell */
var desired_cell = worksheet[address_of_cell];

/* Get the value */
var desired_value = (desired_cell ? desired_cell.v : undefined);

Adding a new worksheet to a workbook (click to show)

This example uses XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet to make a sheet and XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet to append the sheet to the workbook:

var ws_name = "SheetJS";

/* make worksheet */
var ws_data = [
  [ "S", "h", "e", "e", "t", "J", "S" ],
  [  1 ,  2 ,  3 ,  4 ,  5 ]
];
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(ws_data);

/* Add the worksheet to the workbook */
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, ws_name);

Creating a new workbook from scratch (click to show)

The workbook object contains a SheetNames array of names and a Sheets object mapping sheet names to sheet objects. The XLSX.utils.book_new utility function creates a new workbook object:

/* create a new blank workbook */
var wb = XLSX.utils.book_new();

The new workbook is blank and contains no worksheets. The write functions will error if the workbook is empty.

Parsing and Writing Examples

https://sheetjs.com/demos/modify.html read + modify + write files

https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs/blob/HEAD/bin/xlsx.njs node

The node version installs a command line tool xlsx which can read spreadsheet files and output the contents in various formats. The source is available at xlsx.njs in the bin directory.

Some helper functions in XLSX.utils generate different views of the sheets:

  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv generates CSV
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt generates UTF16 Formatted Text
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html generates HTML
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates an array of objects
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates a list of formulae

Writing Workbooks

For writing, the first step is to generate output data. The helper functions write and writeFile will produce the data in various formats suitable for dissemination. The second step is to actual share the data with the end point. Assuming workbook is a workbook object:

nodejs write a file (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile uses fs.writeFileSync in server environments:

if(typeof require !== 'undefined') XLSX = require('xlsx');
/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsb');
/* at this point, out.xlsb is a file that you can distribute */

Photoshop ExtendScript write a file (click to show)

writeFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"
/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsx');
/* at this point, out.xlsx is a file that you can distribute */

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Browser add TABLE element to page (click to show)

The sheet_to_html utility function generates HTML code that can be added to any DOM element.

var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[workbook.SheetNames[0]];
var container = document.getElementById('tableau');
container.innerHTML = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);

Browser upload file (ajax) (click to show)

A complete example using XHR is included in the XHR demo, along with examples for fetch and wrapper libraries. This example assumes the server can handle Base64-encoded files (see the demo for a basic nodejs server):

/* in this example, send a base64 string to the server */
var wopts = { bookType:'xlsx', bookSST:false, type:'base64' };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("POST", "/upload", true);
var formdata = new FormData();
formdata.append('file', 'test.xlsx'); // <-- server expects `file` to hold name
formdata.append('data', wbout); // <-- `data` holds the base64-encoded data
req.send(formdata);

Browser save file (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile wraps a few techniques for triggering a file save:

  • URL browser API creates an object URL for the file, which the library uses by creating a link and forcing a click. It is supported in modern browsers.
  • msSaveBlob is an IE10+ API for triggering a file save.
  • IE_FileSave uses VBScript and ActiveX to write a file in IE6+ for Windows XP and Windows 7. The shim must be included in the containing HTML page.

There is no standard way to determine if the actual file has been downloaded.

/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsb');
/* at this point, out.xlsb will have been downloaded */

Browser save file (compatibility) (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile techniques work for most modern browsers as well as older IE. For much older browsers, there are workarounds implemented by wrapper libraries.

FileSaver.js implements saveAs. Note: XLSX.writeFile will automatically call saveAs if available.

/* bookType can be any supported output type */
var wopts = { bookType:'xlsx', bookSST:false, type:'array' };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

/* the saveAs call downloads a file on the local machine */
saveAs(new Blob([wbout],{type:"application/octet-stream"}), "test.xlsx");

Downloadify uses a Flash SWF button to generate local files, suitable for environments where ActiveX is unavailable:

Downloadify.create(id,{
    /* other options are required! read the downloadify docs for more info */
    filename: "test.xlsx",
    data: function() { return XLSX.write(wb, {bookType:"xlsx", type:'base64'}); },
    append: false,
    dataType: 'base64'
});

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

The included demos cover mobile apps and other special deployments.

Writing Examples

Streaming Write

The streaming write functions are available in the XLSX.stream object. They take the same arguments as the normal write functions but return a Readable Stream. They are only exposed in NodeJS.

  • XLSX.stream.to_csv is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv.
  • XLSX.stream.to_html is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html.
  • XLSX.stream.to_json is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json.

nodejs convert to CSV and write file (click to show)

var output_file_name = "out.csv";
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_csv(worksheet);
stream.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(output_file_name));

nodejs write JSON stream to screen (click to show)

/* to_json returns an object-mode stream */
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_json(worksheet, {raw:true});

/* the following stream converts JS objects to text via JSON.stringify */
var conv = new Transform({writableObjectMode:true});
conv._transform = function(obj, e, cb){ cb(null, JSON.stringify(obj) + "\n"); };

stream.pipe(conv); conv.pipe(process.stdout);

https://github.com/sheetjs/sheetaki pipes write streams to nodejs response.

Interface

XLSX is the exposed variable in the browser and the exported node variable

XLSX.version is the version of the library (added by the build script).

XLSX.SSF is an embedded version of the format library.

Parsing functions

XLSX.read(data, read_opts) attempts to parse data.

XLSX.readFile(filename, read_opts) attempts to read filename and parse.

Parse options are described in the Parsing Options section.

Writing functions

XLSX.write(wb, write_opts) attempts to write the workbook wb

XLSX.writeFile(wb, filename, write_opts) attempts to write wb to filename. In browser-based environments, it will attempt to force a client-side download.

XLSX.writeFileAsync(wb, filename, o, cb) attempts to write wb to filename. If o is omitted, the writer will use the third argument as the callback.

XLSX.stream contains a set of streaming write functions.

Write options are described in the Writing Options section.

Utilities

Utilities are available in the XLSX.utils object and are described in the Utility Functions section:

Constructing:

  • book_new creates an empty workbook
  • book_append_sheet adds a worksheet to a workbook

Importing:

  • aoa_to_sheet converts an array of arrays of JS data to a worksheet.
  • json_to_sheet converts an array of JS objects to a worksheet.
  • table_to_sheet converts a DOM TABLE element to a worksheet.
  • sheet_add_aoa adds an array of arrays of JS data to an existing worksheet.
  • sheet_add_json adds an array of JS objects to an existing worksheet.

Exporting:

  • sheet_to_json converts a worksheet object to an array of JSON objects.
  • sheet_to_csv generates delimiter-separated-values output.
  • sheet_to_txt generates UTF16 formatted text.
  • sheet_to_html generates HTML output.
  • sheet_to_formulae generates a list of the formulae (with value fallbacks).

Cell and cell address manipulation:

  • format_cell generates the text value for a cell (using number formats).
  • encode_row / decode_row converts between 0-indexed rows and 1-indexed rows.
  • encode_col / decode_col converts between 0-indexed columns and column names.
  • encode_cell / decode_cell converts cell addresses.
  • encode_range / decode_range converts cell ranges.

Common Spreadsheet Format

SheetJS conforms to the Common Spreadsheet Format (CSF):

General Structures

Cell address objects are stored as {c:C, r:R} where C and R are 0-indexed column and row numbers, respectively. For example, the cell address B5 is represented by the object {c:1, r:4}.

Cell range objects are stored as {s:S, e:E} where S is the first cell and E is the last cell in the range. The ranges are inclusive. For example, the range A3:B7 is represented by the object {s:{c:0, r:2}, e:{c:1, r:6}}. Utility functions perform a row-major order walk traversal of a sheet range:

for(var R = range.s.r; R <= range.e.r; ++R) {
  for(var C = range.s.c; C <= range.e.c; ++C) {
    var cell_address = {c:C, r:R};
    /* if an A1-style address is needed, encode the address */
    var cell_ref = XLSX.utils.encode_cell(cell_address);
  }
}

Cell Object

Cell objects are plain JS objects with keys and values following the convention:

KeyDescription
vraw value (see Data Types section for more info)
wformatted text (if applicable)
ttype: b Boolean, e Error, n Number, d Date, s Text, z Stub
fcell formula encoded as an A1-style string (if applicable)
Frange of enclosing array if formula is array formula (if applicable)
rrich text encoding (if applicable)
hHTML rendering of the rich text (if applicable)
ccomments associated with the cell
znumber format string associated with the cell (if requested)
lcell hyperlink object (.Target holds link, .Tooltip is tooltip)
sthe style/theme of the cell (if applicable)

Built-in export utilities (such as the CSV exporter) will use the w text if it is available. To change a value, be sure to delete cell.w (or set it to undefined) before attempting to export. The utilities will regenerate the w text from the number format (cell.z) and the raw value if possible.

The actual array formula is stored in the f field of the first cell in the array range. Other cells in the range will omit the f field.

Data Types

The raw value is stored in the v value property, interpreted based on the t type property. This separation allows for representation of numbers as well as numeric text. There are 6 valid cell types:

TypeDescription
bBoolean: value interpreted as JS boolean
eError: value is a numeric code and w property stores common name **
nNumber: value is a JS number **
dDate: value is a JS Date object or string to be parsed as Date **
sText: value interpreted as JS string and written as text **
zStub: blank stub cell that is ignored by data processing utilities **

Error values and interpretation (click to show)

ValueError Meaning
0x00#NULL!
0x07#DIV/0!
0x0F#VALUE!
0x17#REF!
0x1D#NAME?
0x24#NUM!
0x2A#N/A
0x2B#GETTING_DATA

Type n is the Number type. This includes all forms of data that Excel stores as numbers, such as dates/times and Boolean fields. Excel exclusively uses data that can be fit in an IEEE754 floating point number, just like JS Number, so the v field holds the raw number. The w field holds formatted text. Dates are stored as numbers by default and converted with XLSX.SSF.parse_date_code.

Type d is the Date type, generated only when the option cellDates is passed. Since JSON does not have a natural Date type, parsers are generally expected to store ISO 8601 Date strings like you would get from date.toISOString(). On the other hand, writers and exporters should be able to handle date strings and JS Date objects. Note that Excel disregards timezone modifiers and treats all dates in the local timezone. The library does not correct for this error.

Type s is the String type. Values are explicitly stored as text. Excel will interpret these cells as "number stored as text". Generated Excel files automatically suppress that class of error, but other formats may elicit errors.

Type z represents blank stub cells. They are generated in cases where cells have no assigned value but hold comments or other metadata. They are ignored by the core library data processing utility functions. By default these cells are not generated; the parser sheetStubs option must be set to true.

Dates

Excel Date Code details (click to show)

By default, Excel stores dates as numbers with a format code that specifies date processing. For example, the date 19-Feb-17 is stored as the number 42785 with a number format of d-mmm-yy. The SSF module understands number formats and performs the appropriate conversion.

XLSX also supports a special date type d where the data is an ISO 8601 date string. The formatter converts the date back to a number.

The default behavior for all parsers is to generate number cells. Setting cellDates to true will force the generators to store dates.

Time Zones and Dates (click to show)

Excel has no native concept of universal time. All times are specified in the local time zone. Excel limitations prevent specifying true absolute dates.

Following Excel, this library treats all dates as relative to local time zone.

Epochs: 1900 and 1904 (click to show)

Excel supports two epochs (January 1 1900 and January 1 1904). The workbook's epoch can be determined by examining the workbook's wb.Workbook.WBProps.date1904 property:

!!(((wb.Workbook||{}).WBProps||{}).date1904)

Sheet Objects

Each key that does not start with ! maps to a cell (using A-1 notation)

sheet[address] returns the cell object for the specified address.

Special sheet keys (accessible as sheet[key], each starting with !):

sheet['!ref']: A-1 based range representing the sheet range. Functions that work with sheets should use this parameter to determine the range. Cells that are assigned outside of the range are not processed. In particular, when writing a sheet by hand, cells outside of the range are not included

Functions that handle sheets should test for the presence of !ref field. If the !ref is omitted or is not a valid range, functions are free to treat the sheet as empty or attempt to guess the range. The standard utilities that ship with this library treat sheets as empty (for example, the CSV output is empty string).

When reading a worksheet with the sheetRows property set, the ref parameter will use the restricted range. The original range is set at ws['!fullref']

sheet['!margins']: Object representing the page margins. The default values follow Excel's "normal" preset. Excel also has a "wide" and a "narrow" preset but they are stored as raw measurements. The main properties are listed below:

Page margin details (click to show)

keydescription"normal""wide""narrow"
leftleft margin (inches)0.71.00.25
rightright margin (inches)0.71.00.25
toptop margin (inches)0.751.00.75
bottombottom margin (inches)0.751.00.75
headerheader margin (inches)0.30.50.3
footerfooter margin (inches)0.30.50.3
/* Set worksheet sheet to "normal" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.7, right:0.7, top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "wide" */
ws["!margins"]={left:1.0, right:1.0, top:1.0, bottom:1.0, header:0.5,footer:0.5}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "narrow" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.25,right:0.25,top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}

Worksheet Object

In addition to the base sheet keys, worksheets also add:

ws['!cols']: array of column properties objects. Column widths are actually stored in files in a normalized manner, measured in terms of the "Maximum Digit Width" (the largest width of the rendered digits 0-9, in pixels). When parsed, the column objects store the pixel width in the wpx field, character width in the wch field, and the maximum digit width in the MDW field.

ws['!rows']: array of row properties objects as explained later in the docs. Each row object encodes properties including row height and visibility.

ws['!merges']: array of range objects corresponding to the merged cells in the worksheet. Plain text formats do not support merge cells. CSV export will write all cells in the merge range if they exist, so be sure that only the first cell (upper-left) in the range is set.

ws['!outline']: configure how outlines should behave. Options default to the default settings in Excel 2019:

keyExcel featuredefault
aboveUncheck "Summary rows below detail"false
leftUncheck "Summary rows to the right of detail"false
  • ws['!protect']: object of write sheet protection properties. The password key specifies the password for formats that support password-protected sheets (XLSX/XLSB/XLS). The writer uses the XOR obfuscation method. The following keys control the sheet protection -- set to false to enable a feature when sheet is locked or set to true to disable a feature:

Worksheet Protection Details (click to show)

keyfeature (true=disabled / false=enabled)default
selectLockedCellsSelect locked cellsenabled
selectUnlockedCellsSelect unlocked cellsenabled
formatCellsFormat cellsdisabled
formatColumnsFormat columnsdisabled
formatRowsFormat rowsdisabled
insertColumnsInsert columnsdisabled
insertRowsInsert rowsdisabled
insertHyperlinksInsert hyperlinksdisabled
deleteColumnsDelete columnsdisabled
deleteRowsDelete rowsdisabled
sortSortdisabled
autoFilterFilterdisabled
pivotTablesUse PivotTable reportsdisabled
objectsEdit objectsenabled
scenariosEdit scenariosenabled
  • ws['!autofilter']: AutoFilter object following the schema:
type AutoFilter = {
  ref:string; // A-1 based range representing the AutoFilter table range
}

Chartsheet Object

Chartsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "chart".

The underlying data and !ref refer to the cached data in the chartsheet. The first row of the chartsheet is the underlying header.

Macrosheet Object

Macrosheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "macro".

Dialogsheet Object

Dialogsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "dialog".

Workbook Object

workbook.SheetNames is an ordered list of the sheets in the workbook

wb.Sheets[sheetname] returns an object representing the worksheet.

wb.Props is an object storing the standard properties. wb.Custprops stores custom properties. Since the XLS standard properties deviate from the XLSX standard, XLS parsing stores core properties in both places.

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Workbook File Properties

The various file formats use different internal names for file properties. The workbook Props object normalizes the names:

File Properties (click to show)

JS NameExcel Description
TitleSummary tab "Title"
SubjectSummary tab "Subject"
AuthorSummary tab "Author"
ManagerSummary tab "Manager"
CompanySummary tab "Company"
CategorySummary tab "Category"
KeywordsSummary tab "Keywords"
CommentsSummary tab "Comments"
LastAuthorStatistics tab "Last saved by"
CreatedDateStatistics tab "Created"

For example, to set the workbook title property:

if(!wb.Props) wb.Props = {};
wb.Props.Title = "Insert Title Here";

Custom properties are added in the workbook Custprops object:

if(!wb.Custprops) wb.Custprops = {};
wb.Custprops["Custom Property"] = "Custom Value";

Writers will process the Props key of the options object:

/* force the Author to be "SheetJS" */
XLSX.write(wb, {Props:{Author:"SheetJS"}});

Workbook-Level Attributes

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Defined Names

wb.Workbook.Names is an array of defined name objects which have the keys:

Defined Name Properties (click to show)

KeyDescription
SheetName scope. Sheet Index (0 = first sheet) or null (Workbook)
NameCase-sensitive name. Standard rules apply **
RefA1-style Reference ("Sheet1!$A$1:$D$20")
CommentComment (only applicable for XLS/XLSX/XLSB)

Excel allows two sheet-scoped defined names to share the same name. However, a sheet-scoped name cannot collide with a workbook-scope name. Workbook writers may not enforce this constraint.

Workbook Views

wb.Workbook.Views is an array of workbook view objects which have the keys:

KeyDescription
RTLIf true, display right-to-left

Miscellaneous Workbook Properties

wb.Workbook.WBProps holds other workbook properties:

KeyDescription
CodeNameVBA Project Workbook Code Name
date1904epoch: 0/false for 1900 system, 1/true for 1904
filterPrivacyWarn or strip personally identifying info on save

Document Features

Even for basic features like date storage, the official Excel formats store the same content in different ways. The parsers are expected to convert from the underlying file format representation to the Common Spreadsheet Format. Writers are expected to convert from CSF back to the underlying file format.

Formulae

The A1-style formula string is stored in the f field. Even though different file formats store the formulae in different ways, the formats are translated. Even though some formats store formulae with a leading equal sign, CSF formulae do not start with =.

Representation of A1=1, A2=2, A3=A1+A2 (click to show)

{
  "!ref": "A1:A3",
  A1: { t:'n', v:1 },
  A2: { t:'n', v:2 },
  A3: { t:'n', v:3, f:'A1+A2' }
}

Shared formulae are decompressed and each cell has the formula corresponding to its cell. Writers generally do not attempt to generate shared formulae.

Cells with formula entries but no value will be serialized in a way that Excel and other spreadsheet tools will recognize. This library will not automatically compute formula results! For example, to compute BESSELJ in a worksheet:

Formula without known value (click to show)

{
  "!ref": "A1:A3",
  A1: { t:'n', v:3.14159 },
  A2: { t:'n', v:2 },
  A3: { t:'n', f:'BESSELJ(A1,A2)' }
}

Array Formulae

Array formulae are stored in the top-left cell of the array block. All cells of an array formula have a F field corresponding to the range. A single-cell formula can be distinguished from a plain formula by the presence of F field.

Array Formula examples (click to show)

For example, setting the cell C1 to the array formula {=SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)}:

worksheet['C1'] = { t:'n', f: "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)", F:"C1:C1" };

For a multi-cell array formula, every cell has the same array range but only the first cell specifies the formula. Consider D1:D3=A1:A3*B1:B3:

worksheet['D1'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3", f:"A1:A3*B1:B3" };
worksheet['D2'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };
worksheet['D3'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };

Utilities and writers are expected to check for the presence of a F field and ignore any possible formula element f in cells other than the starting cell. They are not expected to perform validation of the formulae!

Formula Output Utility Function (click to show)

The sheet_to_formulae method generates one line per formula or array formula. Array formulae are rendered in the form range=formula while plain cells are rendered in the form cell=formula or value. Note that string literals are prefixed with an apostrophe ', consistent with Excel's formula bar display.

Formulae File Format Details (click to show)

Storage RepresentationFormatsReadWrite
A1-style stringsXLSX
RC-style stringsXLML and plain text
BIFF Parsed formulaeXLSB and all XLS formats 
OpenFormula formulaeODS/FODS/UOS
Lotus Parsed formulaeAll Lotus WK_ formats 

Since Excel prohibits named cells from colliding with names of A1 or RC style cell references, a (not-so-simple) regex conversion is possible. BIFF Parsed formulae and Lotus Parsed formulae have to be explicitly unwound. OpenFormula formulae can be converted with regular expressions.

Row and Column Properties

Format Support (click to show)

Row Properties: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM, ODS

Column Properties: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM

Row and Column properties are not extracted by default when reading from a file and are not persisted by default when writing to a file. The option cellStyles: true must be passed to the relevant read or write function.

Column Properties

The !cols array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of ColInfo objects which have the following properties:

type ColInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the column is hidden

  /* column width is specified in one of the following ways: */
  wpx?:    number;  // width in screen pixels
  width?:  number;  // width in Excel's "Max Digit Width", width*256 is integral
  wch?:    number;  // width in characters

  /* other fields for preserving features from files */
  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
  MDW?:    number;  // Excel's "Max Digit Width" unit, always integral
};

Row Properties

The !rows array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of RowInfo objects which have the following properties:

type RowInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the row is hidden

  /* row height is specified in one of the following ways: */
  hpx?:    number;  // height in screen pixels
  hpt?:    number;  // height in points

  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
};

Outline / Group Levels Convention

The Excel UI displays the base outline level as 1 and the max level as 8. Following JS conventions, SheetJS uses 0-indexed outline levels wherein the base outline level is 0 and the max level is 7.

Why are there three width types? (click to show)

There are three different width types corresponding to the three different ways spreadsheets store column widths:

SYLK and other plain text formats use raw character count. Contemporaneous tools like Visicalc and Multiplan were character based. Since the characters had the same width, it sufficed to store a count. This tradition was continued into the BIFF formats.

SpreadsheetML (2003) tried to align with HTML by standardizing on screen pixel count throughout the file. Column widths, row heights, and other measures use pixels. When the pixel and character counts do not align, Excel rounds values.

XLSX internally stores column widths in a nebulous "Max Digit Width" form. The Max Digit Width is the width of the largest digit when rendered (generally the "0" character is the widest). The internal width must be an integer multiple of the the width divided by 256. ECMA-376 describes a formula for converting between pixels and the internal width. This represents a hybrid approach.

Read functions attempt to populate all three properties. Write functions will try to cycle specified values to the desired type. In order to avoid potential conflicts, manipulation should delete the other properties first. For example, when changing the pixel width, delete the wch and width properties.

Implementation details (click to show)

Row Heights

Excel internally stores row heights in points. The default resolution is 72 DPI or 96 PPI, so the pixel and point size should agree. For different resolutions they may not agree, so the library separates the concepts.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use hpx pixel height if available
  2. use hpt point height if available

Column Widths

Given the constraints, it is possible to determine the MDW without actually inspecting the font! The parsers guess the pixel width by converting from width to pixels and back, repeating for all possible MDW and selecting the MDW that minimizes the error. XLML actually stores the pixel width, so the guess works in the opposite direction.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use width field if available
  2. use wpx pixel width if available
  3. use wch character count if available

Number Formats

The cell.w formatted text for each cell is produced from cell.v and cell.z format. If the format is not specified, the Excel General format is used. The format can either be specified as a string or as an index into the format table. Parsers are expected to populate workbook.SSF with the number format table. Writers are expected to serialize the table.

Custom tools should ensure that the local table has each used format string somewhere in the table. Excel convention mandates that the custom formats start at index 164. The following example creates a custom format from scratch:

New worksheet with custom format (click to show)

var wb = {
  SheetNames: ["Sheet1"],
  Sheets: {
    Sheet1: {
      "!ref":"A1:C1",
      A1: { t:"n", v:10000 },                    // <-- General format
      B1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "0%" },           // <-- Builtin format
      C1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "\"T\"\ #0.00" }  // <-- Custom format
    }
  }
}

The rules are slightly different from how Excel displays custom number formats. In particular, literal characters must be wrapped in double quotes or preceded by a backslash. For more info, see the Excel documentation article Create or delete a custom number format or ECMA-376 18.8.31 (Number Formats)

Default Number Formats (click to show)

The default formats are listed in ECMA-376 18.8.30:

IDFormat
0General
10
20.00
3#,##0
4#,##0.00
90%
100.00%
110.00E+00
12# ?/?
13# ??/??
14m/d/yy (see below)
15d-mmm-yy
16d-mmm
17mmm-yy
18h:mm AM/PM
19h:mm:ss AM/PM
20h:mm
21h:mm:ss
22m/d/yy h:mm
37#,##0 ;(#,##0)
38#,##0 ;[Red](#,##0)
39#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)
40#,##0.00;[Red](#,##0.00)
45mm:ss
46[h]:mm:ss
47mmss.0
48##0.0E+0
49@

Format 14 (m/d/yy) is localized by Excel: even though the file specifies that number format, it will be drawn differently based on system settings. It makes sense when the producer and consumer of files are in the same locale, but that is not always the case over the Internet. To get around this ambiguity, parse functions accept the dateNF option to override the interpretation of that specific format string.

Hyperlinks

Format Support (click to show)

Cell Hyperlinks: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, ODS

Tooltips: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML

Hyperlinks are stored in the l key of cell objects. The Target field of the hyperlink object is the target of the link, including the URI fragment. Tooltips are stored in the Tooltip field and are displayed when you move your mouse over the text.

For example, the following snippet creates a link from cell A3 to https://sheetjs.com with the tip "Find us @ SheetJS.com!":

ws['A1'].l = { Target:"https://sheetjs.com", Tooltip:"Find us @ SheetJS.com!" };

Note that Excel does not automatically style hyperlinks -- they will generally be displayed as normal text.

Remote Links

HTTP / HTTPS links can be used directly:

ws['A2'].l = { Target:"https://docs.sheetjs.com/#hyperlinks" };
ws['A3'].l = { Target:"http://localhost:7262/yes_localhost_works" };

Excel also supports mailto email links with subject line:

ws['A4'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null" };
ws['A5'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null?subject=Test Subject" };

Local Links

Links to absolute paths should use the file:// URI scheme:

ws['B1'].l = { Target:"file:///SheetJS/t.xlsx" }; /* Link to /SheetJS/t.xlsx */
ws['B2'].l = { Target:"file:///c:/SheetJS.xlsx" }; /* Link to c:\SheetJS.xlsx */

Links to relative paths can be specified without a scheme:

ws['B3'].l = { Target:"SheetJS.xlsb" }; /* Link to SheetJS.xlsb */
ws['B4'].l = { Target:"../SheetJS.xlsm" }; /* Link to ../SheetJS.xlsm */

Relative Paths have undefined behavior in the SpreadsheetML 2003 format. Excel 2019 will treat a ..\ parent mark as two levels up.

Internal Links

Links where the target is a cell or range or defined name in the same workbook ("Internal Links") are marked with a leading hash character:

ws['C1'].l = { Target:"#E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 */
ws['C2'].l = { Target:"#Sheet2!E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 in sheet Sheet2 */
ws['C3'].l = { Target:"#SomeDefinedName" }; /* Link to Defined Name */

Cell Comments

Cell comments are objects stored in the c array of cell objects. The actual contents of the comment are split into blocks based on the comment author. The a field of each comment object is the author of the comment and the t field is the plain text representation.

For example, the following snippet appends a cell comment into cell A1:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"I'm a little comment, short and stout!"});

Note: XLSB enforces a 54 character limit on the Author name. Names longer than 54 characters may cause issues with other formats.

To mark a comment as normally hidden, set the hidden property:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment is visible"});

if(!ws.A2.c) ws.A2.c = [];
ws.A2.c.hidden = true;
ws.A2.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment will be hidden"});

Sheet Visibility

Excel enables hiding sheets in the lower tab bar. The sheet data is stored in the file but the UI does not readily make it available. Standard hidden sheets are revealed in the "Unhide" menu. Excel also has "very hidden" sheets which cannot be revealed in the menu. It is only accessible in the VB Editor!

The visibility setting is stored in the Hidden property of sheet props array.

More details (click to show)

ValueDefinition
0Visible
1Hidden
2Very Hidden

With https://rawgit.com/SheetJS/test_files/HEAD/sheet_visibility.xlsx:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', 0 ], [ 'Hidden', 1 ], [ 'VeryHidden', 2 ] ]

Non-Excel formats do not support the Very Hidden state. The best way to test if a sheet is visible is to check if the Hidden property is logical truth:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, !x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', true ], [ 'Hidden', false ], [ 'VeryHidden', false ] ]

VBA and Macros

VBA Macros are stored in a special data blob that is exposed in the vbaraw property of the workbook object when the bookVBA option is true. They are supported in XLSM, XLSB, and BIFF8 XLS formats. The supported format writers automatically insert the data blobs if it is present in the workbook and associate with the worksheet names.

Custom Code Names (click to show)

The workbook code name is stored in wb.Workbook.WBProps.CodeName. By default, Excel will write ThisWorkbook or a translated phrase like DieseArbeitsmappe. Worksheet and Chartsheet code names are in the worksheet properties object at wb.Workbook.Sheets[i].CodeName. Macrosheets and Dialogsheets are ignored.

The readers and writers preserve the code names, but they have to be manually set when adding a VBA blob to a different workbook.

Macrosheets (click to show)

Older versions of Excel also supported a non-VBA "macrosheet" sheet type that stored automation commands. These are exposed in objects with the !type property set to "macro".

Detecting macros in workbooks (click to show)

The vbaraw field will only be set if macros are present, so testing is simple:

function wb_has_macro(wb/*:workbook*/)/*:boolean*/ {
    if(!!wb.vbaraw) return true;
    const sheets = wb.SheetNames.map((n) => wb.Sheets[n]);
    return sheets.some((ws) => !!ws && ws['!type']=='macro');
}

Parsing Options

The exported read and readFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Input data encoding (see Input Type below)
rawfalseIf true, plain text parsing will not parse values **
codepage If specified, use code page when appropriate **
cellFormulatrueSave formulae to the .f field
cellHTMLtrueParse rich text and save HTML to the .h field
cellNFfalseSave number format string to the .z field
cellStylesfalseSave style/theme info to the .s field
cellTexttrueGenerated formatted text to the .w field
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
dateNF If specified, use the string for date code 14 **
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for stub cells
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows **
bookDepsfalseIf true, parse calculation chains
bookFilesfalseIf true, add raw files to book object **
bookPropsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get book metadata **
bookSheetsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get the sheet names
bookVBAfalseIf true, copy VBA blob to vbaraw field **
password""If defined and file is encrypted, use password **
WTFfalseIf true, throw errors on unexpected file features **
sheets If specified, only parse specified sheets **
PRNfalseIf true, allow parsing of PRN files **
xlfnfalseIf true, preserve _xlfn. prefixes in formulae **
FS DSV Field Separator override
  • Even if cellNF is false, formatted text will be generated and saved to .w
  • In some cases, sheets may be parsed even if bookSheets is false.
  • Excel aggressively tries to interpret values from CSV and other plain text. This leads to surprising behavior! The raw option suppresses value parsing.
  • bookSheets and bookProps combine to give both sets of information
  • Deps will be an empty object if bookDeps is false
  • bookFiles behavior depends on file type:
    • keys array (paths in the ZIP) for ZIP-based formats
    • files hash (mapping paths to objects representing the files) for ZIP
    • cfb object for formats using CFB containers
  • sheetRows-1 rows will be generated when looking at the JSON object output (since the header row is counted as a row when parsing the data)
  • By default all worksheets are parsed. sheets restricts based on input type:
    • number: zero-based index of worksheet to parse (0 is first worksheet)
    • string: name of worksheet to parse (case insensitive)
    • array of numbers and strings to select multiple worksheets.
  • bookVBA merely exposes the raw VBA CFB object. It does not parse the data. XLSM and XLSB store the VBA CFB object in xl/vbaProject.bin. BIFF8 XLS mixes the VBA entries alongside the core Workbook entry, so the library generates a new XLSB-compatible blob from the XLS CFB container.
  • codepage is applied to BIFF2 - BIFF5 files without CodePage records and to CSV files without BOM in type:"binary". BIFF8 XLS always defaults to 1200.
  • PRN affects parsing of text files without a common delimiter character.
  • Currently only XOR encryption is supported. Unsupported error will be thrown for files employing other encryption methods.
  • Newer Excel functions are serialized with the _xlfn. prefix, hidden from the user. SheetJS will strip _xlfn. normally. The xlfn option preserves them.
  • WTF is mainly for development. By default, the parser will suppress read errors on single worksheets, allowing you to read from the worksheets that do parse properly. Setting WTF:true forces those errors to be thrown.

Input Type

Strings can be interpreted in multiple ways. The type parameter for read tells the library how to parse the data argument:

typeexpected input
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"array: array of 8-bit unsigned int (byte n is data[n])
"file"string: path of file that will be read (nodejs only)

Guessing File Type

Implementation Details (click to show)

Excel and other spreadsheet tools read the first few bytes and apply other heuristics to determine a file type. This enables file type punning: renaming files with the .xls extension will tell your computer to use Excel to open the file but Excel will know how to handle it. This library applies similar logic:

Byte 0Raw File TypeSpreadsheet Types
0xD0CFB ContainerBIFF 5/8 or protected XLSX/XLSB or WQ3/QPW or XLR
0x09BIFF StreamBIFF 2/3/4/5
0x3CXML/HTMLSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x50ZIP ArchiveXLSB or XLSX/M or ODS or UOS2 or NUMBERS or text
0x49Plain TextSYLK or plain text
0x54Plain TextDIF or plain text
0xEFUTF8 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0xFFUTF16 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x00Record StreamLotus WK* or Quattro Pro or plain text
0x7BPlain textRTF or plain text
0x0APlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x0DPlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x20Plain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text

DBF files are detected based on the first byte as well as the third and fourth bytes (corresponding to month and day of the file date)

Works for Windows files are detected based on the BOF record with type 0xFF

Plain text format guessing follows the priority order:

FormatTest
XML<?xml appears in the first 1024 characters
HTMLstarts with < and HTML tags appear in the first 1024 characters *
XMLstarts with < and the first tag is valid
RTFstarts with {\rt
DSVstarts with /sep=.$/, separator is the specified character
DSVmore unquoted `
DSVmore unquoted ; chars than \t or , in the first 1024
TSVmore unquoted \t chars than , chars in the first 1024
CSVone of the first 1024 characters is a comma ","
ETHstarts with socialcalc:version:
PRNPRN option is set to true
CSV(fallback)
  • HTML tags include: html, table, head, meta, script, style, div

Why are random text files valid? (click to show)

Excel is extremely aggressive in reading files. Adding an XLS extension to any display text file (where the only characters are ANSI display chars) tricks Excel into thinking that the file is potentially a CSV or TSV file, even if it is only one column! This library attempts to replicate that behavior.

The best approach is to validate the desired worksheet and ensure it has the expected number of rows or columns. Extracting the range is extremely simple:

var range = XLSX.utils.decode_range(worksheet['!ref']);
var ncols = range.e.c - range.s.c + 1, nrows = range.e.r - range.s.r + 1;

Writing Options

The exported write and writeFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Output data encoding (see Output Type below)
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
bookSSTfalseGenerate Shared String Table **
bookType"xlsx"Type of Workbook (see below for supported formats)
sheet""Name of Worksheet for single-sheet formats **
compressionfalseUse ZIP compression for ZIP-based formats **
Props Override workbook properties when writing **
themeXLSX Override theme XML when writing XLSX/XLSB/XLSM **
ignoreECtrueSuppress "number as text" errors **
  • bookSST is slower and more memory intensive, but has better compatibility with older versions of iOS Numbers
  • The raw data is the only thing guaranteed to be saved. Features not described in this README may not be serialized.
  • cellDates only applies to XLSX output and is not guaranteed to work with third-party readers. Excel itself does not usually write cells with type d so non-Excel tools may ignore the data or error in the presence of dates.
  • Props is an object mirroring the workbook Props field. See the table from the Workbook File Properties section.
  • if specified, the string from themeXLSX will be saved as the primary theme for XLSX/XLSB/XLSM files (to xl/theme/theme1.xml in the ZIP)
  • Due to a bug in the program, some features like "Text to Columns" will crash Excel on worksheets where error conditions are ignored. The writer will mark files to ignore the error by default. Set ignoreEC to false to suppress.

Supported Output Formats

For broad compatibility with third-party tools, this library supports many output formats. The specific file type is controlled with bookType option:

bookTypefile extcontainersheetsDescription
xlsx.xlsxZIPmultiExcel 2007+ XML Format
xlsm.xlsmZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Macro XML Format
xlsb.xlsbZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Binary Format
biff8.xlsCFBmultiExcel 97-2004 Workbook Format
biff5.xlsCFBmultiExcel 5.0/95 Workbook Format
biff4.xlsnonesingleExcel 4.0 Worksheet Format
biff3.xlsnonesingleExcel 3.0 Worksheet Format
biff2.xlsnonesingleExcel 2.0 Worksheet Format
xlml.xlsnonemultiExcel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)
ods.odsZIPmultiOpenDocument Spreadsheet
fods.fodsnonemultiFlat OpenDocument Spreadsheet
wk3.wk3nonesingleLotus Workbook (WK3)
csv.csvnonesingleComma Separated Values
txt.txtnonesingleUTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
sylk.sylknonesingleSymbolic Link (SYLK)
html.htmlnonesingleHTML Document
dif.difnonesingleData Interchange Format (DIF)
dbf.dbfnonesingledBASE II + VFP Extensions (DBF)
wk1.wk1nonesingleLotus Worksheet (WK1)
rtf.rtfnonesingleRich Text Format (RTF)
prn.prnnonesingleLotus Formatted Text
eth.ethnonesingleEthercalc Record Format (ETH)
  • compression only applies to formats with ZIP containers.
  • Formats that only support a single sheet require a sheet option specifying the worksheet. If the string is empty, the first worksheet is used.
  • writeFile will automatically guess the output file format based on the file extension if bookType is not specified. It will choose the first format in the aforementioned table that matches the extension.

Output Type

The type argument for write mirrors the type argument for read:

typeoutput
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"ArrayBuffer, fallback array of 8-bit unsigned int
"file"string: path of file that will be created (nodejs only)

Utility Functions

The sheet_to_* functions accept a worksheet and an optional options object.

The *_to_sheet functions accept a data object and an optional options object.

The examples are based on the following worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |

Array of Arrays Input

XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet takes an array of arrays of JS values and returns a worksheet resembling the input data. Numbers, Booleans and Strings are stored as the corresponding styles. Dates are stored as date or numbers. Array holes and explicit undefined values are skipped. null values may be stubbed. All other values are stored as strings. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet:

var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  "SheetJS".split(""),
  [1,2,3,4,5,6,7],
  [2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
]);

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa takes an array of arrays of JS values and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as aoa_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ "SheetJS".split("") ]);

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4]], {origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[5,6,7], [6,7,8], [7,8,9]], {origin:{r:1, c:4}});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[4,5,6,7,8,9,0]], {origin: -1});

Array of Objects Input

XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet takes an array of objects and returns a worksheet with automatically-generated "headers" based on the keys of the objects. The default column order is determined by the first appearance of the field using Object.keys. The function accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified field order (default Object.keys) **
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
  • All fields from each row will be written. If header is an array and it does not contain a particular field, the key will be appended to the array.
  • Cell types are deduced from the type of each value. For example, a Date object will generate a Date cell, while a string will generate a Text cell.
  • Null values will be skipped by default. If nullError is true, an error cell corresponding to #NULL! will be written to the worksheet.

Examples (click to show)

The original sheet cannot be reproduced using plain objects since JS object keys must be unique. After replacing the second e and S with e_1 and S_1:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { S:1, h:2, e:3, e_1:4, t:5, J:6, S_1:7 },
  { S:2, h:3, e:4, e_1:5, t:6, J:7, S_1:8 }
], {header:["S","h","e","e_1","t","J","S_1"]});

Alternatively, the header row can be skipped:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A:"S", B:"h", C:"e", D:"e", E:"t", F:"J", G:"S" },
  { A: 1,  B: 2,  C: 3,  D: 4,  E: 5,  F: 6,  G: 7  },
  { A: 2,  B: 3,  C: 4,  D: 5,  E: 6,  F: 7,  G: 8  }
], {header:["A","B","C","D","E","F","G"], skipHeader:true});

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json takes an array of objects and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as json_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified column order (default Object.keys)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A: "S", B: "h", C: "e", D: "e", E: "t", F: "J", G: "S" }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true});

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 1, B: 2 }, { A: 2, B: 3 }, { A: 3, B: 4 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 5, B: 6, C: 7 }, { A: 6, B: 7, C: 8 }, { A: 7, B: 8, C: 9 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: { r: 1, c: 4 }, header: [ "A", "B", "C" ]});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 4, B: 5, C: 6, D: 7, E: 8, F: 9, G: 0 }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true, origin: -1});

HTML Table Input

XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet takes a table DOM element and returns a worksheet resembling the input table. Numbers are parsed. All other data will be stored as strings.

XLSX.utils.table_to_book produces a minimal workbook based on the worksheet.

Both functions accept options arguments:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet, start with the HTML table:

<table id="sheetjs">
<tr><td>S</td><td>h</td><td>e</td><td>e</td><td>t</td><td>J</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td></tr>
<tr><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td><td>8</td></tr>
</table>

To process the table:

var tbl = document.getElementById('sheetjs');
var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(tbl);

Note: XLSX.read can handle HTML represented as strings.

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom takes a table DOM element and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as table_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

A small helper function can create gap rows between tables:

function create_gap_rows(ws, nrows) {
  var ref = XLSX.utils.decode_range(ws["!ref"]);       // get original range
  ref.e.r += nrows;                                    // add to ending row
  ws["!ref"] = XLSX.utils.encode_range(ref);           // reassign row
}

/* first table */
var ws = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table1'));
create_gap_rows(ws, 1); // one row gap after first table

/* second table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table2'), {origin: -1});
create_gap_rows(ws, 3); // three rows gap after second table

/* third table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table3'), {origin: -1});

Formulae Output

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates an array of commands that represent how a person would enter data into an application. Each entry is of the form A1-cell-address=formula-or-value. String literals are prefixed with a ' in accordance with Excel.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> var o = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(ws);
> [o[0], o[5], o[10], o[15], o[20]];
[ 'A1=\'S', 'F1=\'J', 'D2=4', 'B3=3', 'G3=8' ]

Delimiter-Separated Output

As an alternative to the writeFile CSV type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv also produces CSV output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
FS",""Field Separator" delimiter between fields
RS"\n""Record Separator" delimiter between rows
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
stripfalseRemove trailing field separators in each record **
blankrowstrueInclude blank lines in the CSV output
skipHiddenfalseSkips hidden rows/columns in the CSV output
forceQuotesfalseForce quotes around fields
  • strip will remove trailing commas from each line under default FS/RS
  • blankrows must be set to false to skip blank lines.
  • Fields containing the record or field separator will automatically be wrapped in double quotes; forceQuotes forces all cells to be wrapped in quotes.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws));
S,h,e,e,t,J,S
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
2,3,4,5,6,7,8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws, {FS:"\t"}));
S    h    e    e    t    J    S
1    2    3    4    5    6    7
2    3    4    5    6    7    8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws,{FS:":",RS:"|"}));
S:h:e:e:t:J:S|1:2:3:4:5:6:7|2:3:4:5:6:7:8|

UTF-16 Unicode Text

The txt output type uses the tab character as the field separator. If the codepage library is available (included in full distribution but not core), the output will be encoded in CP1200 and the BOM will be prepended.

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt takes the same arguments as sheet_to_csv.

HTML Output

As an alternative to the writeFile HTML type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html also produces HTML output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
id Specify the id attribute for the TABLE element
editablefalseIf true, set contenteditable="true" for every TD
header Override header (default html body)
footer Override footer (default /body /html)

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(ws));
// ...

JSON

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates different types of JS objects. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
rawtrueUse raw values (true) or formatted strings (false)
rangefrom WSOverride Range (see table below)
header Control output format (see table below)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
defval Use specified value in place of null or undefined
blankrows**Include blank lines in the output **
  • raw only affects cells which have a format code (.z) field or a formatted text (.w) field.
  • If header is specified, the first row is considered a data row; if header is not specified, the first row is the header row and not considered data.
  • When header is not specified, the conversion will automatically disambiguate header entries by affixing _ and a count starting at 1. For example, if three columns have header foo the output fields are foo, foo_1, foo_2
  • null values are returned when raw is true but are skipped when false.
  • If defval is not specified, null and undefined values are skipped normally. If specified, all null and undefined points will be filled with defval
  • When header is 1, the default is to generate blank rows. blankrows must be set to false to skip blank rows.
  • When header is not 1, the default is to skip blank rows. blankrows must be true to generate blank rows

range is expected to be one of:

rangeDescription
(number)Use worksheet range but set starting row to the value
(string)Use specified range (A1-style bounded range string)
(default)Use worksheet range (ws['!ref'])

header is expected to be one of:

headerDescription
1Generate an array of arrays ("2D Array")
"A"Row object keys are literal column labels
array of stringsUse specified strings as keys in row objects
(default)Read and disambiguate first row as keys

If header is not 1, the row object will contain the non-enumerable property __rowNum__ that represents the row of the sheet corresponding to the entry.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws);
[ { S: 1, h: 2, e: 3, e_1: 4, t: 5, J: 6, S_1: 7 },
  { S: 2, h: 3, e: 4, e_1: 5, t: 6, J: 7, S_1: 8 } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:"A"});
[ { A: 'S', B: 'h', C: 'e', D: 'e', E: 't', F: 'J', G: 'S' },
  { A: '1', B: '2', C: '3', D: '4', E: '5', F: '6', G: '7' },
  { A: '2', B: '3', C: '4', D: '5', E: '6', F: '7', G: '8' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:["A","E","I","O","U","6","9"]});
[ { '6': 'J', '9': 'S', A: 'S', E: 'h', I: 'e', O: 'e', U: 't' },
  { '6': '6', '9': '7', A: '1', E: '2', I: '3', O: '4', U: '5' },
  { '6': '7', '9': '8', A: '2', E: '3', I: '4', O: '5', U: '6' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

Example showing the effect of raw:

> ws['A2'].w = "3";                          // set A2 formatted string value

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1, raw:false});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '3', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],     // <-- A2 uses the formatted string
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ],                   // <-- A2 uses the raw value
  [ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ] ]

File Formats

Despite the library name xlsx, it supports numerous spreadsheet file formats:

FormatReadWrite
Excel Worksheet/Workbook Formats:-----::-----:
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)
Excel 2003-2004 XML Format (XML "SpreadsheetML")
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)
Excel 4.0 (XLS/XLW BIFF4)
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)
Excel Supported Text Formats:-----::-----:
Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)
Data Interchange Format (DIF)
Symbolic Link (SYLK/SLK)
Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)
UTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
Other Workbook/Worksheet Formats:-----::-----:
Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS) 
OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS)
Flat XML ODF Spreadsheet (FODS)
Uniform Office Format Spreadsheet (标文通 UOS1/UOS2) 
dBASE II/III/IV / Visual FoxPro (DBF)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1/WK3)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK2/WK4/123) 
Quattro Pro Spreadsheet (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW) 
Works 1.x-3.x DOS / 2.x-5.x Windows Spreadsheet (WKS) 
Works 6.x-9.x Spreadsheet (XLR) 
Other Common Spreadsheet Output Formats:-----::-----:
HTML Tables
Rich Text Format tables (RTF) 
Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

Features not supported by a given file format will not be written. Formats with range limits will be silently truncated:

FormatLast CellMax ColsMax Rows
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)XFD1048576163841048576
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)XFD1048576163841048576
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)IV6553625665536
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)IV1638425616384
Excel 4.0 (XLS BIFF4)IV1638425616384
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)IV1638425616384
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)IV1638425616384
Lotus 1-2-3 R2 - R5 (WK1/WK3/WK4)IV81922568192
Lotus 1-2-3 R1 (WKS)IV20482562048

Excel 2003 SpreadsheetML range limits are governed by the version of Excel and are not enforced by the writer.

File Format Details (click to show)

Core Spreadsheet Formats

  • Excel 2007+ XML (XLSX/XLSM)

XLSX and XLSM files are ZIP containers containing a series of XML files in accordance with the Open Packaging Conventions (OPC). The XLSM format, almost identical to XLSX, is used for files containing macros.

The format is standardized in ECMA-376 and later in ISO/IEC 29500. Excel does not follow the specification, and there are additional documents discussing how Excel deviates from the specification.

  • Excel 2.0-95 (BIFF2/BIFF3/BIFF4/BIFF5)

BIFF 2/3 XLS are single-sheet streams of binary records. Excel 4 introduced the concept of a workbook (XLW files) but also had single-sheet XLS format. The structure is largely similar to the Lotus 1-2-3 file formats. BIFF5/8/12 extended the format in various ways but largely stuck to the same record format.

There is no official specification for any of these formats. Excel 95 can write files in these formats, so record lengths and fields were determined by writing in all of the supported formats and comparing files. Excel 2016 can generate BIFF5 files, enabling a full suite of file tests starting from XLSX or BIFF2.

  • Excel 97-2004 Binary (BIFF8)

BIFF8 exclusively uses the Compound File Binary container format, splitting some content into streams within the file. At its core, it still uses an extended version of the binary record format from older versions of BIFF.

The MS-XLS specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

  • Excel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)

Predating XLSX, SpreadsheetML files are simple XML files. There is no official and comprehensive specification, although MS has released documentation on the format. Since Excel 2016 can generate SpreadsheetML files, mapping features is pretty straightforward.

  • Excel 2007+ Binary (XLSB, BIFF12)

Introduced in parallel with XLSX, the XLSB format combines the BIFF architecture with the content separation and ZIP container of XLSX. For the most part nodes in an XLSX sub-file can be mapped to XLSB records in a corresponding sub-file.

The MS-XLSB specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

  • Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)

Excel CSV deviates from RFC4180 in a number of important ways. The generated CSV files should generally work in Excel although they may not work in RFC4180 compatible readers. The parser should generally understand Excel CSV. The writer proactively generates cells for formulae if values are unavailable.

Excel TXT uses tab as the delimiter and code page 1200.

Like in Excel, files starting with 0x49 0x44 ("ID") are treated as Symbolic Link files. Unlike Excel, if the file does not have a valid SYLK header, it will be proactively reinterpreted as CSV. There are some files with semicolon delimiter that align with a valid SYLK file. For the broadest compatibility, all cells with the value of ID are automatically wrapped in double-quotes.

Miscellaneous Workbook Formats

Support for other formats is generally far behind XLS/XLSB/XLSX support, due in part to a lack of publicly available documentation. Test files were produced in the respective apps and compared to their XLS exports to determine structure. The main focus is data extraction.

  • Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK1/WK2/WK3/WK4/123)

The Lotus formats consist of binary records similar to the BIFF structure. Lotus did release a specification decades ago covering the original WK1 format. Other features were deduced by producing files and comparing to Excel support.

Generated WK1 worksheets are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R2 and Excel 5.0.

Generated WK3 workbooks are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R9 and Excel 5.0.

  • Quattro Pro (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW)

The Quattro Pro formats use binary records in the same way as BIFF and Lotus. Some of the newer formats (namely WB3 and QPW) use a CFB enclosure just like BIFF8 XLS.

  • Works for DOS / Windows Spreadsheet (WKS/XLR)

All versions of Works were limited to a single worksheet.

Works for DOS 1.x - 3.x and Works for Windows 2.x extends the Lotus WKS format with additional record types.

Works for Windows 3.x - 5.x uses the same format and WKS extension. The BOF record has type FF

Works for Windows 6.x - 9.x use the XLR format. XLR is nearly identical to BIFF8 XLS: it uses the CFB container with a Workbook stream. Works 9 saves the exact Workbook stream for the XLR and the 97-2003 XLS export. Works 6 XLS includes two empty worksheets but the main worksheet has an identical encoding. XLR also includes a WksSSWorkBook stream similar to Lotus FM3/FMT files.

  • Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS)

iWork 2013 (Numbers 3.0 / Pages 5.0 / Keynote 6.0) switched from a proprietary XML-based format to the current file format based on the iWork Archive (IWA). This format has been used up through the current release (Numbers 11.2).

The parser focuses on extracting raw data from tables. Numbers technically supports multiple tables in a logical worksheet, including custom titles. This parser will generate one worksheet per Numbers table.

  • OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS/FODS)

ODS is an XML-in-ZIP format akin to XLSX while FODS is an XML format akin to SpreadsheetML. Both are detailed in the OASIS standard, but tools like LO/OO add undocumented extensions. The parsers and writers do not implement the full standard, instead focusing on parts necessary to extract and store raw data.

  • Uniform Office Spreadsheet (UOS1/2)

UOS is a very similar format, and it comes in 2 varieties corresponding to ODS and FODS respectively. For the most part, the difference between the formats is in the names of tags and attributes.

Miscellaneous Worksheet Formats

Many older formats supported only one worksheet:

  • dBASE and Visual FoxPro (DBF)

DBF is really a typed table format: each column can only hold one data type and each record omits type information. The parser generates a header row and inserts records starting at the second row of the worksheet. The writer makes files compatible with Visual FoxPro extensions.

Multi-file extensions like external memos and tables are currently unsupported, limited by the general ability to read arbitrary files in the web browser. The reader understands DBF Level 7 extensions like DATETIME.

  • Symbolic Link (SYLK)

There is no real documentation. All knowledge was gathered by saving files in various versions of Excel to deduce the meaning of fields. Notes:

Plain formulae are stored in the RC form.

Column widths are rounded to integral characters.

Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)

There is no real documentation, and in fact Excel treats PRN as an output-only file format. Nevertheless we can guess the column widths and reverse-engineer the original layout. Excel's 240 character width limitation is not enforced.

  • Data Interchange Format (DIF)

There is no unified definition. Visicalc DIF differs from Lotus DIF, and both differ from Excel DIF. Where ambiguous, the parser/writer follows the expected behavior from Excel. In particular, Excel extends DIF in incompatible ways:

Since Excel automatically converts numbers-as-strings to numbers, numeric string constants are converted to formulae: "0.3" -> "=""0.3""

DIF technically expects numeric cells to hold the raw numeric data, but Excel permits formatted numbers (including dates)

DIF technically has no support for formulae, but Excel will automatically convert plain formulae. Array formulae are not preserved.

HTML

Excel HTML worksheets include special metadata encoded in styles. For example, mso-number-format is a localized string containing the number format. Despite the metadata the output is valid HTML, although it does accept bare & symbols.

The writer adds type metadata to the TD elements via the t tag. The parser looks for those tags and overrides the default interpretation. For example, text like <td>12345</td> will be parsed as numbers but <td t="s">12345</td> will be parsed as text.

  • Rich Text Format (RTF)

Excel RTF worksheets are stored in clipboard when copying cells or ranges from a worksheet. The supported codes are a subset of the Word RTF support.

  • Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

Ethercalc is an open source web spreadsheet powered by a record format reminiscent of SYLK wrapped in a MIME multi-part message.

Testing

Node

(click to show)

make test will run the node-based tests. By default it runs tests on files in every supported format. To test a specific file type, set FMTS to the format you want to test. Feature-specific tests are available with make test_misc

$ make test_misc   # run core tests
$ make test        # run full tests
$ make test_xls    # only use the XLS test files
$ make test_xlsx   # only use the XLSX test files
$ make test_xlsb   # only use the XLSB test files
$ make test_xml    # only use the XML test files
$ make test_ods    # only use the ODS test files

To enable all errors, set the environment variable WTF=1:

$ make test        # run full tests
$ WTF=1 make test  # enable all error messages

flow and eslint checks are available:

$ make lint        # eslint checks
$ make flow        # make lint + Flow checking
$ make tslint      # check TS definitions

Browser

(click to show)

The core in-browser tests are available at tests/index.html within this repo. Start a local server and navigate to that directory to run the tests. make ctestserv will start a server on port 8000.

make ctest will generate the browser fixtures. To add more files, edit the tests/fixtures.lst file and add the paths.

To run the full in-browser tests, clone the repo for oss.sheetjs.com and replace the xlsx.js file (then open a browser window and go to stress.html):

$ cp xlsx.js ../SheetJS.github.io
$ cd ../SheetJS.github.io
$ simplehttpserver # or "python -mSimpleHTTPServer" or "serve"
$ open -a Chromium.app http://localhost:8000/stress.html

Tested Environments

(click to show)

  • NodeJS 0.8, 0.10, 0.12, 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x
  • IE 6/7/8/9/10/11 (IE 6-9 require shims)
  • Chrome 24+ (including Android 4.0+)
  • Safari 6+ (iOS and Desktop)
  • Edge 13+, FF 18+, and Opera 12+

Tests utilize the mocha testing framework.

The test suite also includes tests for various time zones. To change the timezone locally, set the TZ environment variable:

$ env TZ="Asia/Kolkata" WTF=1 make test_misc

Test Files

Test files are housed in another repo.

Running make init will refresh the test_files submodule and get the files. Note that this requires svn, git, hg and other commands that may not be available. If make init fails, please download the latest version of the test files snapshot from the repo

Latest Snapshot (click to show)

Latest test files snapshot: http://github.com/SheetJS/test_files/releases/download/20170409/test_files.zip

(download and unzip to the test_files subdirectory)

Contributing

Due to the precarious nature of the Open Specifications Promise, it is very important to ensure code is cleanroom. Contribution Notes

File organization (click to show)

At a high level, the final script is a concatenation of the individual files in the bits folder. Running make should reproduce the final output on all platforms. The README is similarly split into bits in the docbits folder.

Folders:

foldercontents
bitsraw source files that make up the final script
docbitsraw markdown files that make up README.md
binserver-side bin scripts (xlsx.njs)
distdist files for web browsers and nonstandard JS environments
demosdemo projects for platforms like ExtendScript and Webpack
testsbrowser tests (run make ctest to rebuild)
typestypescript definitions and tests
miscmiscellaneous supporting scripts
test_filestest files (pulled from the test files repository)

After cloning the repo, running make help will display a list of commands.

OSX/Linux

(click to show)

The xlsx.js file is constructed from the files in the bits subdirectory. The build script (run make) will concatenate the individual bits to produce the script. Before submitting a contribution, ensure that running make will produce the xlsx.js file exactly. The simplest way to test is to add the script:

$ git add xlsx.js
$ make clean
$ make
$ git diff xlsx.js

To produce the dist files, run make dist. The dist files are updated in each version release and should not be committed between versions.

Windows

(click to show)

The included make.cmd script will build xlsx.js from the bits directory. Building is as simple as:

> make

To prepare development environment:

> make init

The full list of commands available in Windows are displayed in make help:

make init -- install deps and global modules
make lint -- run eslint linter
make test -- run mocha test suite
make misc -- run smaller test suite
make book -- rebuild README and summary
make help -- display this message

As explained in Test Files, on Windows the release ZIP file must be downloaded and extracted. If Bash on Windows is available, it is possible to run the OSX/Linux workflow. The following steps prepares the environment:

# Install support programs for the build and test commands
sudo apt-get install make git subversion mercurial

# Install nodejs and NPM within the WSL
wget -qO- https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo bash
sudo apt-get install nodejs

# Install dev dependencies
sudo npm install -g mocha voc blanket xlsjs

Tests

(click to show)

The test_misc target (make test_misc on Linux/OSX / make misc on Windows) runs the targeted feature tests. It should take 5-10 seconds to perform feature tests without testing against the entire test battery. New features should be accompanied with tests for the relevant file formats and features.

For tests involving the read side, an appropriate feature test would involve reading an existing file and checking the resulting workbook object. If a parameter is involved, files should be read with different values to verify that the feature is working as expected.

For tests involving a new write feature which can already be parsed, appropriate feature tests would involve writing a workbook with the feature and then opening and verifying that the feature is preserved.

For tests involving a new write feature without an existing read ability, please add a feature test to the kitchen sink tests/write.js.

References

OSP-covered Specifications (click to show)

  • MS-CFB: Compound File Binary File Format
  • MS-CTXLS: Excel Custom Toolbar Binary File Format
  • MS-EXSPXML3: Excel Calculation Version 2 Web Service XML Schema
  • MS-ODATA: Open Data Protocol (OData)
  • MS-ODRAW: Office Drawing Binary File Format
  • MS-ODRAWXML: Office Drawing Extensions to Office Open XML Structure
  • MS-OE376: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support
  • MS-OFFCRYPTO: Office Document Cryptography Structure
  • MS-OI29500: Office Implementation Information for ISO/IEC 29500 Standards Support
  • MS-OLEDS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Data Structures
  • MS-OLEPS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Property Set Data Structures
  • MS-OODF3: Office Implementation Information for ODF 1.2 Standards Support
  • MS-OSHARED: Office Common Data Types and Objects Structures
  • MS-OVBA: Office VBA File Format Structure
  • MS-XLDM: Spreadsheet Data Model File Format
  • MS-XLS: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification
  • MS-XLSB: Excel (.xlsb) Binary File Format
  • MS-XLSX: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format
  • XLS: Microsoft Office Excel 97-2007 Binary File Format Specification
  • RTF: Rich Text Format
  • ISO/IEC 29500:2012(E) "Information technology — Document description and processing languages — Office Open XML File Formats"
  • Open Document Format for Office Applications Version 1.2 (29 September 2011)
  • Worksheet File Format (From Lotus) December 1984

Author: SheetJS
Source Code: https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs 
License: Apache-2.0 License

#nodejs #javascript #html #ios 

Gordon  Taylor

Gordon Taylor

1650512040

SheetJS Community Edition -- Spreadsheet Data Toolkit

SheetJS

The SheetJS Community Edition offers battle-tested open-source solutions for extracting useful data from almost any complex spreadsheet and generating new spreadsheets that will work with legacy and modern software alike.

SheetJS Pro offers solutions beyond data processing: Edit complex templates with ease; let out your inner Picasso with styling; make custom sheets with images/graphs/PivotTables; evaluate formula expressions and port calculations to web apps; automate common spreadsheet tasks, and much more!    Analytics

Getting Started

Installation

Standalone Browser Scripts

Each standalone release script is available at https://cdn.sheetjs.com/.

The current version is 0.18.6 and can be referenced as follows:

<!-- use version 0.18.6 -->
<script lang="javascript" src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

The latest tag references the latest version and updates with each release:

<!-- use the latest version -->
<script lang="javascript" src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

For production use, scripts should be downloaded and added to a public folder alongside other scripts.

Browser builds (click to show)

The complete single-file version is generated at dist/xlsx.full.min.js

dist/xlsx.core.min.js omits codepage library (no support for XLS encodings)

A slimmer build is generated at dist/xlsx.mini.min.js. Compared to full build:

  • codepage library skipped (no support for XLS encodings)
  • no support for XLSB / XLS / Lotus 1-2-3 / SpreadsheetML 2003 / Numbers
  • node stream utils removed

These scripts are also available on the CDN:

<!-- use xlsx.mini.min.js from version 0.18.6 -->
<script lang="javascript" src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/dist/xlsx.mini.min.js"></script>

Bower will pull the entire repo:

$ bower install js-xlsx

Bower will place the standalone scripts in bower_components/js-xlsx/dist/

Internet Explorer and ECMAScript 3 Compatibility (click to show)

For broad compatibility with JavaScript engines, the library is written using ECMAScript 3 language dialect as well as some ES5 features like Array#forEach. Older browsers require shims to provide missing functions.

To use the shim, add the shim before the script tag that loads xlsx.js:

<!-- add the shim first -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="shim.min.js"></script>
<!-- after the shim is referenced, add the library -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

Due to SSL certificate compatibility issues, it is highly recommended to save the Standalone and Shim scripts from https://cdn.sheetjs.com/ and add to a public directory in the site.

The script also includes IE_LoadFile and IE_SaveFile for loading and saving files in Internet Explorer versions 6-9. The xlsx.extendscript.js script bundles the shim in a format suitable for Photoshop and other Adobe products.

ECMAScript Modules

Browser ESM

The ECMAScript Module build is saved to xlsx.mjs and can be directly added to a page with a script tag using type="module":

<script type="module">
import { read, writeFileXLSX } from "https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/xlsx.mjs";

/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats  */
import { set_cptable } from "https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/xlsx.mjs";
import * as cptable from 'https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';
set_cptable(cptable);
</script>

Frameworks (Angular, VueJS, React) and Bundlers (webpack, etc)

The NodeJS package is readily installed from the tarballs:

$ npm  install --save https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # npm
$ pnpm install --save https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # pnpm
$ yarn add     --save https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # yarn

Once installed, the library can be imported under the name xlsx:

import { read, writeFileXLSX } from "xlsx";

/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats  */
import { set_cptable } from "xlsx";
import * as cptable from 'xlsx/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';
set_cptable(cptable);

Deno

xlsx.mjs can be imported in Deno:

// @deno-types="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/types/index.d.ts"
import * as XLSX from 'https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/xlsx.mjs';

/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats  */
import * as cptable from 'https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';
XLSX.set_cptable(cptable);

NodeJS

Tarballs are available on https://cdn.sheetjs.com.

Each individual version can be referenced using a similar URL pattern. https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz is the URL for 0.18.6

https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/xlsx-latest.tgz is a link to the latest version and will refresh on each release.

Installation

Tarballs can be directly installed using a package manager:

$ npm  install https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # npm
$ pnpm install https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # pnpm
$ yarn add     https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # yarn

For general stability, "vendoring" modules is the recommended approach:

Download the tarball (xlsx-0.18.6.tgz) for the desired version. The current version is available at https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz

Create a vendor subdirectory at the root of your project and move the tarball to that folder. Add it to your project repository.

Install the tarball using a package manager:

$ npm  install --save file:vendor/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # npm
$ pnpm install --save file:vendor/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # pnpm
$ yarn add            file:vendor/xlsx-0.18.6.tgz # yarn

The package will be installed and accessible as xlsx.

Usage

By default, the module supports require and it will automatically add support for streams and filesystem access:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");

The module also ships with xlsx.mjs for use with import. The mjs version does not automatically load native node modules:

import * as XLSX from 'xlsx/xlsx.mjs';

/* load 'fs' for readFile and writeFile support */
import * as fs from 'fs';
XLSX.set_fs(fs);

/* load 'stream' for stream support */
import { Readable } from 'stream';
XLSX.stream.set_readable(Readable);

/* load the codepage support library for extended support with older formats  */
import * as cpexcel from 'xlsx/dist/cpexcel.full.mjs';
XLSX.set_cptable(cpexcel);

Photoshop and InDesign

dist/xlsx.extendscript.js is an ExtendScript build for Photoshop and InDesign. https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-0.18.6/package/dist/xlsx.extendscript.js is the current version. After downloading the script, it can be directly referenced with a #include directive:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"

Usage

Most scenarios involving spreadsheets and data can be broken into 5 parts:

Acquire Data: Data may be stored anywhere: local or remote files, databases, HTML TABLE, or even generated programmatically in the web browser.

Extract Data: For spreadsheet files, this involves parsing raw bytes to read the cell data. For general JS data, this involves reshaping the data.

Process Data: From generating summary statistics to cleaning data records, this step is the heart of the problem.

Package Data: This can involve making a new spreadsheet or serializing with JSON.stringify or writing XML or simply flattening data for UI tools.

Release Data: Spreadsheet files can be uploaded to a server or written locally. Data can be presented to users in an HTML TABLE or data grid.

A common problem involves generating a valid spreadsheet export from data stored in an HTML table. In this example, an HTML TABLE on the page will be scraped, a row will be added to the bottom with the date of the report, and a new file will be generated and downloaded locally. XLSX.writeFile takes care of packaging the data and attempting a local download:

// Acquire Data (reference to the HTML table)
var table_elt = document.getElementById("my-table-id");

// Extract Data (create a workbook object from the table)
var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(table_elt);

// Process Data (add a new row)
var ws = workbook.Sheets["Sheet1"];
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [["Created "+new Date().toISOString()]], {origin:-1});

// Package and Release Data (`writeFile` tries to write and save an XLSB file)
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Report.xlsb");

This library tries to simplify steps 2 and 4 with functions to extract useful data from spreadsheet files (read / readFile) and generate new spreadsheet files from data (write / writeFile). Additional utility functions like table_to_book work with other common data sources like HTML tables.

This documentation and various demo projects cover a number of common scenarios and approaches for steps 1 and 5.

Utility functions help with step 3.

"Acquiring and Extracting Data" describes solutions for common data import scenarios.

"Packaging and Releasing Data" describes solutions for common data export scenarios.

"Processing Data" describes solutions for common workbook processing and manipulation scenarios.

"Utility Functions" details utility functions for translating JSON Arrays and other common JS structures into worksheet objects.

The Zen of SheetJS

Data processing should fit in any workflow

The library does not impose a separate lifecycle. It fits nicely in websites and apps built using any framework. The plain JS data objects play nice with Web Workers and future APIs.

JavaScript is a powerful language for data processing

The "Common Spreadsheet Format" is a simple object representation of the core concepts of a workbook. The various functions in the library provide low-level tools for working with the object.

For friendly JS processing, there are utility functions for converting parts of a worksheet to/from an Array of Arrays. The following example combines powerful JS Array methods with a network request library to download data, select the information we want and create a workbook file:

Get Data from a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook (click to show)

The goal is to generate a XLSB workbook of US President names and birthdays.

Acquire Data

Raw Data

https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json has the desired data. For example, John Adams:

{
  "id": { /* (data omitted) */ },
  "name": {
    "first": "John",          // <-- first name
    "last": "Adams"           // <-- last name
  },
  "bio": {
    "birthday": "1735-10-19", // <-- birthday
    "gender": "M"
  },
  "terms": [
    { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ },
    { "type": "viceprez", /* (other fields omitted) */ },
    { "type": "prez", /* (other fields omitted) */ } // <-- look for "prez"
  ]
}

Filtering for Presidents

The dataset includes Aaron Burr, a Vice President who was never President!

Array#filter creates a new array with the desired rows. A President served at least one term with type set to "prez". To test if a particular row has at least one "prez" term, Array#some is another native JS function. The complete filter would be:

const prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez"));

Lining up the data

For this example, the name will be the first name combined with the last name (row.name.first + " " + row.name.last) and the birthday will be the subfield row.bio.birthday. Using Array#map, the dataset can be massaged in one call:

const rows = prez.map(row => ({
  name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last,
  birthday: row.bio.birthday
}));

The result is an array of "simple" objects with no nesting:

[
  { name: "George Washington", birthday: "1732-02-22" },
  { name: "John Adams", birthday: "1735-10-19" },
  // ... one row per President
]

Extract Data

With the cleaned dataset, XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet generates a worksheet:

const worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows);

XLSX.utils.book_new creates a new workbook and XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet appends a worksheet to the workbook. The new worksheet will be called "Dates":

const workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates");

Process Data

Fixing headers

By default, json_to_sheet creates a worksheet with a header row. In this case, the headers come from the JS object keys: "name" and "birthday".

The headers are in cells A1 and B1. XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa can write text values to the existing worksheet starting at cell A1:

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" });

Fixing Column Widths

Some of the names are longer than the default column width. Column widths are set by setting the "!cols" worksheet property.

The following line sets the width of column A to approximately 10 characters:

worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: 10 } ]; // set column A width to 10 characters

One Array#reduce call over rows can calculate the maximum width:

const max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10);
worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ];

Note: If the starting point was a file or HTML table, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json will generate an array of JS objects.

Package and Release Data

XLSX.writeFile creates a spreadsheet file and tries to write it to the system. In the browser, it will try to prompt the user to download the file. In NodeJS, it will write to the local directory.

XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");

Complete Example

// Uncomment the next line for use in NodeJS:
// const XLSX = require("xlsx"), axios = require("axios");

(async() => {
  /* fetch JSON data and parse */
  const url = "https://theunitedstates.io/congress-legislators/executive.json";
  const raw_data = (await axios(url, {responseType: "json"})).data;

  /* filter for the Presidents */
  const prez = raw_data.filter(row => row.terms.some(term => term.type === "prez"));

  /* flatten objects */
  const rows = prez.map(row => ({
    name: row.name.first + " " + row.name.last,
    birthday: row.bio.birthday
  }));

  /* generate worksheet and workbook */
  const worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(rows);
  const workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
  XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Dates");

  /* fix headers */
  XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [["Name", "Birthday"]], { origin: "A1" });

  /* calculate column width */
  const max_width = rows.reduce((w, r) => Math.max(w, r.name.length), 10);
  worksheet["!cols"] = [ { wch: max_width } ];

  /* create an XLSX file and try to save to Presidents.xlsx */
  XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "Presidents.xlsx");
})();

For use in the web browser, assuming the snippet is saved to snippet.js, script tags should be used to include the axios and xlsx standalone builds:

<script src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://unpkg.com/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>
<script src="snippet.js"></script>

File formats are implementation details

The parser covers a wide gamut of common spreadsheet file formats to ensure that "HTML-saved-as-XLS" files work as well as actual XLS or XLSX files.

The writer supports a number of common output formats for broad compatibility with the data ecosystem.

To the greatest extent possible, data processing code should not have to worry about the specific file formats involved.

JS Ecosystem Demos

The demos directory includes sample projects for:

Frameworks and APIs

Bundlers and Tooling

Platforms and Integrations

Other examples are included in the showcase.

https://sheetjs.com/demos/modify.html shows a complete example of reading, modifying, and writing files.

https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs/blob/HEAD/bin/xlsx.njs is the command-line tool included with node installations, reading spreadsheet files and exporting the contents in various formats.

Acquiring and Extracting Data

Parsing Workbooks

API

Extract data from spreadsheet bytes

var workbook = XLSX.read(data, opts);

The read method can extract data from spreadsheet bytes stored in a JS string, "binary string", NodeJS buffer or typed array (Uint8Array or ArrayBuffer).

Read spreadsheet bytes from a local file and extract data

var workbook = XLSX.readFile(filename, opts);

The readFile method attempts to read a spreadsheet file at the supplied path. Browsers generally do not allow reading files in this way (it is deemed a security risk), and attempts to read files in this way will throw an error.

The second opts argument is optional. "Parsing Options" covers the supported properties and behaviors.

Examples

Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):

Local file in a NodeJS server (click to show)

readFile uses fs.readFileSync under the hood:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");

var workbook = XLSX.readFile("test.xlsx");

For Node ESM, the readFile helper is not enabled. Instead, fs.readFileSync should be used to read the file data as a Buffer for use with XLSX.read:

import { readFileSync } from "fs";
import { read } from "xlsx/xlsx.mjs";

const buf = readFileSync("test.xlsx");
/* buf is a Buffer */
const workbook = read(buf);

Local file in a Deno application (click to show)

readFile uses Deno.readFileSync under the hood:

// @deno-types="https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/types/index.d.ts"
import * as XLSX from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/xlsx.mjs'

const workbook = XLSX.readFile("test.xlsx");

Applications reading files must be invoked with the --allow-read flag. The deno demo has more examples

User-submitted file in a web page ("Drag-and-Drop") (click to show)

For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, File#arrayBuffer is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function handleDropAsync(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  const f = e.dataTransfer.files[0];
  /* f is a File */
  const data = await f.arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDropAsync, false);

For maximal compatibility, the FileReader API should be used:

function handleDrop(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  var f = e.dataTransfer.files[0];
  /* f is a File */
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var data = e.target.result;
    /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */
    var workbook = XLSX.read(data);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(f);
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener("drop", handleDrop, false);

https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ demonstrates the FileReader technique.

User-submitted file with an HTML INPUT element (click to show)

Starting with an HTML INPUT element with type="file":

<input type="file" id="input_dom_element">

For modern websites targeting Chrome 76+, Blob#arrayBuffer is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function handleFileAsync(e) {
  const file = e.target.files[0];
  const data = await file.arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFileAsync, false);

For broader support (including IE10+), the FileReader approach is recommended:

function handleFile(e) {
  var file = e.target.files[0];
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var data = e.target.result;
    /* reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file) -> data will be an ArrayBuffer */
    var workbook = XLSX.read(e.target.result);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener("change", handleFile, false);

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

Fetching a file in the web browser ("Ajax") (click to show)

For modern websites targeting Chrome 42+, fetch is recommended:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

(async() => {
  const url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";
  const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer();
  /* data is an ArrayBuffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
})();

For broader support, the XMLHttpRequest approach is recommended:

var url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";

/* set up async GET request */
var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("GET", url, true);
req.responseType = "arraybuffer";

req.onload = function(e) {
  var workbook = XLSX.read(req.response);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
};

req.send();

The xhr demo includes a longer discussion and more examples.

http://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ajax.html shows fallback approaches for IE6+.

Local file in a PhotoShop or InDesign plugin (click to show)

readFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"

/* Read test.xlsx from the Documents folder */
var workbook = XLSX.readFile(Folder.myDocuments + "/test.xlsx");

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Local file in an Electron app (click to show)

readFile can be used in the renderer process:

/* From the renderer process */
var XLSX = require("xlsx");

var workbook = XLSX.readFile(path);

Electron APIs have changed over time. The electron demo shows a complete example and details the required version-specific settings.

Local file in a mobile app with React Native (click to show)

The react demo includes a sample React Native app.

Since React Native does not provide a way to read files from the filesystem, a third-party library must be used. The following libraries have been tested:

The base64 encoding returns strings compatible with the base64 type:

import XLSX from "xlsx";
import { FileSystem } from "react-native-file-access";

const b64 = await FileSystem.readFile(path, "base64");
/* b64 is a base64 string */
const workbook = XLSX.read(b64, {type: "base64"});

The ascii encoding returns binary strings compatible with the binary type:

import XLSX from "xlsx";
import { readFile } from "react-native-fs";

const bstr = await readFile(path, "ascii");
/* bstr is a binary string */
const workbook = XLSX.read(bstr, {type: "binary"});

NodeJS Server File Uploads (click to show)

read can accept a NodeJS buffer. readFile can read files generated by a HTTP POST request body parser like formidable:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const http = require("http");
const formidable = require("formidable");

const server = http.createServer((req, res) => {
  const form = new formidable.IncomingForm();
  form.parse(req, (err, fields, files) => {
    /* grab the first file */
    const f = Object.entries(files)[0][1];
    const path = f.filepath;
    const workbook = XLSX.readFile(path);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  });
}).listen(process.env.PORT || 7262);

The server demo has more advanced examples.

Download files in a NodeJS process (click to show)

Node 17.5 and 18.0 have native support for fetch:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");

const data = await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer();
/* data is an ArrayBuffer */
const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

For broader compatibility, third-party modules are recommended.

request requires a null encoding to yield Buffers:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");
var request = require("request");

request({url: url, encoding: null}, function(err, resp, body) {
  var workbook = XLSX.read(body);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
});

axios works the same way in browser and in NodeJS:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const axios = require("axios");

(async() => {
  const res = await axios.get(url, {responseType: "arraybuffer"});
  /* res.data is a Buffer */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(res.data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
})();

Download files in an Electron app (click to show)

The net module in the main process can make HTTP/HTTPS requests to external resources. Responses should be manually concatenated using Buffer.concat:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const { net } = require("electron");

const req = net.request(url);
req.on("response", (res) => {
  const bufs = []; // this array will collect all of the buffers
  res.on("data", (chunk) => { bufs.push(chunk); });
  res.on("end", () => {
    const workbook = XLSX.read(Buffer.concat(bufs));

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  });
});
req.end();

Readable Streams in NodeJS (click to show)

When dealing with Readable Streams, the easiest approach is to buffer the stream and process the whole thing at the end:

var fs = require("fs");
var XLSX = require("xlsx");

function process_RS(stream, cb) {
  var buffers = [];
  stream.on("data", function(data) { buffers.push(data); });
  stream.on("end", function() {
    var buffer = Buffer.concat(buffers);
    var workbook = XLSX.read(buffer, {type:"buffer"});

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook IN THE CALLBACK */
    cb(workbook);
  });
}

ReadableStream in the browser (click to show)

When dealing with ReadableStream, the easiest approach is to buffer the stream and process the whole thing at the end:

// XLSX is a global from the standalone script

async function process_RS(stream) {
  /* collect data */
  const buffers = [];
  const reader = stream.getReader();
  for(;;) {
    const res = await reader.read();
    if(res.value) buffers.push(res.value);
    if(res.done) break;
  }

  /* concat */
  const out = new Uint8Array(buffers.reduce((acc, v) => acc + v.length, 0));

  let off = 0;
  for(const u8 of arr) {
    out.set(u8, off);
    off += u8.length;
  }

  return out;
}

const data = await process_RS(stream);
/* data is Uint8Array */
const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

More detailed examples are covered in the included demos

Processing JSON and JS Data

JSON and JS data tend to represent single worksheets. This section will use a few utility functions to generate workbooks.

Create a new Workbook

var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();

The book_new utility function creates an empty workbook with no worksheets.

Spreadsheet software generally require at least one worksheet and enforce the requirement in the user interface. This library enforces the requirement at write time, throwing errors if an empty workbook is passed to write functions.

API

Create a worksheet from an array of arrays of JS values

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(aoa, opts);

The aoa_to_sheet utility function walks an "array of arrays" in row-major order, generating a worksheet object. The following snippet generates a sheet with cell A1 set to the string A1, cell B1 set to B1, etc:

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  ["A1", "B1", "C1"],
  ["A2", "B2", "C2"],
  ["A3", "B3", "C3"]
]);

"Array of Arrays Input" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Create a worksheet from an array of JS objects

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet(jsa, opts);

The json_to_sheet utility function walks an array of JS objects in order, generating a worksheet object. By default, it will generate a header row and one row per object in the array. The optional opts argument has settings to control the column order and header output.

"Array of Objects Input" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Examples

"Zen of SheetJS" contains a detailed example "Get Data from a JSON Endpoint and Generate a Workbook"

x-spreadsheet is an interactive data grid for previewing and modifying structured data in the web browser. The xspreadsheet demo includes a sample script with the xtos function for converting from x-spreadsheet data object to a workbook. https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/x-spreadsheet is a live demo.

Records from a database query (SQL or no-SQL) (click to show)

The database demo includes examples of working with databases and query results.

Numerical Computations with TensorFlow.js (click to show)

@tensorflow/tfjs and other libraries expect data in simple arrays, well-suited for worksheets where each column is a data vector. That is the transpose of how most people use spreadsheets, where each row is a vector.

When recovering data from tfjs, the returned data points are stored in a typed array. An array of arrays can be constructed with loops. Array#unshift can prepend a title row before the conversion:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');

/* suppose xs and ys are vectors (1D tensors) -> tfarr will be a typed array */
const tfdata = tf.stack([xs, ys]).transpose();
const shape = tfdata.shape;
const tfarr = tfdata.dataSync();

/* construct the array of arrays */
const aoa = [];
for(let j = 0; j < shape[0]; ++j) {
  aoa[j] = [];
  for(let i = 0; i < shape[1]; ++i) aoa[j][i] = tfarr[j * shape[1] + i];
}
/* add headers to the top */
aoa.unshift(["x", "y"]);

/* generate worksheet */
const worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(aoa);

The array demo shows a complete example.

Processing HTML Tables

API

Create a worksheet by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(dom_element, opts);

The table_to_sheet utility function takes a DOM TABLE element and iterates through the rows to generate a worksheet. The opts argument is optional. "HTML Table Input" describes the function in more detail.

Create a workbook by scraping an HTML TABLE in the page

var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(dom_element, opts);

The table_to_book utility function follows the same logic as table_to_sheet. After generating a worksheet, it creates a blank workbook and appends the spreadsheet.

The options argument supports the same options as table_to_sheet, with the addition of a sheet property to control the worksheet name. If the property is missing or no options are specified, the default name Sheet1 is used.

Examples

Here are a few common scenarios (click on each subtitle to see the code):

HTML TABLE element in a webpage (click to show)

<!-- include the standalone script and shim.  this uses the UNPKG CDN -->
<script src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/shim.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

<!-- example table with id attribute -->
<table id="tableau">
  <tr><td>Sheet</td><td>JS</td></tr>
  <tr><td>12345</td><td>67</td></tr>
</table>

<!-- this block should appear after the table HTML and the standalone script -->
<script type="text/javascript">
  var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.getElementById("tableau"));

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
</script>

Multiple tables on a web page can be converted to individual worksheets:

/* create new workbook */
var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();

/* convert table "table1" to worksheet named "Sheet1" */
var sheet1 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table1"));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet1, "Sheet1");

/* convert table "table2" to worksheet named "Sheet2" */
var sheet2 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById("table2"));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheet2, "Sheet2");

/* workbook now has 2 worksheets */

Alternatively, the HTML code can be extracted and parsed:

var htmlstr = document.getElementById("tableau").outerHTML;
var workbook = XLSX.read(htmlstr, {type:"string"});

Chrome/Chromium Extension (click to show)

The chrome demo shows a complete example and details the required permissions and other settings.

In an extension, it is recommended to generate the workbook in a content script and pass the object back to the extension:

/* in the worker script */
chrome.runtime.onMessage.addListener(function(msg, sender, cb) {
  /* pass a message like { sheetjs: true } from the extension to scrape */
  if(!msg || !msg.sheetjs) return;
  /* create a new workbook */
  var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();
  /* loop through each table element */
  var tables = document.getElementsByTagName("table")
  for(var i = 0; i < tables.length; ++i) {
    var worksheet = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(tables[i]);
    XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, "Table" + i);
  }
  /* pass back to the extension */
  return cb(workbook);
});

Server-Side HTML Tables with Headless Chrome (click to show)

The headless demo includes a complete demo to convert HTML files to XLSB workbooks. The core idea is to add the script to the page, parse the table in the page context, generate a base64 workbook and send it back for further processing:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const { readFileSync } = require("fs"), puppeteer = require("puppeteer");

const url = `https://sheetjs.com/demos/table`;

/* get the standalone build source (node_modules/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js) */
const lib = readFileSync(require.resolve("xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"), "utf8");

(async() => {
  /* start browser and go to web page */
  const browser = await puppeteer.launch();
  const page = await browser.newPage();
  await page.goto(url, {waitUntil: "networkidle2"});

  /* inject library */
  await page.addScriptTag({content: lib});

  /* this function `s5s` will be called by the script below, receiving the Base64-encoded file */
  await page.exposeFunction("s5s", async(b64) => {
    const workbook = XLSX.read(b64, {type: "base64" });

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  });

  /* generate XLSB file in webpage context and send back result */
  await page.addScriptTag({content: `
    /* call table_to_book on first table */
    var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.querySelector("TABLE"));

    /* generate XLSX file */
    var b64 = XLSX.write(workbook, {type: "base64", bookType: "xlsb"});

    /* call "s5s" hook exposed from the node process */
    window.s5s(b64);
  `});

  /* cleanup */
  await browser.close();
})();

Server-Side HTML Tables with Headless WebKit (click to show)

The headless demo includes a complete demo to convert HTML files to XLSB workbooks using PhantomJS. The core idea is to add the script to the page, parse the table in the page context, generate a binary workbook and send it back for further processing:

var XLSX = require('xlsx');
var page = require('webpage').create();

/* this code will be run in the page */
var code = [ "function(){",
  /* call table_to_book on first table */
  "var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.body.getElementsByTagName('table')[0]);",

  /* generate XLSB file and return binary string */
  "return XLSX.write(wb, {type: 'binary', bookType: 'xlsb'});",
"}" ].join("");

page.open('https://sheetjs.com/demos/table', function() {
  /* Load the browser script from the UNPKG CDN */
  page.includeJs("https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js", function() {
    /* The code will return an XLSB file encoded as binary string */
    var bin = page.evaluateJavaScript(code);

    var workbook = XLSX.read(bin, {type: "binary"});
    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */

    phantom.exit();
  });
});

NodeJS HTML Tables without a browser (click to show)

NodeJS does not include a DOM implementation and Puppeteer requires a hefty Chromium build. jsdom is a lightweight alternative:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const { readFileSync } = require("fs");
const { JSDOM } = require("jsdom");

/* obtain HTML string.  This example reads from test.html */
const html_str = fs.readFileSync("test.html", "utf8");
/* get first TABLE element */
const doc = new JSDOM(html_str).window.document.querySelector("table");
/* generate workbook */
const workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(doc);

Processing Data

The "Common Spreadsheet Format" is a simple object representation of the core concepts of a workbook. The utility functions work with the object representation and are intended to handle common use cases.

Modifying Workbook Structure

API

Append a Worksheet to a Workbook

XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, sheet_name);

The book_append_sheet utility function appends a worksheet to the workbook. The third argument specifies the desired worksheet name. Multiple worksheets can be added to a workbook by calling the function multiple times. If the worksheet name is already used in the workbook, it will throw an error.

Append a Worksheet to a Workbook and find a unique name

var new_name = XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, worksheet, name, true);

If the fourth argument is true, the function will start with the specified worksheet name. If the sheet name exists in the workbook, a new worksheet name will be chosen by finding the name stem and incrementing the counter:

XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheetA, "Sheet2", true); // Sheet2
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheetB, "Sheet2", true); // Sheet3
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheetC, "Sheet2", true); // Sheet4
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, sheetD, "Sheet2", true); // Sheet5

List the Worksheet names in tab order

var wsnames = workbook.SheetNames;

The SheetNames property of the workbook object is a list of the worksheet names in "tab order". API functions will look at this array.

Replace a Worksheet in place

workbook.Sheets[sheet_name] = new_worksheet;

The Sheets property of the workbook object is an object whose keys are names and whose values are worksheet objects. By reassigning to a property of the Sheets object, the worksheet object can be changed without disrupting the rest of the worksheet structure.

Examples

Add a new worksheet to a workbook (click to show)

This example uses XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet.

var ws_name = "SheetJS";

/* Create worksheet */
var ws_data = [
  [ "S", "h", "e", "e", "t", "J", "S" ],
  [  1 ,  2 ,  3 ,  4 ,  5 ]
];
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(ws_data);

/* Add the worksheet to the workbook */
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, ws_name);

Modifying Cell Values

API

Modify a single cell value in a worksheet

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [[new_value]], { origin: address });

Modify multiple cell values in a worksheet

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, aoa, opts);

The sheet_add_aoa utility function modifies cell values in a worksheet. The first argument is the worksheet object. The second argument is an array of arrays of values. The origin key of the third argument controls where cells will be written. The following snippet sets B3=1 and E5="abc":

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [
  [1],                             // <-- Write 1 to cell B3
  ,                                // <-- Do nothing in row 4
  [/*B5*/, /*C5*/, /*D5*/, "abc"]  // <-- Write "abc" to cell E5
], { origin: "B3" });

"Array of Arrays Input" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Examples

Appending rows to a worksheet (click to show)

The special origin value -1 instructs sheet_add_aoa to start in column A of the row after the last row in the range, appending the data:

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(worksheet, [
  ["first row after data", 1],
  ["second row after data", 2]
], { origin: -1 });

Modifying Other Worksheet / Workbook / Cell Properties

The "Common Spreadsheet Format" section describes the object structures in greater detail.

Packaging and Releasing Data

Writing Workbooks

API

Generate spreadsheet bytes (file) from data

var data = XLSX.write(workbook, opts);

The write method attempts to package data from the workbook into a file in memory. By default, XLSX files are generated, but that can be controlled with the bookType property of the opts argument. Based on the type option, the data can be stored as a "binary string", JS string, Uint8Array or Buffer.

The second opts argument is required. "Writing Options" covers the supported properties and behaviors.

Generate and attempt to save file

XLSX.writeFile(workbook, filename, opts);

The writeFile method packages the data and attempts to save the new file. The export file format is determined by the extension of filename (SheetJS.xlsx signals XLSX export, SheetJS.xlsb signals XLSB export, etc).

The writeFile method uses platform-specific APIs to initiate the file save. In NodeJS, fs.readFileSync can create a file. In the web browser, a download is attempted using the HTML5 download attribute, with fallbacks for IE.

Generate and attempt to save an XLSX file

XLSX.writeFileXLSX(workbook, filename, opts);

The writeFile method embeds a number of different export functions. This is great for developer experience but not amenable to tree shaking using the current developer tools. When only XLSX exports are needed, this method avoids referencing the other export functions.

The second opts argument is optional. "Writing Options" covers the supported properties and behaviors.

Examples

Local file in a NodeJS server (click to show)

writeFile uses fs.writeFileSync in server environments:

var XLSX = require("xlsx");

/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsb");

For Node ESM, the writeFile helper is not enabled. Instead, fs.writeFileSync should be used to write the file data to a Buffer for use with XLSX.write:

import { writeFileSync } from "fs";
import { write } from "xlsx/xlsx.mjs";

const buf = write(workbook, {type: "buffer", bookType: "xlsb"});
/* buf is a Buffer */
const workbook = writeFileSync("out.xlsb", buf);

Local file in a Deno application (click to show)

writeFile uses Deno.writeFileSync under the hood:

// @deno-types="https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/types/index.d.ts"
import * as XLSX from 'https://deno.land/x/sheetjs/xlsx.mjs'

XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "test.xlsx");

Applications writing files must be invoked with the --allow-write flag. The deno demo has more examples

Local file in a PhotoShop or InDesign plugin (click to show)

writeFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"

/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsx");
/* at this point, out.xlsx is a file that you can distribute */

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Download a file in the browser to the user machine (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile wraps a few techniques for triggering a file save:

  • URL browser API creates an object URL for the file, which the library uses by creating a link and forcing a click. It is supported in modern browsers.
  • msSaveBlob is an IE10+ API for triggering a file save.
  • IE_FileSave uses VBScript and ActiveX to write a file in IE6+ for Windows XP and Windows 7. The shim must be included in the containing HTML page.

There is no standard way to determine if the actual file has been downloaded.

/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, "out.xlsb");
/* at this point, out.xlsb will have been downloaded */

Download a file in legacy browsers (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile techniques work for most modern browsers as well as older IE. For much older browsers, there are workarounds implemented by wrapper libraries.

FileSaver.js implements saveAs. Note: XLSX.writeFile will automatically call saveAs if available.

/* bookType can be any supported output type */
var wopts = { bookType:"xlsx", bookSST:false, type:"array" };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

/* the saveAs call downloads a file on the local machine */
saveAs(new Blob([wbout],{type:"application/octet-stream"}), "test.xlsx");

Downloadify uses a Flash SWF button to generate local files, suitable for environments where ActiveX is unavailable:

Downloadify.create(id,{
  /* other options are required! read the downloadify docs for more info */
  filename: "test.xlsx",
  data: function() { return XLSX.write(wb, {bookType:"xlsx", type:"base64"}); },
  append: false,
  dataType: "base64"
});

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

Browser upload file (ajax) (click to show)

A complete example using XHR is included in the XHR demo, along with examples for fetch and wrapper libraries. This example assumes the server can handle Base64-encoded files (see the demo for a basic nodejs server):

/* in this example, send a base64 string to the server */
var wopts = { bookType:"xlsx", bookSST:false, type:"base64" };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("POST", "/upload", true);
var formdata = new FormData();
formdata.append("file", "test.xlsx"); // <-- server expects `file` to hold name
formdata.append("data", wbout); // <-- `data` holds the base64-encoded data
req.send(formdata);

PhantomJS (Headless Webkit) File Generation (click to show)

The headless demo includes a complete demo to convert HTML files to XLSB workbooks using PhantomJS. PhantomJS fs.write supports writing files from the main process but has a different interface from the NodeJS fs module:

var XLSX = require('xlsx');
var fs = require('fs');

/* generate a binary string */
var bin = XLSX.write(workbook, { type:"binary", bookType: "xlsx" });
/* write to file */
fs.write("test.xlsx", bin, "wb");

Note: The section "Processing HTML Tables" shows how to generate a workbook from HTML tables in a page in "Headless WebKit".

The included demos cover mobile apps and other special deployments.

Writing Examples

Streaming Write

The streaming write functions are available in the XLSX.stream object. They take the same arguments as the normal write functions but return a NodeJS Readable Stream.

  • XLSX.stream.to_csv is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv.
  • XLSX.stream.to_html is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html.
  • XLSX.stream.to_json is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json.

nodejs convert to CSV and write file (click to show)

var output_file_name = "out.csv";
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_csv(worksheet);
stream.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(output_file_name));

nodejs write JSON stream to screen (click to show)

/* to_json returns an object-mode stream */
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_json(worksheet, {raw:true});

/* the following stream converts JS objects to text via JSON.stringify */
var conv = new Transform({writableObjectMode:true});
conv._transform = function(obj, e, cb){ cb(null, JSON.stringify(obj) + "\n"); };

stream.pipe(conv); conv.pipe(process.stdout);

Exporting NUMBERS files (click to show)

The NUMBERS writer requires a fairly large base. The supplementary xlsx.zahl scripts provide support. xlsx.zahl.js is designed for standalone and NodeJS use, while xlsx.zahl.mjs is suitable for ESM.

Browser

<meta charset="utf8">
<script src="xlsx.full.min.js"></script>
<script src="xlsx.zahl.js"></script>
<script>
var wb = XLSX.utils.book_new(); var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  ["SheetJS", "<3","விரிதாள்"],
  [72,,"Arbeitsblätter"],
  [,62,"数据"],
  [true,false,],
]); XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, "Sheet1");
XLSX.writeFile(wb, "textport.numbers", {numbers: XLSX_ZAHL, compression: true});
</script>

Node

var XLSX = require("./xlsx.flow");
var XLSX_ZAHL = require("./dist/xlsx.zahl");
var wb = XLSX.utils.book_new(); var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  ["SheetJS", "<3","விரிதாள்"],
  [72,,"Arbeitsblätter"],
  [,62,"数据"],
  [true,false,],
]); XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, "Sheet1");
XLSX.writeFile(wb, "textport.numbers", {numbers: XLSX_ZAHL, compression: true});

Deno

import * as XLSX from './xlsx.mjs';
import XLSX_ZAHL from './dist/xlsx.zahl.mjs';

var wb = XLSX.utils.book_new(); var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  ["SheetJS", "<3","விரிதாள்"],
  [72,,"Arbeitsblätter"],
  [,62,"数据"],
  [true,false,],
]); XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, "Sheet1");
XLSX.writeFile(wb, "textports.numbers", {numbers: XLSX_ZAHL, compression: true});

https://github.com/sheetjs/sheetaki pipes write streams to nodejs response.

Generating JSON and JS Data

JSON and JS data tend to represent single worksheets. The utility functions in this section work with single worksheets.

The "Common Spreadsheet Format" section describes the object structure in more detail. workbook.SheetNames is an ordered list of the worksheet names. workbook.Sheets is an object whose keys are sheet names and whose values are worksheet objects.

The "first worksheet" is stored at workbook.Sheets[workbook.SheetNames[0]].

API

Create an array of JS objects from a worksheet

var jsa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, opts);

Create an array of arrays of JS values from a worksheet

var aoa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, {...opts, header: 1});

The sheet_to_json utility function walks a workbook in row-major order, generating an array of objects. The second opts argument controls a number of export decisions including the type of values (JS values or formatted text). The "JSON" section describes the argument in more detail.

By default, sheet_to_json scans the first row and uses the values as headers. With the header: 1 option, the function exports an array of arrays of values.

Examples

x-spreadsheet is an interactive data grid for previewing and modifying structured data in the web browser. The xspreadsheet demo includes a sample script with the stox function for converting from a workbook to x-spreadsheet data object. https://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/x-spreadsheet is a live demo.

Previewing data in a React data grid (click to show)

react-data-grid is a data grid tailored for react. It expects two properties: rows of data objects and columns which describe the columns. For the purposes of massaging the data to fit the react data grid API it is easiest to start from an array of arrays.

This demo starts by fetching a remote file and using XLSX.read to extract:

import { useEffect, useState } from "react";
import DataGrid from "react-data-grid";
import { read, utils } from "xlsx";

const url = "https://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/RkNumber.xls";

export default function App() {
  const [columns, setColumns] = useState([]);
  const [rows, setRows] = useState([]);
  useEffect(() => {(async () => {
    const wb = read(await (await fetch(url)).arrayBuffer(), { WTF: 1 });

    /* use sheet_to_json with header: 1 to generate an array of arrays */
    const data = utils.sheet_to_json(wb.Sheets[wb.SheetNames[0]], { header: 1 });

    /* see react-data-grid docs to understand the shape of the expected data */
    setColumns(data[0].map((r) => ({ key: r, name: r })));
    setRows(data.slice(1).map((r) => r.reduce((acc, x, i) => {
      acc[data[0][i]] = x;
      return acc;
    }, {})));
  })(); });

  return <DataGrid columns={columns} rows={rows} />;
}

Previewing data in a VueJS data grid (click to show)

vue3-table-lite is a simple VueJS 3 data table. It is featured in the VueJS demo.

Populating a database (SQL or no-SQL) (click to show)

The database demo includes examples of working with databases and query results.

Numerical Computations with TensorFlow.js (click to show)

@tensorflow/tfjs and other libraries expect data in simple arrays, well-suited for worksheets where each column is a data vector. That is the transpose of how most people use spreadsheets, where each row is a vector.

A single Array#map can pull individual named rows from sheet_to_json export:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');

const key = "age"; // this is the field we want to pull
const ages = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet).map(r => r[key]);
const tf_data = tf.tensor1d(ages);

All fields can be processed at once using a transpose of the 2D tensor generated with the sheet_to_json export with header: 1. The first row, if it contains header labels, should be removed with a slice:

const XLSX = require("xlsx");
const tf = require('@tensorflow/tfjs');

/* array of arrays of the data starting on the second row */
const aoa = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(worksheet, {header: 1}).slice(1);
/* dataset in the "correct orientation" */
const tf_dataset = tf.tensor2d(aoa).transpose();
/* pull out each dataset with a slice */
const tf_field0 = tf_dataset.slice([0,0], [1,tensor.shape[1]]).flatten();
const tf_field1 = tf_dataset.slice([1,0], [1,tensor.shape[1]]).flatten();

The array demo shows a complete example.

Generating HTML Tables

API

Generate HTML Table from Worksheet

var html = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);

The sheet_to_html utility function generates HTML code based on the worksheet data. Each cell in the worksheet is mapped to a <TD> element. Merged cells in the worksheet are serialized by setting colspan and rowspan attributes.

Examples

The sheet_to_html utility function generates HTML code that can be added to any DOM element by setting the innerHTML:

var container = document.getElementById("tavolo");
container.innerHTML = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);

Combining with fetch, constructing a site from a workbook is straightforward:

Vanilla JS + HTML fetch workbook and generate table previews (click to show)

<body>
  <style>TABLE { border-collapse: collapse; } TD { border: 1px solid; }</style>
  <div id="tavolo"></div>
  <script src="https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-latest/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>
  <script type="text/javascript">
(async() => {
  /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */
  const workbook = XLSX.read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer());

  let output = [];
  /* loop through the worksheet names in order */
  workbook.SheetNames.forEach(name => {

    /* generate HTML from the corresponding worksheets */
    const worksheet = workbook.Sheets[name];
    const html = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);

    /* add a header with the title name followed by the table */
    output.push(`<H3>${name}</H3>${html}`);
  });
  /* write to the DOM at the end */
  tavolo.innerHTML = output.join("\n");
})();
  </script>
</body>

React fetch workbook and generate HTML table previews (click to show)

It is generally recommended to use a React-friendly workflow, but it is possible to generate HTML and use it in React with dangerouslySetInnerHTML:

function Tabeller(props) {
  /* the workbook object is the state */
  const [workbook, setWorkbook] = React.useState(XLSX.utils.book_new());

  /* fetch and update the workbook with an effect */
  React.useEffect(() => { (async() => {
    /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */
    const wb = XLSX.read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer());
    setWorkbook(wb);
  })(); });

  return workbook.SheetNames.map(name => (<>
    <h3>name</h3>
    <div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{
      /* this __html mantra is needed to set the inner HTML */
      __html: XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(workbook.Sheets[name])
    }} />
  </>));
}

The react demo includes more React examples.

VueJS fetch workbook and generate HTML table previews (click to show)

It is generally recommended to use a VueJS-friendly workflow, but it is possible to generate HTML and use it in VueJS with the v-html directive:

import { read, utils } from 'xlsx';
import { reactive } from 'vue';

const S5SComponent = {
  mounted() { (async() => {
    /* fetch and parse workbook -- see the fetch example for details */
    const workbook = read(await (await fetch("sheetjs.xlsx")).arrayBuffer());
    /* loop through the worksheet names in order */
    workbook.SheetNames.forEach(name => {
      /* generate HTML from the corresponding worksheets */
      const html = utils.sheet_to_html(workbook.Sheets[name]);
      /* add to state */
      this.wb.wb.push({ name, html });
    });
  })(); },
  /* this state mantra is required for array updates to work */
  setup() { return { wb: reactive({ wb: [] }) }; },
  template: `
  <div v-for="ws in wb.wb" :key="ws.name">
    <h3>{{ ws.name }}</h3>
    <div v-html="ws.html"></div>
  </div>`
};

The vuejs demo includes more React examples.

Generating Single-Worksheet Snapshots

The sheet_to_* functions accept a worksheet object.

API

Generate a CSV from a single worksheet

var csv = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(worksheet, opts);

This snapshot is designed to replicate the "CSV UTF8 (.csv)" output type. "Delimiter-Separated Output" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Generate "Text" from a single worksheet

var txt = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt(worksheet, opts);

This snapshot is designed to replicate the "UTF16 Text (.txt)" output type. "Delimiter-Separated Output" describes the function and the optional opts argument in more detail.

Generate a list of formulae from a single worksheet

var fmla = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(worksheet);

This snapshot generates an array of entries representing the embedded formulae. Array formulae are rendered in the form range=formula while plain cells are rendered in the form cell=formula or value. String literals are prefixed with an apostrophe ', consistent with Excel's formula bar display.

"Formulae Output" describes the function in more detail.

Interface

XLSX is the exposed variable in the browser and the exported node variable

XLSX.version is the version of the library (added by the build script).

XLSX.SSF is an embedded version of the format library.

Parsing functions

XLSX.read(data, read_opts) attempts to parse data.

XLSX.readFile(filename, read_opts) attempts to read filename and parse.

Parse options are described in the Parsing Options section.

Writing functions

XLSX.write(wb, write_opts) attempts to write the workbook wb

XLSX.writeFile(wb, filename, write_opts) attempts to write wb to filename. In browser-based environments, it will attempt to force a client-side download.

XLSX.writeFileAsync(filename, wb, o, cb) attempts to write wb to filename. If o is omitted, the writer will use the third argument as the callback.

XLSX.stream contains a set of streaming write functions.

Write options are described in the Writing Options section.

Utilities

Utilities are available in the XLSX.utils object and are described in the Utility Functions section:

Constructing:

  • book_new creates an empty workbook
  • book_append_sheet adds a worksheet to a workbook

Importing:

  • aoa_to_sheet converts an array of arrays of JS data to a worksheet.
  • json_to_sheet converts an array of JS objects to a worksheet.
  • table_to_sheet converts a DOM TABLE element to a worksheet.
  • sheet_add_aoa adds an array of arrays of JS data to an existing worksheet.
  • sheet_add_json adds an array of JS objects to an existing worksheet.

Exporting:

  • sheet_to_json converts a worksheet object to an array of JSON objects.
  • sheet_to_csv generates delimiter-separated-values output.
  • sheet_to_txt generates UTF16 formatted text.
  • sheet_to_html generates HTML output.
  • sheet_to_formulae generates a list of the formulae (with value fallbacks).

Cell and cell address manipulation:

  • format_cell generates the text value for a cell (using number formats).
  • encode_row / decode_row converts between 0-indexed rows and 1-indexed rows.
  • encode_col / decode_col converts between 0-indexed columns and column names.
  • encode_cell / decode_cell converts cell addresses.
  • encode_range / decode_range converts cell ranges.

Common Spreadsheet Format

SheetJS conforms to the Common Spreadsheet Format (CSF):

General Structures

Cell address objects are stored as {c:C, r:R} where C and R are 0-indexed column and row numbers, respectively. For example, the cell address B5 is represented by the object {c:1, r:4}.

Cell range objects are stored as {s:S, e:E} where S is the first cell and E is the last cell in the range. The ranges are inclusive. For example, the range A3:B7 is represented by the object {s:{c:0, r:2}, e:{c:1, r:6}}. Utility functions perform a row-major order walk traversal of a sheet range:

for(var R = range.s.r; R <= range.e.r; ++R) {
  for(var C = range.s.c; C <= range.e.c; ++C) {
    var cell_address = {c:C, r:R};
    /* if an A1-style address is needed, encode the address */
    var cell_ref = XLSX.utils.encode_cell(cell_address);
  }
}

Cell Object

Cell objects are plain JS objects with keys and values following the convention:

KeyDescription
vraw value (see Data Types section for more info)
wformatted text (if applicable)
ttype: b Boolean, e Error, n Number, d Date, s Text, z Stub
fcell formula encoded as an A1-style string (if applicable)
Frange of enclosing array if formula is array formula (if applicable)
Dif true, array formula is dynamic (if applicable)
rrich text encoding (if applicable)
hHTML rendering of the rich text (if applicable)
ccomments associated with the cell
znumber format string associated with the cell (if requested)
lcell hyperlink object (.Target holds link, .Tooltip is tooltip)
sthe style/theme of the cell (if applicable)

Built-in export utilities (such as the CSV exporter) will use the w text if it is available. To change a value, be sure to delete cell.w (or set it to undefined) before attempting to export. The utilities will regenerate the w text from the number format (cell.z) and the raw value if possible.

The actual array formula is stored in the f field of the first cell in the array range. Other cells in the range will omit the f field.

Data Types

The raw value is stored in the v value property, interpreted based on the t type property. This separation allows for representation of numbers as well as numeric text. There are 6 valid cell types:

TypeDescription
bBoolean: value interpreted as JS boolean
eError: value is a numeric code and w property stores common name **
nNumber: value is a JS number **
dDate: value is a JS Date object or string to be parsed as Date **
sText: value interpreted as JS string and written as text **
zStub: blank stub cell that is ignored by data processing utilities **

Error values and interpretation (click to show)

ValueError Meaning
0x00#NULL!
0x07#DIV/0!
0x0F#VALUE!
0x17#REF!
0x1D#NAME?
0x24#NUM!
0x2A#N/A
0x2B#GETTING_DATA

Type n is the Number type. This includes all forms of data that Excel stores as numbers, such as dates/times and Boolean fields. Excel exclusively uses data that can be fit in an IEEE754 floating point number, just like JS Number, so the v field holds the raw number. The w field holds formatted text. Dates are stored as numbers by default and converted with XLSX.SSF.parse_date_code.

Type d is the Date type, generated only when the option cellDates is passed. Since JSON does not have a natural Date type, parsers are generally expected to store ISO 8601 Date strings like you would get from date.toISOString(). On the other hand, writers and exporters should be able to handle date strings and JS Date objects. Note that Excel disregards timezone modifiers and treats all dates in the local timezone. The library does not correct for this error.

Type s is the String type. Values are explicitly stored as text. Excel will interpret these cells as "number stored as text". Generated Excel files automatically suppress that class of error, but other formats may elicit errors.

Type z represents blank stub cells. They are generated in cases where cells have no assigned value but hold comments or other metadata. They are ignored by the core library data processing utility functions. By default these cells are not generated; the parser sheetStubs option must be set to true.

Dates

Excel Date Code details (click to show)

By default, Excel stores dates as numbers with a format code that specifies date processing. For example, the date 19-Feb-17 is stored as the number 42785 with a number format of d-mmm-yy. The SSF module understands number formats and performs the appropriate conversion.

XLSX also supports a special date type d where the data is an ISO 8601 date string. The formatter converts the date back to a number.

The default behavior for all parsers is to generate number cells. Setting cellDates to true will force the generators to store dates.

Time Zones and Dates (click to show)

Excel has no native concept of universal time. All times are specified in the local time zone. Excel limitations prevent specifying true absolute dates.

Following Excel, this library treats all dates as relative to local time zone.

Epochs: 1900 and 1904 (click to show)

Excel supports two epochs (January 1 1900 and January 1 1904). The workbook's epoch can be determined by examining the workbook's wb.Workbook.WBProps.date1904 property:

!!(((wb.Workbook||{}).WBProps||{}).date1904)

Sheet Objects

Each key that does not start with ! maps to a cell (using A-1 notation)

sheet[address] returns the cell object for the specified address.

Special sheet keys (accessible as sheet[key], each starting with !):

sheet['!ref']: A-1 based range representing the sheet range. Functions that work with sheets should use this parameter to determine the range. Cells that are assigned outside of the range are not processed. In particular, when writing a sheet by hand, cells outside of the range are not included

Functions that handle sheets should test for the presence of !ref field. If the !ref is omitted or is not a valid range, functions are free to treat the sheet as empty or attempt to guess the range. The standard utilities that ship with this library treat sheets as empty (for example, the CSV output is empty string).

When reading a worksheet with the sheetRows property set, the ref parameter will use the restricted range. The original range is set at ws['!fullref']

sheet['!margins']: Object representing the page margins. The default values follow Excel's "normal" preset. Excel also has a "wide" and a "narrow" preset but they are stored as raw measurements. The main properties are listed below:

Page margin details (click to show)

keydescription"normal""wide""narrow"
leftleft margin (inches)0.71.00.25
rightright margin (inches)0.71.00.25
toptop margin (inches)0.751.00.75
bottombottom margin (inches)0.751.00.75
headerheader margin (inches)0.30.50.3
footerfooter margin (inches)0.30.50.3
/* Set worksheet sheet to "normal" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.7, right:0.7, top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "wide" */
ws["!margins"]={left:1.0, right:1.0, top:1.0, bottom:1.0, header:0.5,footer:0.5}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "narrow" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.25,right:0.25,top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}

Worksheet Object

In addition to the base sheet keys, worksheets also add:

ws['!cols']: array of column properties objects. Column widths are actually stored in files in a normalized manner, measured in terms of the "Maximum Digit Width" (the largest width of the rendered digits 0-9, in pixels). When parsed, the column objects store the pixel width in the wpx field, character width in the wch field, and the maximum digit width in the MDW field.

ws['!rows']: array of row properties objects as explained later in the docs. Each row object encodes properties including row height and visibility.

ws['!merges']: array of range objects corresponding to the merged cells in the worksheet. Plain text formats do not support merge cells. CSV export will write all cells in the merge range if they exist, so be sure that only the first cell (upper-left) in the range is set.

ws['!outline']: configure how outlines should behave. Options default to the default settings in Excel 2019:

keyExcel featuredefault
aboveUncheck "Summary rows below detail"false
leftUncheck "Summary rows to the right of detail"false
  • ws['!protect']: object of write sheet protection properties. The password key specifies the password for formats that support password-protected sheets (XLSX/XLSB/XLS). The writer uses the XOR obfuscation method. The following keys control the sheet protection -- set to false to enable a feature when sheet is locked or set to true to disable a feature:

Worksheet Protection Details (click to show)

keyfeature (true=disabled / false=enabled)default
selectLockedCellsSelect locked cellsenabled
selectUnlockedCellsSelect unlocked cellsenabled
formatCellsFormat cellsdisabled
formatColumnsFormat columnsdisabled
formatRowsFormat rowsdisabled
insertColumnsInsert columnsdisabled
insertRowsInsert rowsdisabled
insertHyperlinksInsert hyperlinksdisabled
deleteColumnsDelete columnsdisabled
deleteRowsDelete rowsdisabled
sortSortdisabled
autoFilterFilterdisabled
pivotTablesUse PivotTable reportsdisabled
objectsEdit objectsenabled
scenariosEdit scenariosenabled
  • ws['!autofilter']: AutoFilter object following the schema:
type AutoFilter = {
  ref:string; // A-1 based range representing the AutoFilter table range
}

Chartsheet Object

Chartsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "chart".

The underlying data and !ref refer to the cached data in the chartsheet. The first row of the chartsheet is the underlying header.

Macrosheet Object

Macrosheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "macro".

Dialogsheet Object

Dialogsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "dialog".

Workbook Object

workbook.SheetNames is an ordered list of the sheets in the workbook

wb.Sheets[sheetname] returns an object representing the worksheet.

wb.Props is an object storing the standard properties. wb.Custprops stores custom properties. Since the XLS standard properties deviate from the XLSX standard, XLS parsing stores core properties in both places.

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Workbook File Properties

The various file formats use different internal names for file properties. The workbook Props object normalizes the names:

File Properties (click to show)

JS NameExcel Description
TitleSummary tab "Title"
SubjectSummary tab "Subject"
AuthorSummary tab "Author"
ManagerSummary tab "Manager"
CompanySummary tab "Company"
CategorySummary tab "Category"
KeywordsSummary tab "Keywords"
CommentsSummary tab "Comments"
LastAuthorStatistics tab "Last saved by"
CreatedDateStatistics tab "Created"

For example, to set the workbook title property:

if(!wb.Props) wb.Props = {};
wb.Props.Title = "Insert Title Here";

Custom properties are added in the workbook Custprops object:

if(!wb.Custprops) wb.Custprops = {};
wb.Custprops["Custom Property"] = "Custom Value";

Writers will process the Props key of the options object:

/* force the Author to be "SheetJS" */
XLSX.write(wb, {Props:{Author:"SheetJS"}});

Workbook-Level Attributes

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Defined Names

wb.Workbook.Names is an array of defined name objects which have the keys:

Defined Name Properties (click to show)

KeyDescription
SheetName scope. Sheet Index (0 = first sheet) or null (Workbook)
NameCase-sensitive name. Standard rules apply **
RefA1-style Reference ("Sheet1!$A$1:$D$20")
CommentComment (only applicable for XLS/XLSX/XLSB)

Excel allows two sheet-scoped defined names to share the same name. However, a sheet-scoped name cannot collide with a workbook-scope name. Workbook writers may not enforce this constraint.

Workbook Views

wb.Workbook.Views is an array of workbook view objects which have the keys:

KeyDescription
RTLIf true, display right-to-left

Miscellaneous Workbook Properties

wb.Workbook.WBProps holds other workbook properties:

KeyDescription
CodeNameVBA Project Workbook Code Name
date1904epoch: 0/false for 1900 system, 1/true for 1904
filterPrivacyWarn or strip personally identifying info on save

Document Features

Even for basic features like date storage, the official Excel formats store the same content in different ways. The parsers are expected to convert from the underlying file format representation to the Common Spreadsheet Format. Writers are expected to convert from CSF back to the underlying file format.

Formulae

The A1-style formula string is stored in the f field. Even though different file formats store the formulae in different ways, the formats are translated. Even though some formats store formulae with a leading equal sign, CSF formulae do not start with =.

Formulae File Format Support (click to show)

Storage RepresentationFormatsReadWrite
A1-style stringsXLSX
RC-style stringsXLML and plain text
BIFF Parsed formulaeXLSB and all XLS formats 
OpenFormula formulaeODS/FODS/UOS
Lotus Parsed formulaeAll Lotus WK_ formats 

Since Excel prohibits named cells from colliding with names of A1 or RC style cell references, a (not-so-simple) regex conversion is possible. BIFF Parsed formulae and Lotus Parsed formulae have to be explicitly unwound. OpenFormula formulae can be converted with regular expressions.

Shared formulae are decompressed and each cell has the formula corresponding to its cell. Writers generally do not attempt to generate shared formulae.

Single-Cell Formulae

For simple formulae, the f key of the desired cell can be set to the actual formula text. This worksheet represents A1=1, A2=2, and A3=A1+A2:

var worksheet = {
  "!ref": "A1:A3",
  A1: { t:'n', v:1 },
  A2: { t:'n', v:2 },
  A3: { t:'n', v:3, f:'A1+A2' }
};

Utilities like aoa_to_sheet will accept cell objects in lieu of values:

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  [ 1 ], // A1
  [ 2 ], // A2
  [ {t: "n", v: 3, f: "A1+A2"} ] // A3
]);

Cells with formula entries but no value will be serialized in a way that Excel and other spreadsheet tools will recognize. This library will not automatically compute formula results! For example, the following worksheet will include the BESSELJ function but the result will not be available in JavaScript:

var worksheet = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  [ 3.14159, 2 ], // Row "1"
  [ { t:'n', f:'BESSELJ(A1,B1)' } ] // Row "2" will be calculated on file open
}

If the actual results are needed in JS, SheetJS Pro offers a formula calculator component for evaluating expressions, updating values and dependent cells, and refreshing entire workbooks.

Array Formulae

Assign an array formula

XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, range, formula);

Array formulae are stored in the top-left cell of the array block. All cells of an array formula have a F field corresponding to the range. A single-cell formula can be distinguished from a plain formula by the presence of F field.

For example, setting the cell C1 to the array formula {=SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)}:

// API function
XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)");

// ... OR raw operations
worksheet['C1'] = { t:'n', f: "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)", F:"C1:C1" };

For a multi-cell array formula, every cell has the same array range but only the first cell specifies the formula. Consider D1:D3=A1:A3*B1:B3:

// API function
XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "D1:D3", "A1:A3*B1:B3");

// ... OR raw operations
worksheet['D1'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3", f:"A1:A3*B1:B3" };
worksheet['D2'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };
worksheet['D3'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };

Utilities and writers are expected to check for the presence of a F field and ignore any possible formula element f in cells other than the starting cell. They are not expected to perform validation of the formulae!

Dynamic Array Formulae

Assign a dynamic array formula

XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, range, formula, true);

Released in 2020, Dynamic Array Formulae are supported in the XLSX/XLSM and XLSB file formats. They are represented like normal array formulae but have special cell metadata indicating that the formula should be allowed to adjust the range.

An array formula can be marked as dynamic by setting the cell's D property to true. The F range is expected but can be the set to the current cell:

// API function
XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);

// ... OR raw operations
worksheet['C1'] = { t: "s", f: "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", F:"C1", D: 1 }; // dynamic

Localization with Function Names

SheetJS operates at the file level. Excel stores formula expressions using the English (United States) function names. For non-English users, Excel uses a localized set of function names.

For example, when the computer language and region is set to French (France), Excel interprets =SOMME(A1:C3) as if SOMME is the SUM function. However, in the actual file, Excel stores SUM(A1:C3).

Prefixed "Future Functions"

Functions introduced in newer versions of Excel are prefixed with _xlfn. when stored in files. When writing formula expressions using these functions, the prefix is required for maximal compatibility:

// Broadest compatibility
XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "_xlfn.UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);

// Can cause errors in spreadsheet software
XLSX.utils.sheet_set_array_formula(worksheet, "C1", "UNIQUE(A1:A3)", 1);

When reading a file, the xlfn option preserves the prefixes.

Functions requiring `_xlfn.` prefix (click to show)

This list is growing with each Excel release.

ACOT
ACOTH
AGGREGATE
ARABIC
BASE
BETA.DIST
BETA.INV
BINOM.DIST
BINOM.DIST.RANGE
BINOM.INV
BITAND
BITLSHIFT
BITOR
BITRSHIFT
BITXOR
BYCOL
BYROW
CEILING.MATH
CEILING.PRECISE
CHISQ.DIST
CHISQ.DIST.RT
CHISQ.INV
CHISQ.INV.RT
CHISQ.TEST
COMBINA
CONFIDENCE.NORM
CONFIDENCE.T
COT
COTH
COVARIANCE.P
COVARIANCE.S
CSC
CSCH
DAYS
DECIMAL
ERF.PRECISE
ERFC.PRECISE
EXPON.DIST
F.DIST
F.DIST.RT
F.INV
F.INV.RT
F.TEST
FIELDVALUE
FILTERXML
FLOOR.MATH
FLOOR.PRECISE
FORMULATEXT
GAMMA
GAMMA.DIST
GAMMA.INV
GAMMALN.PRECISE
GAUSS
HYPGEOM.DIST
IFNA
IMCOSH
IMCOT
IMCSC
IMCSCH
IMSEC
IMSECH
IMSINH
IMTAN
ISFORMULA
ISOMITTED
ISOWEEKNUM
LAMBDA
LET
LOGNORM.DIST
LOGNORM.INV
MAKEARRAY
MAP
MODE.MULT
MODE.SNGL
MUNIT
NEGBINOM.DIST
NORM.DIST
NORM.INV
NORM.S.DIST
NORM.S.INV
NUMBERVALUE
PDURATION
PERCENTILE.EXC
PERCENTILE.INC
PERCENTRANK.EXC
PERCENTRANK.INC
PERMUTATIONA
PHI
POISSON.DIST
QUARTILE.EXC
QUARTILE.INC
QUERYSTRING
RANDARRAY
RANK.AVG
RANK.EQ
REDUCE
RRI
SCAN
SEC
SECH
SEQUENCE
SHEET
SHEETS
SKEW.P
SORTBY
STDEV.P
STDEV.S
T.DIST
T.DIST.2T
T.DIST.RT
T.INV
T.INV.2T
T.TEST
UNICHAR
UNICODE
UNIQUE
VAR.P
VAR.S
WEBSERVICE
WEIBULL.DIST
XLOOKUP
XOR
Z.TEST

Row and Column Properties

Format Support (click to show)

Row Properties: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM, ODS

Column Properties: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, SYLK, DOM

Row and Column properties are not extracted by default when reading from a file and are not persisted by default when writing to a file. The option cellStyles: true must be passed to the relevant read or write function.

Column Properties

The !cols array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of ColInfo objects which have the following properties:

type ColInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the column is hidden

  /* column width is specified in one of the following ways: */
  wpx?:    number;  // width in screen pixels
  width?:  number;  // width in Excel's "Max Digit Width", width*256 is integral
  wch?:    number;  // width in characters

  /* other fields for preserving features from files */
  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
  MDW?:    number;  // Excel's "Max Digit Width" unit, always integral
};

Row Properties

The !rows array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of RowInfo objects which have the following properties:

type RowInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the row is hidden

  /* row height is specified in one of the following ways: */
  hpx?:    number;  // height in screen pixels
  hpt?:    number;  // height in points

  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
};

Outline / Group Levels Convention

The Excel UI displays the base outline level as 1 and the max level as 8. Following JS conventions, SheetJS uses 0-indexed outline levels wherein the base outline level is 0 and the max level is 7.

Why are there three width types? (click to show)

There are three different width types corresponding to the three different ways spreadsheets store column widths:

SYLK and other plain text formats use raw character count. Contemporaneous tools like Visicalc and Multiplan were character based. Since the characters had the same width, it sufficed to store a count. This tradition was continued into the BIFF formats.

SpreadsheetML (2003) tried to align with HTML by standardizing on screen pixel count throughout the file. Column widths, row heights, and other measures use pixels. When the pixel and character counts do not align, Excel rounds values.

XLSX internally stores column widths in a nebulous "Max Digit Width" form. The Max Digit Width is the width of the largest digit when rendered (generally the "0" character is the widest). The internal width must be an integer multiple of the the width divided by 256. ECMA-376 describes a formula for converting between pixels and the internal width. This represents a hybrid approach.

Read functions attempt to populate all three properties. Write functions will try to cycle specified values to the desired type. In order to avoid potential conflicts, manipulation should delete the other properties first. For example, when changing the pixel width, delete the wch and width properties.

Implementation details (click to show)

Row Heights

Excel internally stores row heights in points. The default resolution is 72 DPI or 96 PPI, so the pixel and point size should agree. For different resolutions they may not agree, so the library separates the concepts.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use hpx pixel height if available
  2. use hpt point height if available

Column Widths

Given the constraints, it is possible to determine the MDW without actually inspecting the font! The parsers guess the pixel width by converting from width to pixels and back, repeating for all possible MDW and selecting the MDW that minimizes the error. XLML actually stores the pixel width, so the guess works in the opposite direction.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use width field if available
  2. use wpx pixel width if available
  3. use wch character count if available

Number Formats

The cell.w formatted text for each cell is produced from cell.v and cell.z format. If the format is not specified, the Excel General format is used. The format can either be specified as a string or as an index into the format table. Parsers are expected to populate workbook.SSF with the number format table. Writers are expected to serialize the table.

Custom tools should ensure that the local table has each used format string somewhere in the table. Excel convention mandates that the custom formats start at index 164. The following example creates a custom format from scratch:

New worksheet with custom format (click to show)

var wb = {
  SheetNames: ["Sheet1"],
  Sheets: {
    Sheet1: {
      "!ref":"A1:C1",
      A1: { t:"n", v:10000 },                    // <-- General format
      B1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "0%" },           // <-- Builtin format
      C1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "\"T\"\ #0.00" }  // <-- Custom format
    }
  }
}

The rules are slightly different from how Excel displays custom number formats. In particular, literal characters must be wrapped in double quotes or preceded by a backslash. For more info, see the Excel documentation article Create or delete a custom number format or ECMA-376 18.8.31 (Number Formats)

Default Number Formats (click to show)

The default formats are listed in ECMA-376 18.8.30:

IDFormat
0General
10
20.00
3#,##0
4#,##0.00
90%
100.00%
110.00E+00
12# ?/?
13# ??/??
14m/d/yy (see below)
15d-mmm-yy
16d-mmm
17mmm-yy
18h:mm AM/PM
19h:mm:ss AM/PM
20h:mm
21h:mm:ss
22m/d/yy h:mm
37#,##0 ;(#,##0)
38#,##0 ;[Red](#,##0)
39#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)
40#,##0.00;[Red](#,##0.00)
45mm:ss
46[h]:mm:ss
47mmss.0
48##0.0E+0
49@

Format 14 (m/d/yy) is localized by Excel: even though the file specifies that number format, it will be drawn differently based on system settings. It makes sense when the producer and consumer of files are in the same locale, but that is not always the case over the Internet. To get around this ambiguity, parse functions accept the dateNF option to override the interpretation of that specific format string.

Hyperlinks

Format Support (click to show)

Cell Hyperlinks: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, ODS

Tooltips: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML

Hyperlinks are stored in the l key of cell objects. The Target field of the hyperlink object is the target of the link, including the URI fragment. Tooltips are stored in the Tooltip field and are displayed when you move your mouse over the text.

For example, the following snippet creates a link from cell A3 to https://sheetjs.com with the tip "Find us @ SheetJS.com!":

ws['A1'].l = { Target:"https://sheetjs.com", Tooltip:"Find us @ SheetJS.com!" };

Note that Excel does not automatically style hyperlinks -- they will generally be displayed as normal text.

Remote Links

HTTP / HTTPS links can be used directly:

ws['A2'].l = { Target:"https://docs.sheetjs.com/#hyperlinks" };
ws['A3'].l = { Target:"http://localhost:7262/yes_localhost_works" };

Excel also supports mailto email links with subject line:

ws['A4'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null" };
ws['A5'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null?subject=Test Subject" };

Local Links

Links to absolute paths should use the file:// URI scheme:

ws['B1'].l = { Target:"file:///SheetJS/t.xlsx" }; /* Link to /SheetJS/t.xlsx */
ws['B2'].l = { Target:"file:///c:/SheetJS.xlsx" }; /* Link to c:\SheetJS.xlsx */

Links to relative paths can be specified without a scheme:

ws['B3'].l = { Target:"SheetJS.xlsb" }; /* Link to SheetJS.xlsb */
ws['B4'].l = { Target:"../SheetJS.xlsm" }; /* Link to ../SheetJS.xlsm */

Relative Paths have undefined behavior in the SpreadsheetML 2003 format. Excel 2019 will treat a ..\ parent mark as two levels up.

Internal Links

Links where the target is a cell or range or defined name in the same workbook ("Internal Links") are marked with a leading hash character:

ws['C1'].l = { Target:"#E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 */
ws['C2'].l = { Target:"#Sheet2!E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 in sheet Sheet2 */
ws['C3'].l = { Target:"#SomeDefinedName" }; /* Link to Defined Name */

Cell Comments

Cell comments are objects stored in the c array of cell objects. The actual contents of the comment are split into blocks based on the comment author. The a field of each comment object is the author of the comment and the t field is the plain text representation.

For example, the following snippet appends a cell comment into cell A1:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"I'm a little comment, short and stout!"});

Note: XLSB enforces a 54 character limit on the Author name. Names longer than 54 characters may cause issues with other formats.

To mark a comment as normally hidden, set the hidden property:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment is visible"});

if(!ws.A2.c) ws.A2.c = [];
ws.A2.c.hidden = true;
ws.A2.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment will be hidden"});

Threaded Comments

Introduced in Excel 365, threaded comments are plain text comment snippets with author metadata and parent references. They are supported in XLSX and XLSB.

To mark a comment as threaded, each comment part must have a true T property:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This is not threaded"});

if(!ws.A2.c) ws.A2.c = [];
ws.A2.c.hidden = true;
ws.A2.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This is threaded", T: true});
ws.A2.c.push({a:"JSSheet", t:"This is also threaded", T: true});

There is no Active Directory or Office 365 metadata associated with authors in a thread.

Sheet Visibility

Excel enables hiding sheets in the lower tab bar. The sheet data is stored in the file but the UI does not readily make it available. Standard hidden sheets are revealed in the "Unhide" menu. Excel also has "very hidden" sheets which cannot be revealed in the menu. It is only accessible in the VB Editor!

The visibility setting is stored in the Hidden property of sheet props array.

More details (click to show)

ValueDefinition
0Visible
1Hidden
2Very Hidden

With https://rawgit.com/SheetJS/test_files/HEAD/sheet_visibility.xlsx:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', 0 ], [ 'Hidden', 1 ], [ 'VeryHidden', 2 ] ]

Non-Excel formats do not support the Very Hidden state. The best way to test if a sheet is visible is to check if the Hidden property is logical truth:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, !x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', true ], [ 'Hidden', false ], [ 'VeryHidden', false ] ]

VBA and Macros

VBA Macros are stored in a special data blob that is exposed in the vbaraw property of the workbook object when the bookVBA option is true. They are supported in XLSM, XLSB, and BIFF8 XLS formats. The supported format writers automatically insert the data blobs if it is present in the workbook and associate with the worksheet names.

Custom Code Names (click to show)

The workbook code name is stored in wb.Workbook.WBProps.CodeName. By default, Excel will write ThisWorkbook or a translated phrase like DieseArbeitsmappe. Worksheet and Chartsheet code names are in the worksheet properties object at wb.Workbook.Sheets[i].CodeName. Macrosheets and Dialogsheets are ignored.

The readers and writers preserve the code names, but they have to be manually set when adding a VBA blob to a different workbook.

Macrosheets (click to show)

Older versions of Excel also supported a non-VBA "macrosheet" sheet type that stored automation commands. These are exposed in objects with the !type property set to "macro".

Detecting macros in workbooks (click to show)

The vbaraw field will only be set if macros are present, so testing is simple:

function wb_has_macro(wb/*:workbook*/)/*:boolean*/ {
    if(!!wb.vbaraw) return true;
    const sheets = wb.SheetNames.map((n) => wb.Sheets[n]);
    return sheets.some((ws) => !!ws && ws['!type']=='macro');
}

Parsing Options

The exported read and readFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Input data encoding (see Input Type below)
rawfalseIf true, plain text parsing will not parse values **
codepage If specified, use code page when appropriate **
cellFormulatrueSave formulae to the .f field
cellHTMLtrueParse rich text and save HTML to the .h field
cellNFfalseSave number format string to the .z field
cellStylesfalseSave style/theme info to the .s field
cellTexttrueGenerated formatted text to the .w field
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
dateNF If specified, use the string for date code 14 **
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for stub cells
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows **
bookDepsfalseIf true, parse calculation chains
bookFilesfalseIf true, add raw files to book object **
bookPropsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get book metadata **
bookSheetsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get the sheet names
bookVBAfalseIf true, copy VBA blob to vbaraw field **
password""If defined and file is encrypted, use password **
WTFfalseIf true, throw errors on unexpected file features **
sheets If specified, only parse specified sheets **
PRNfalseIf true, allow parsing of PRN files **
xlfnfalseIf true, preserve _xlfn. prefixes in formulae **
FS DSV Field Separator override
  • Even if cellNF is false, formatted text will be generated and saved to .w
  • In some cases, sheets may be parsed even if bookSheets is false.
  • Excel aggressively tries to interpret values from CSV and other plain text. This leads to surprising behavior! The raw option suppresses value parsing.
  • bookSheets and bookProps combine to give both sets of information
  • Deps will be an empty object if bookDeps is false
  • bookFiles behavior depends on file type:
    • keys array (paths in the ZIP) for ZIP-based formats
    • files hash (mapping paths to objects representing the files) for ZIP
    • cfb object for formats using CFB containers
  • sheetRows-1 rows will be generated when looking at the JSON object output (since the header row is counted as a row when parsing the data)
  • By default all worksheets are parsed. sheets restricts based on input type:
    • number: zero-based index of worksheet to parse (0 is first worksheet)
    • string: name of worksheet to parse (case insensitive)
    • array of numbers and strings to select multiple worksheets.
  • bookVBA merely exposes the raw VBA CFB object. It does not parse the data. XLSM and XLSB store the VBA CFB object in xl/vbaProject.bin. BIFF8 XLS mixes the VBA entries alongside the core Workbook entry, so the library generates a new XLSB-compatible blob from the XLS CFB container.
  • codepage is applied to BIFF2 - BIFF5 files without CodePage records and to CSV files without BOM in type:"binary". BIFF8 XLS always defaults to 1200.
  • PRN affects parsing of text files without a common delimiter character.
  • Currently only XOR encryption is supported. Unsupported error will be thrown for files employing other encryption methods.
  • Newer Excel functions are serialized with the _xlfn. prefix, hidden from the user. SheetJS will strip _xlfn. normally. The xlfn option preserves them.
  • WTF is mainly for development. By default, the parser will suppress read errors on single worksheets, allowing you to read from the worksheets that do parse properly. Setting WTF:true forces those errors to be thrown.

Input Type

Strings can be interpreted in multiple ways. The type parameter for read tells the library how to parse the data argument:

typeexpected input
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"array: array of 8-bit unsigned int (byte n is data[n])
"file"string: path of file that will be read (nodejs only)

Guessing File Type

Implementation Details (click to show)

Excel and other spreadsheet tools read the first few bytes and apply other heuristics to determine a file type. This enables file type punning: renaming files with the .xls extension will tell your computer to use Excel to open the file but Excel will know how to handle it. This library applies similar logic:

Byte 0Raw File TypeSpreadsheet Types
0xD0CFB ContainerBIFF 5/8 or protected XLSX/XLSB or WQ3/QPW or XLR
0x09BIFF StreamBIFF 2/3/4/5
0x3CXML/HTMLSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x50ZIP ArchiveXLSB or XLSX/M or ODS or UOS2 or NUMBERS or text
0x49Plain TextSYLK or plain text
0x54Plain TextDIF or plain text
0xEFUTF8 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0xFFUTF16 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x00Record StreamLotus WK* or Quattro Pro or plain text
0x7BPlain textRTF or plain text
0x0APlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x0DPlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x20Plain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text

DBF files are detected based on the first byte as well as the third and fourth bytes (corresponding to month and day of the file date)

Works for Windows files are detected based on the BOF record with type 0xFF

Plain text format guessing follows the priority order:

FormatTest
XML<?xml appears in the first 1024 characters
HTMLstarts with < and HTML tags appear in the first 1024 characters *
XMLstarts with < and the first tag is valid
RTFstarts with {\rt
DSVstarts with /sep=.$/, separator is the specified character
DSVmore unquoted `
DSVmore unquoted ; chars than \t or , in the first 1024
TSVmore unquoted \t chars than , chars in the first 1024
CSVone of the first 1024 characters is a comma ","
ETHstarts with socialcalc:version:
PRNPRN option is set to true
CSV(fallback)
  • HTML tags include: html, table, head, meta, script, style, div

Why are random text files valid? (click to show)

Excel is extremely aggressive in reading files. Adding an XLS extension to any display text file (where the only characters are ANSI display chars) tricks Excel into thinking that the file is potentially a CSV or TSV file, even if it is only one column! This library attempts to replicate that behavior.

The best approach is to validate the desired worksheet and ensure it has the expected number of rows or columns. Extracting the range is extremely simple:

var range = XLSX.utils.decode_range(worksheet['!ref']);
var ncols = range.e.c - range.s.c + 1, nrows = range.e.r - range.s.r + 1;

Writing Options

The exported write and writeFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Output data encoding (see Output Type below)
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
bookSSTfalseGenerate Shared String Table **
bookType"xlsx"Type of Workbook (see below for supported formats)
sheet""Name of Worksheet for single-sheet formats **
compressionfalseUse ZIP compression for ZIP-based formats **
Props Override workbook properties when writing **
themeXLSX Override theme XML when writing XLSX/XLSB/XLSM **
ignoreECtrueSuppress "number as text" errors **
numbers Payload for NUMBERS export **
  • bookSST is slower and more memory intensive, but has better compatibility with older versions of iOS Numbers
  • The raw data is the only thing guaranteed to be saved. Features not described in this README may not be serialized.
  • cellDates only applies to XLSX output and is not guaranteed to work with third-party readers. Excel itself does not usually write cells with type d so non-Excel tools may ignore the data or error in the presence of dates.
  • Props is an object mirroring the workbook Props field. See the table from the Workbook File Properties section.
  • if specified, the string from themeXLSX will be saved as the primary theme for XLSX/XLSB/XLSM files (to xl/theme/theme1.xml in the ZIP)
  • Due to a bug in the program, some features like "Text to Columns" will crash Excel on worksheets where error conditions are ignored. The writer will mark files to ignore the error by default. Set ignoreEC to false to suppress.
  • Due to the size of the data, the NUMBERS data is not included by default. The included xlsx.zahl.js and xlsx.zahl.mjs scripts include the data.

Supported Output Formats

For broad compatibility with third-party tools, this library supports many output formats. The specific file type is controlled with bookType option:

bookTypefile extcontainersheetsDescription
xlsx.xlsxZIPmultiExcel 2007+ XML Format
xlsm.xlsmZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Macro XML Format
xlsb.xlsbZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Binary Format
biff8.xlsCFBmultiExcel 97-2004 Workbook Format
biff5.xlsCFBmultiExcel 5.0/95 Workbook Format
biff4.xlsnonesingleExcel 4.0 Worksheet Format
biff3.xlsnonesingleExcel 3.0 Worksheet Format
biff2.xlsnonesingleExcel 2.0 Worksheet Format
xlml.xlsnonemultiExcel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)
numbers.numbersZIPsingleNumbers 3.0+ Spreadsheet
ods.odsZIPmultiOpenDocument Spreadsheet
fods.fodsnonemultiFlat OpenDocument Spreadsheet
wk3.wk3nonemultiLotus Workbook (WK3)
csv.csvnonesingleComma Separated Values
txt.txtnonesingleUTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
sylk.sylknonesingleSymbolic Link (SYLK)
html.htmlnonesingleHTML Document
dif.difnonesingleData Interchange Format (DIF)
dbf.dbfnonesingledBASE II + VFP Extensions (DBF)
wk1.wk1nonesingleLotus Worksheet (WK1)
rtf.rtfnonesingleRich Text Format (RTF)
prn.prnnonesingleLotus Formatted Text
eth.ethnonesingleEthercalc Record Format (ETH)
  • compression only applies to formats with ZIP containers.
  • Formats that only support a single sheet require a sheet option specifying the worksheet. If the string is empty, the first worksheet is used.
  • writeFile will automatically guess the output file format based on the file extension if bookType is not specified. It will choose the first format in the aforementioned table that matches the extension.

Output Type

The type argument for write mirrors the type argument for read:

typeoutput
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"ArrayBuffer, fallback array of 8-bit unsigned int
"file"string: path of file that will be created (nodejs only)
  • For compatibility with Excel, csv output will always include the UTF-8 byte order mark.

Utility Functions

The sheet_to_* functions accept a worksheet and an optional options object.

The *_to_sheet functions accept a data object and an optional options object.

The examples are based on the following worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |

Array of Arrays Input

XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet takes an array of arrays of JS values and returns a worksheet resembling the input data. Numbers, Booleans and Strings are stored as the corresponding styles. Dates are stored as date or numbers. Array holes and explicit undefined values are skipped. null values may be stubbed. All other values are stored as strings. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet:

var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  "SheetJS".split(""),
  [1,2,3,4,5,6,7],
  [2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
]);

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa takes an array of arrays of JS values and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as aoa_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ "SheetJS".split("") ]);

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4]], {origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[5,6,7], [6,7,8], [7,8,9]], {origin:{r:1, c:4}});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[4,5,6,7,8,9,0]], {origin: -1});

Array of Objects Input

XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet takes an array of objects and returns a worksheet with automatically-generated "headers" based on the keys of the objects. The default column order is determined by the first appearance of the field using Object.keys. The function accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified field order (default Object.keys) **
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
  • All fields from each row will be written. If header is an array and it does not contain a particular field, the key will be appended to the array.
  • Cell types are deduced from the type of each value. For example, a Date object will generate a Date cell, while a string will generate a Text cell.
  • Null values will be skipped by default. If nullError is true, an error cell corresponding to #NULL! will be written to the worksheet.

Examples (click to show)

The original sheet cannot be reproduced using plain objects since JS object keys must be unique. After replacing the second e and S with e_1 and S_1:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { S:1, h:2, e:3, e_1:4, t:5, J:6, S_1:7 },
  { S:2, h:3, e:4, e_1:5, t:6, J:7, S_1:8 }
], {header:["S","h","e","e_1","t","J","S_1"]});

Alternatively, the header row can be skipped:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A:"S", B:"h", C:"e", D:"e", E:"t", F:"J", G:"S" },
  { A: 1,  B: 2,  C: 3,  D: 4,  E: 5,  F: 6,  G: 7  },
  { A: 2,  B: 3,  C: 4,  D: 5,  E: 6,  F: 7,  G: 8  }
], {header:["A","B","C","D","E","F","G"], skipHeader:true});

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json takes an array of objects and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as json_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified column order (default Object.keys)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A: "S", B: "h", C: "e", D: "e", E: "t", F: "J", G: "S" }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true});

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 1, B: 2 }, { A: 2, B: 3 }, { A: 3, B: 4 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 5, B: 6, C: 7 }, { A: 6, B: 7, C: 8 }, { A: 7, B: 8, C: 9 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: { r: 1, c: 4 }, header: [ "A", "B", "C" ]});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 4, B: 5, C: 6, D: 7, E: 8, F: 9, G: 0 }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true, origin: -1});

HTML Table Input

XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet takes a table DOM element and returns a worksheet resembling the input table. Numbers are parsed. All other data will be stored as strings.

XLSX.utils.table_to_book produces a minimal workbook based on the worksheet.

Both functions accept options arguments:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet, start with the HTML table:

<table id="sheetjs">
<tr><td>S</td><td>h</td><td>e</td><td>e</td><td>t</td><td>J</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td></tr>
<tr><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td><td>8</td></tr>
</table>

To process the table:

var tbl = document.getElementById('sheetjs');
var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(tbl);

Note: XLSX.read can handle HTML represented as strings.

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom takes a table DOM element and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as table_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

A small helper function can create gap rows between tables:

function create_gap_rows(ws, nrows) {
  var ref = XLSX.utils.decode_range(ws["!ref"]);       // get original range
  ref.e.r += nrows;                                    // add to ending row
  ws["!ref"] = XLSX.utils.encode_range(ref);           // reassign row
}

/* first table */
var ws = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table1'));
create_gap_rows(ws, 1); // one row gap after first table

/* second table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table2'), {origin: -1});
create_gap_rows(ws, 3); // three rows gap after second table

/* third table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table3'), {origin: -1});

Formulae Output

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates an array of commands that represent how a person would enter data into an application. Each entry is of the form A1-cell-address=formula-or-value. String literals are prefixed with a ' in accordance with Excel.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> var o = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(ws);
> [o[0], o[5], o[10], o[15], o[20]];
[ 'A1=\'S', 'F1=\'J', 'D2=4', 'B3=3', 'G3=8' ]

Delimiter-Separated Output

As an alternative to the writeFile CSV type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv also produces CSV output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
FS",""Field Separator" delimiter between fields
RS"\n""Record Separator" delimiter between rows
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
stripfalseRemove trailing field separators in each record **
blankrowstrueInclude blank lines in the CSV output
skipHiddenfalseSkips hidden rows/columns in the CSV output
forceQuotesfalseForce quotes around fields
  • strip will remove trailing commas from each line under default FS/RS
  • blankrows must be set to false to skip blank lines.
  • Fields containing the record or field separator will automatically be wrapped in double quotes; forceQuotes forces all cells to be wrapped in quotes.
  • XLSX.write with csv type will always prepend the UTF-8 byte-order mark for Excel compatibility. sheet_to_csv returns a JS string and omits the mark. Using XLSX.write with type string will also skip the mark.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws));
S,h,e,e,t,J,S
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
2,3,4,5,6,7,8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws, {FS:"\t"}));
S    h    e    e    t    J    S
1    2    3    4    5    6    7
2    3    4    5    6    7    8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws,{FS:":",RS:"|"}));
S:h:e:e:t:J:S|1:2:3:4:5:6:7|2:3:4:5:6:7:8|

UTF-16 Unicode Text

The txt output type uses the tab character as the field separator. If the codepage library is available (included in full distribution but not core), the output will be encoded in CP1200 and the BOM will be prepended.

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt takes the same arguments as sheet_to_csv.

HTML Output

As an alternative to the writeFile HTML type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html also produces HTML output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
id Specify the id attribute for the TABLE element
editablefalseIf true, set contenteditable="true" for every TD
header Override header (default html body)
footer Override footer (default /body /html)

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(ws));
// ...

JSON

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates different types of JS objects. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
rawtrueUse raw values (true) or formatted strings (false)
rangefrom WSOverride Range (see table below)
header Control output format (see table below)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
defval Use specified value in place of null or undefined
blankrows**Include blank lines in the output **
  • raw only affects cells which have a format code (.z) field or a formatted text (.w) field.
  • If header is specified, the first row is considered a data row; if header is not specified, the first row is the header row and not considered data.
  • When header is not specified, the conversion will automatically disambiguate header entries by affixing _ and a count starting at 1. For example, if three columns have header foo the output fields are foo, foo_1, foo_2
  • null values are returned when raw is true but are skipped when false.
  • If defval is not specified, null and undefined values are skipped normally. If specified, all null and undefined points will be filled with defval
  • When header is 1, the default is to generate blank rows. blankrows must be set to false to skip blank rows.
  • When header is not 1, the default is to skip blank rows. blankrows must be true to generate blank rows

range is expected to be one of:

rangeDescription
(number)Use worksheet range but set starting row to the value
(string)Use specified range (A1-style bounded range string)
(default)Use worksheet range (ws['!ref'])

header is expected to be one of:

headerDescription
1Generate an array of arrays ("2D Array")
"A"Row object keys are literal column labels
array of stringsUse specified strings as keys in row objects
(default)Read and disambiguate first row as keys
  • If header is not 1, the row object will contain the non-enumerable property __rowNum__ that represents the row of the sheet corresponding to the entry.
  • If header is an array, the keys will not be disambiguated. This can lead to unexpected results if the array values are not unique!

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws);
[ { S: 1, h: 2, e: 3, e_1: 4, t: 5, J: 6, S_1: 7 },
  { S: 2, h: 3, e: 4, e_1: 5, t: 6, J: 7, S_1: 8 } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:"A"});
[ { A: 'S', B: 'h', C: 'e', D: 'e', E: 't', F: 'J', G: 'S' },
  { A: '1', B: '2', C: '3', D: '4', E: '5', F: '6', G: '7' },
  { A: '2', B: '3', C: '4', D: '5', E: '6', F: '7', G: '8' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:["A","E","I","O","U","6","9"]});
[ { '6': 'J', '9': 'S', A: 'S', E: 'h', I: 'e', O: 'e', U: 't' },
  { '6': '6', '9': '7', A: '1', E: '2', I: '3', O: '4', U: '5' },
  { '6': '7', '9': '8', A: '2', E: '3', I: '4', O: '5', U: '6' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

Example showing the effect of raw:

> ws['A2'].w = "3";                          // set A2 formatted string value

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1, raw:false});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '3', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],     // <-- A2 uses the formatted string
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ],                   // <-- A2 uses the raw value
  [ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ] ]

File Formats

Despite the library name xlsx, it supports numerous spreadsheet file formats:

FormatReadWrite
Excel Worksheet/Workbook Formats:-----::-----:
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)
Excel 2003-2004 XML Format (XML "SpreadsheetML")
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)
Excel 4.0 (XLS/XLW BIFF4)
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)
Excel Supported Text Formats:-----::-----:
Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)
Data Interchange Format (DIF)
Symbolic Link (SYLK/SLK)
Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)
UTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
Other Workbook/Worksheet Formats:-----::-----:
Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS)
OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS)
Flat XML ODF Spreadsheet (FODS)
Uniform Office Format Spreadsheet (标文通 UOS1/UOS2) 
dBASE II/III/IV / Visual FoxPro (DBF)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1/WK3)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK2/WK4/123) 
Quattro Pro Spreadsheet (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW) 
Works 1.x-3.x DOS / 2.x-5.x Windows Spreadsheet (WKS) 
Works 6.x-9.x Spreadsheet (XLR) 
Other Common Spreadsheet Output Formats:-----::-----:
HTML Tables
Rich Text Format tables (RTF) 
Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

Features not supported by a given file format will not be written. Formats with range limits will be silently truncated:

FormatLast CellMax ColsMax Rows
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)XFD1048576163841048576
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)XFD1048576163841048576
Numbers 12.0 (NUMBERS)ALL100000010001000000
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)IV6553625665536
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)IV1638425616384
Excel 4.0 (XLS BIFF4)IV1638425616384
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)IV1638425616384
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)IV1638425616384
Lotus 1-2-3 R2 - R5 (WK1/WK3/WK4)IV81922568192
Lotus 1-2-3 R1 (WKS)IV20482562048

Excel 2003 SpreadsheetML range limits are governed by the version of Excel and are not enforced by the writer.

File Format Details (click to show)

Core Spreadsheet Formats

  • Excel 2007+ XML (XLSX/XLSM)

XLSX and XLSM files are ZIP containers containing a series of XML files in accordance with the Open Packaging Conventions (OPC). The XLSM format, almost identical to XLSX, is used for files containing macros.

The format is standardized in ECMA-376 and later in ISO/IEC 29500. Excel does not follow the specification, and there are additional documents discussing how Excel deviates from the specification.

  • Excel 2.0-95 (BIFF2/BIFF3/BIFF4/BIFF5)

BIFF 2/3 XLS are single-sheet streams of binary records. Excel 4 introduced the concept of a workbook (XLW files) but also had single-sheet XLS format. The structure is largely similar to the Lotus 1-2-3 file formats. BIFF5/8/12 extended the format in various ways but largely stuck to the same record format.

There is no official specification for any of these formats. Excel 95 can write files in these formats, so record lengths and fields were determined by writing in all of the supported formats and comparing files. Excel 2016 can generate BIFF5 files, enabling a full suite of file tests starting from XLSX or BIFF2.

  • Excel 97-2004 Binary (BIFF8)

BIFF8 exclusively uses the Compound File Binary container format, splitting some content into streams within the file. At its core, it still uses an extended version of the binary record format from older versions of BIFF.

The MS-XLS specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

  • Excel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)

Predating XLSX, SpreadsheetML files are simple XML files. There is no official and comprehensive specification, although MS has released documentation on the format. Since Excel 2016 can generate SpreadsheetML files, mapping features is pretty straightforward.

  • Excel 2007+ Binary (XLSB, BIFF12)

Introduced in parallel with XLSX, the XLSB format combines the BIFF architecture with the content separation and ZIP container of XLSX. For the most part nodes in an XLSX sub-file can be mapped to XLSB records in a corresponding sub-file.

The MS-XLSB specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

  • Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)

Excel CSV deviates from RFC4180 in a number of important ways. The generated CSV files should generally work in Excel although they may not work in RFC4180 compatible readers. The parser should generally understand Excel CSV. The writer proactively generates cells for formulae if values are unavailable.

Excel TXT uses tab as the delimiter and code page 1200.

Like in Excel, files starting with 0x49 0x44 ("ID") are treated as Symbolic Link files. Unlike Excel, if the file does not have a valid SYLK header, it will be proactively reinterpreted as CSV. There are some files with semicolon delimiter that align with a valid SYLK file. For the broadest compatibility, all cells with the value of ID are automatically wrapped in double-quotes.

Miscellaneous Workbook Formats

Support for other formats is generally far behind XLS/XLSB/XLSX support, due in part to a lack of publicly available documentation. Test files were produced in the respective apps and compared to their XLS exports to determine structure. The main focus is data extraction.

  • Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK1/WK2/WK3/WK4/123)

The Lotus formats consist of binary records similar to the BIFF structure. Lotus did release a specification decades ago covering the original WK1 format. Other features were deduced by producing files and comparing to Excel support.

Generated WK1 worksheets are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R2 and Excel 5.0.

Generated WK3 workbooks are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R9 and Excel 5.0.

  • Quattro Pro (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW)

The Quattro Pro formats use binary records in the same way as BIFF and Lotus. Some of the newer formats (namely WB3 and QPW) use a CFB enclosure just like BIFF8 XLS.

  • Works for DOS / Windows Spreadsheet (WKS/XLR)

All versions of Works were limited to a single worksheet.

Works for DOS 1.x - 3.x and Works for Windows 2.x extends the Lotus WKS format with additional record types.

Works for Windows 3.x - 5.x uses the same format and WKS extension. The BOF record has type FF

Works for Windows 6.x - 9.x use the XLR format. XLR is nearly identical to BIFF8 XLS: it uses the CFB container with a Workbook stream. Works 9 saves the exact Workbook stream for the XLR and the 97-2003 XLS export. Works 6 XLS includes two empty worksheets but the main worksheet has an identical encoding. XLR also includes a WksSSWorkBook stream similar to Lotus FM3/FMT files.

  • Numbers 3.0+ / iWork 2013+ Spreadsheet (NUMBERS)

iWork 2013 (Numbers 3.0 / Pages 5.0 / Keynote 6.0) switched from a proprietary XML-based format to the current file format based on the iWork Archive (IWA). This format has been used up through the current release (Numbers 11.2).

The parser focuses on extracting raw data from tables. Numbers technically supports multiple tables in a logical worksheet, including custom titles. This parser will generate one worksheet per Numbers table.

The writer currently exports a small range from the first worksheet.

  • OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS/FODS)

ODS is an XML-in-ZIP format akin to XLSX while FODS is an XML format akin to SpreadsheetML. Both are detailed in the OASIS standard, but tools like LO/OO add undocumented extensions. The parsers and writers do not implement the full standard, instead focusing on parts necessary to extract and store raw data.

  • Uniform Office Spreadsheet (UOS1/2)

UOS is a very similar format, and it comes in 2 varieties corresponding to ODS and FODS respectively. For the most part, the difference between the formats is in the names of tags and attributes.

Miscellaneous Worksheet Formats

Many older formats supported only one worksheet:

  • dBASE and Visual FoxPro (DBF)

DBF is really a typed table format: each column can only hold one data type and each record omits type information. The parser generates a header row and inserts records starting at the second row of the worksheet. The writer makes files compatible with Visual FoxPro extensions.

Multi-file extensions like external memos and tables are currently unsupported, limited by the general ability to read arbitrary files in the web browser. The reader understands DBF Level 7 extensions like DATETIME.

  • Symbolic Link (SYLK)

There is no real documentation. All knowledge was gathered by saving files in various versions of Excel to deduce the meaning of fields. Notes:

Plain formulae are stored in the RC form.

Column widths are rounded to integral characters.

Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)

There is no real documentation, and in fact Excel treats PRN as an output-only file format. Nevertheless we can guess the column widths and reverse-engineer the original layout. Excel's 240 character width limitation is not enforced.

  • Data Interchange Format (DIF)

There is no unified definition. Visicalc DIF differs from Lotus DIF, and both differ from Excel DIF. Where ambiguous, the parser/writer follows the expected behavior from Excel. In particular, Excel extends DIF in incompatible ways:

Since Excel automatically converts numbers-as-strings to numbers, numeric string constants are converted to formulae: "0.3" -> "=""0.3""

DIF technically expects numeric cells to hold the raw numeric data, but Excel permits formatted numbers (including dates)

DIF technically has no support for formulae, but Excel will automatically convert plain formulae. Array formulae are not preserved.

HTML

Excel HTML worksheets include special metadata encoded in styles. For example, mso-number-format is a localized string containing the number format. Despite the metadata the output is valid HTML, although it does accept bare & symbols.

The writer adds type metadata to the TD elements via the t tag. The parser looks for those tags and overrides the default interpretation. For example, text like <td>12345</td> will be parsed as numbers but <td t="s">12345</td> will be parsed as text.

  • Rich Text Format (RTF)

Excel RTF worksheets are stored in clipboard when copying cells or ranges from a worksheet. The supported codes are a subset of the Word RTF support.

  • Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

Ethercalc is an open source web spreadsheet powered by a record format reminiscent of SYLK wrapped in a MIME multi-part message.

Testing

Node

(click to show)

make test will run the node-based tests. By default it runs tests on files in every supported format. To test a specific file type, set FMTS to the format you want to test. Feature-specific tests are available with make test_misc

$ make test_misc   # run core tests
$ make test        # run full tests
$ make test_xls    # only use the XLS test files
$ make test_xlsx   # only use the XLSX test files
$ make test_xlsb   # only use the XLSB test files
$ make test_xml    # only use the XML test files
$ make test_ods    # only use the ODS test files

To enable all errors, set the environment variable WTF=1:

$ make test        # run full tests
$ WTF=1 make test  # enable all error messages

flow and eslint checks are available:

$ make lint        # eslint checks
$ make flow        # make lint + Flow checking
$ make tslint      # check TS definitions

Browser

(click to show)

The core in-browser tests are available at tests/index.html within this repo. Start a local server and navigate to that directory to run the tests. make ctestserv will start a server on port 8000.

make ctest will generate the browser fixtures. To add more files, edit the tests/fixtures.lst file and add the paths.

To run the full in-browser tests, clone the repo for oss.sheetjs.com and replace the xlsx.js file (then open a browser window and go to stress.html):

$ cp xlsx.js ../SheetJS.github.io
$ cd ../SheetJS.github.io
$ simplehttpserver # or "python -mSimpleHTTPServer" or "serve"
$ open -a Chromium.app http://localhost:8000/stress.html

Tested Environments

(click to show)

  • NodeJS 0.8, 0.10, 0.12, 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x
  • IE 6/7/8/9/10/11 (IE 6-9 require shims)
  • Chrome 24+ (including Android 4.0+)
  • Safari 6+ (iOS and Desktop)
  • Edge 13+, FF 18+, and Opera 12+

Tests utilize the mocha testing framework.

The test suite also includes tests for various time zones. To change the timezone locally, set the TZ environment variable:

$ env TZ="Asia/Kolkata" WTF=1 make test_misc

Test Files

Test files are housed in another repo.

Running make init will refresh the test_files submodule and get the files. Note that this requires svn, git, hg and other commands that may not be available. If make init fails, please download the latest version of the test files snapshot from the repo

Latest Snapshot (click to show)

Latest test files snapshot: http://github.com/SheetJS/test_files/releases/download/20170409/test_files.zip

(download and unzip to the test_files subdirectory)

Contributing

Due to the precarious nature of the Open Specifications Promise, it is very important to ensure code is cleanroom. Contribution Notes

File organization (click to show)

At a high level, the final script is a concatenation of the individual files in the bits folder. Running make should reproduce the final output on all platforms. The README is similarly split into bits in the docbits folder.

Folders:

foldercontents
bitsraw source files that make up the final script
docbitsraw markdown files that make up README.md
binserver-side bin scripts (xlsx.njs)
distdist files for web browsers and nonstandard JS environments
demosdemo projects for platforms like ExtendScript and Webpack
testsbrowser tests (run make ctest to rebuild)
typestypescript definitions and tests
miscmiscellaneous supporting scripts
test_filestest files (pulled from the test files repository)

After cloning the repo, running make help will display a list of commands.

OSX/Linux

(click to show)

The xlsx.js file is constructed from the files in the bits subdirectory. The build script (run make) will concatenate the individual bits to produce the script. Before submitting a contribution, ensure that running make will produce the xlsx.js file exactly. The simplest way to test is to add the script:

$ git add xlsx.js
$ make clean
$ make
$ git diff xlsx.js

To produce the dist files, run make dist. The dist files are updated in each version release and should not be committed between versions.

Windows

(click to show)

The included make.cmd script will build xlsx.js from the bits directory. Building is as simple as:

> make

To prepare development environment:

> make init

The full list of commands available in Windows are displayed in make help:

make init -- install deps and global modules
make lint -- run eslint linter
make test -- run mocha test suite
make misc -- run smaller test suite
make book -- rebuild README and summary
make help -- display this message

As explained in Test Files, on Windows the release ZIP file must be downloaded and extracted. If Bash on Windows is available, it is possible to run the OSX/Linux workflow. The following steps prepares the environment:

# Install support programs for the build and test commands
sudo apt-get install make git subversion mercurial

# Install nodejs and NPM within the WSL
wget -qO- https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo bash
sudo apt-get install nodejs

# Install dev dependencies
sudo npm install -g mocha voc blanket xlsjs

Tests

(click to show)

The test_misc target (make test_misc on Linux/OSX / make misc on Windows) runs the targeted feature tests. It should take 5-10 seconds to perform feature tests without testing against the entire test battery. New features should be accompanied with tests for the relevant file formats and features.

For tests involving the read side, an appropriate feature test would involve reading an existing file and checking the resulting workbook object. If a parameter is involved, files should be read with different values to verify that the feature is working as expected.

For tests involving a new write feature which can already be parsed, appropriate feature tests would involve writing a workbook with the feature and then opening and verifying that the feature is preserved.

For tests involving a new write feature without an existing read ability, please add a feature test to the kitchen sink tests/write.js.

References

OSP-covered Specifications (click to show)

  • MS-CFB: Compound File Binary File Format
  • MS-CTXLS: Excel Custom Toolbar Binary File Format
  • MS-EXSPXML3: Excel Calculation Version 2 Web Service XML Schema
  • MS-ODATA: Open Data Protocol (OData)
  • MS-ODRAW: Office Drawing Binary File Format
  • MS-ODRAWXML: Office Drawing Extensions to Office Open XML Structure
  • MS-OE376: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support
  • MS-OFFCRYPTO: Office Document Cryptography Structure
  • MS-OI29500: Office Implementation Information for ISO/IEC 29500 Standards Support
  • MS-OLEDS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Data Structures
  • MS-OLEPS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Property Set Data Structures
  • MS-OODF3: Office Implementation Information for ODF 1.2 Standards Support
  • MS-OSHARED: Office Common Data Types and Objects Structures
  • MS-OVBA: Office VBA File Format Structure
  • MS-XLDM: Spreadsheet Data Model File Format
  • MS-XLS: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification
  • MS-XLSB: Excel (.xlsb) Binary File Format
  • MS-XLSX: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format
  • XLS: Microsoft Office Excel 97-2007 Binary File Format Specification
  • RTF: Rich Text Format
  • ISO/IEC 29500:2012(E) "Information technology — Document description and processing languages — Office Open XML File Formats"
  • Open Document Format for Office Applications Version 1.2 (29 September 2011)
  • Worksheet File Format (From Lotus) December 1984

Browser Test and Support Matrix

Build Status

Supported File Formats

circo graph of format support

graph legend

Author: SheetJS
Source Code: https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs 
License: Apache-2.0 License

#javascript #react #node #html 

Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya

1643018220

SheetJS: Parser and Writer for Various Spreadsheet Formats

SheetJS

Parser and writer for various spreadsheet formats. Pure-JS cleanroom implementation from official specifications, related documents, and test files. Emphasis on parsing and writing robustness, cross-format feature compatibility with a unified JS representation, and ES3/ES5 browser compatibility back to IE6.

This is the community version. We also offer a pro version with performance enhancements, additional features like styling, and dedicated support.

Community Translations of this README:

Build Status

Supported File Formats

circo graph of format support

Diagram Legend (click to show)

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Installation

In the browser, just add a script tag:

<script lang="javascript" src="dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

CDN Availability (click to show)

CDNURL
unpkghttps://unpkg.com/xlsx/
jsDelivrhttps://jsdelivr.com/package/npm/xlsx
CDNjshttps://cdnjs.com/libraries/xlsx
packdhttps://bundle.run/xlsx@latest?name=XLSX

unpkg makes the latest version available at:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/xlsx/dist/xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

With npm:

$ npm install xlsx

With bower:

$ bower install js-xlsx

JS Ecosystem Demos

The demos directory includes sample projects for:

Frameworks and APIs

Bundlers and Tooling

Platforms and Integrations

Other examples are included in the showcase.

Optional Modules

Optional features (click to show)

The node version automatically requires modules for additional features. Some of these modules are rather large in size and are only needed in special circumstances, so they do not ship with the core. For browser use, they must be included directly:

<!-- international support from js-codepage -->
<script src="dist/cpexcel.js"></script>

An appropriate version for each dependency is included in the dist/ directory.

The complete single-file version is generated at dist/xlsx.full.min.js

A slimmer build is generated at dist/xlsx.mini.min.js. Compared to full build:

  • codepage library skipped (no support for XLS encodings)
  • XLSX compression option not currently available
  • no support for XLSB / XLS / Lotus 1-2-3 / SpreadsheetML 2003
  • node stream utils removed

Webpack and Browserify builds include optional modules by default. Webpack can be configured to remove support with resolve.alias:

  /* uncomment the lines below to remove support */
  resolve: {
    alias: { "./dist/cpexcel.js": "" } // <-- omit international support
  }

ECMAScript 5 Compatibility

Since the library uses functions like Array#forEach, older browsers require shims to provide missing functions.

To use the shim, add the shim before the script tag that loads xlsx.js:

<!-- add the shim first -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="shim.min.js"></script>
<!-- after the shim is referenced, add the library -->
<script type="text/javascript" src="xlsx.full.min.js"></script>

The script also includes IE_LoadFile and IE_SaveFile for loading and saving files in Internet Explorer versions 6-9. The xlsx.extendscript.js script bundles the shim in a format suitable for Photoshop and other Adobe products.

Philosophy

Philosophy (click to show)

Prior to SheetJS, APIs for processing spreadsheet files were format-specific. Third-party libraries either supported one format, or they involved a separate set of classes for each supported file type. Even though XLSB was introduced in Excel 2007, nothing outside of SheetJS or Excel supported the format.

To promote a format-agnostic view, SheetJS starts from a pure-JS representation that we call the "Common Spreadsheet Format". Emphasizing a uniform object representation enables new features like format conversion (reading an XLSX template and saving as XLS) and circumvents the mess of classes. By abstracting the complexities of the various formats, tools need not worry about the specific file type!

A simple object representation combined with careful coding practices enables use cases in older browsers and in alternative environments like ExtendScript and Web Workers. It is always tempting to use the latest and greatest features, but they tend to require the latest versions of browsers, limiting usability.

Utility functions capture common use cases like generating JS objects or HTML. Most simple operations should only require a few lines of code. More complex operations generally should be straightforward to implement.

Excel pushes the XLSX format as default starting in Excel 2007. However, there are other formats with more appealing properties. For example, the XLSB format is spiritually similar to XLSX but files often tend up taking less than half the space and open much faster! Even though an XLSX writer is available, other format writers are available so users can take advantage of the unique characteristics of each format.

The primary focus of the Community Edition is correct data interchange, focused on extracting data from any compatible data representation and exporting data in various formats suitable for any third party interface.

Parsing Workbooks

For parsing, the first step is to read the file. This involves acquiring the data and feeding it into the library. Here are a few common scenarios:

nodejs read a file (click to show)

readFile is only available in server environments. Browsers have no API for reading arbitrary files given a path, so another strategy must be used.

if(typeof require !== 'undefined') XLSX = require('xlsx');
var workbook = XLSX.readFile('test.xlsx');
/* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */

Photoshop ExtendScript read a file (click to show)

readFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"
/* Read test.xlsx from the Documents folder */
var workbook = XLSX.readFile(Folder.myDocuments + '/' + 'test.xlsx');
/* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Browser read TABLE element from page (click to show)

The table_to_book and table_to_sheet utility functions take a DOM TABLE element and iterate through the child nodes.

var workbook = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(document.getElementById('tableau'));
/* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */

Multiple tables on a web page can be converted to individual worksheets:

/* create new workbook */
var workbook = XLSX.utils.book_new();

/* convert table 'table1' to worksheet named "Sheet1" */
var ws1 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table1'));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, ws1, "Sheet1");

/* convert table 'table2' to worksheet named "Sheet2" */
var ws2 = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table2'));
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(workbook, ws2, "Sheet2");

/* workbook now has 2 worksheets */

Alternatively, the HTML code can be extracted and parsed:

var htmlstr = document.getElementById('tableau').outerHTML;
var workbook = XLSX.read(htmlstr, {type:'string'});

Browser download file (ajax) (click to show)

Note: for a more complete example that works in older browsers, check the demo at http://oss.sheetjs.com/sheetjs/ajax.html. The xhr demo includes more examples with XMLHttpRequest and fetch.

var url = "http://oss.sheetjs.com/test_files/formula_stress_test.xlsx";

/* set up async GET request */
var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("GET", url, true);
req.responseType = "arraybuffer";

req.onload = function(e) {
  var workbook = XLSX.read(req.response);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}

req.send();

Browser drag-and-drop (click to show)

For modern browsers, Blob#arrayBuffer can read data from files:

async function handleDropAsync(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  const f = evt.dataTransfer.files[0];
  const data = await f.arrayBuffer();
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener('drop', handleDropAsync, false);

For maximal compatibility, the FileReader API should be used:

function handleDrop(e) {
  e.stopPropagation(); e.preventDefault();
  var f = e.dataTransfer.files[0];
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var workbook = XLSX.read(e.target.result);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(f);
}
drop_dom_element.addEventListener('drop', handleDrop, false);

Browser file upload form element (click to show)

Data from file input elements can be processed using the same APIs as in the drag-and-drop example.

Using Blob#arrayBuffer:

async function handleFileAsync(e) {
  const file = e.target.files[0];
  const data = await file.arrayBuffer();
  const workbook = XLSX.read(data);

  /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener('change', handleFileAsync, false);

Using FileReader:

function handleFile(e) {
  var files = e.target.files, f = files[0];
  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(e) {
    var workbook = XLSX.read(e.target.result);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook HERE */
  };
  reader.readAsArrayBuffer(f);
}
input_dom_element.addEventListener('change', handleFile, false);

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

More specialized cases, including mobile app file processing, are covered in the included demos

Parsing Examples

Note that older versions of IE do not support HTML5 File API, so the Base64 mode is used for testing.

Get Base64 encoding on OSX / Windows (click to show)

On OSX you can get the Base64 encoding with:

$ <target_file base64 | pbcopy

On Windows XP and up you can get the Base64 encoding using certutil:

> certutil -encode target_file target_file.b64

(note: You have to open the file and remove the header and footer lines)

Streaming Read

Why is there no Streaming Read API? (click to show)

The most common and interesting formats (XLS, XLSX/M, XLSB, ODS) are ultimately ZIP or CFB containers of files. Neither format puts the directory structure at the beginning of the file: ZIP files place the Central Directory records at the end of the logical file, while CFB files can place the storage info anywhere in the file! As a result, to properly handle these formats, a streaming function would have to buffer the entire file before commencing. That belies the expectations of streaming, so we do not provide any streaming read API.

When dealing with Readable Streams, the easiest approach is to buffer the stream and process the whole thing at the end. This can be done with a temporary file or by explicitly concatenating the stream:

Explicitly concatenating streams (click to show)

var fs = require('fs');
var XLSX = require('xlsx');
function process_RS(stream/*:ReadStream*/, cb/*:(wb:Workbook)=>void*/)/*:void*/{
  var buffers = [];
  stream.on('data', function(data) { buffers.push(data); });
  stream.on('end', function() {
    var buffer = Buffer.concat(buffers);
    var workbook = XLSX.read(buffer, {type:"buffer"});

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook IN THE CALLBACK */
    cb(workbook);
  });
}

More robust solutions are available using modules like concat-stream.

Writing to filesystem first (click to show)

This example uses tempfile to generate file names:

var fs = require('fs'), tempfile = require('tempfile');
var XLSX = require('xlsx');
function process_RS(stream/*:ReadStream*/, cb/*:(wb:Workbook)=>void*/)/*:void*/{
  var fname = tempfile('.sheetjs');
  console.log(fname);
  var ostream = fs.createWriteStream(fname);
  stream.pipe(ostream);
  ostream.on('finish', function() {
    var workbook = XLSX.readFile(fname);
    fs.unlinkSync(fname);

    /* DO SOMETHING WITH workbook IN THE CALLBACK */
    cb(workbook);
  });
}

Working with the Workbook

The full object format is described later in this README.

Reading a specific cell (click to show)

This example extracts the value stored in cell A1 from the first worksheet:

var first_sheet_name = workbook.SheetNames[0];
var address_of_cell = 'A1';

/* Get worksheet */
var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[first_sheet_name];

/* Find desired cell */
var desired_cell = worksheet[address_of_cell];

/* Get the value */
var desired_value = (desired_cell ? desired_cell.v : undefined);

Adding a new worksheet to a workbook (click to show)

This example uses XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet to make a sheet and XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet to append the sheet to the workbook:

var ws_name = "SheetJS";

/* make worksheet */
var ws_data = [
  [ "S", "h", "e", "e", "t", "J", "S" ],
  [  1 ,  2 ,  3 ,  4 ,  5 ]
];
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet(ws_data);

/* Add the worksheet to the workbook */
XLSX.utils.book_append_sheet(wb, ws, ws_name);

Creating a new workbook from scratch (click to show)

The workbook object contains a SheetNames array of names and a Sheets object mapping sheet names to sheet objects. The XLSX.utils.book_new utility function creates a new workbook object:

/* create a new blank workbook */
var wb = XLSX.utils.book_new();

The new workbook is blank and contains no worksheets. The write functions will error if the workbook is empty.

Parsing and Writing Examples

https://sheetjs.com/demos/modify.html read + modify + write files

https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs/blob/HEAD/bin/xlsx.njs node

The node version installs a command line tool xlsx which can read spreadsheet files and output the contents in various formats. The source is available at xlsx.njs in the bin directory.

Some helper functions in XLSX.utils generate different views of the sheets:

  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv generates CSV
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt generates UTF16 Formatted Text
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html generates HTML
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates an array of objects
  • XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates a list of formulae

Writing Workbooks

For writing, the first step is to generate output data. The helper functions write and writeFile will produce the data in various formats suitable for dissemination. The second step is to actual share the data with the end point. Assuming workbook is a workbook object:

nodejs write a file (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile uses fs.writeFileSync in server environments:

if(typeof require !== 'undefined') XLSX = require('xlsx');
/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsb');
/* at this point, out.xlsb is a file that you can distribute */

Photoshop ExtendScript write a file (click to show)

writeFile wraps the File logic in Photoshop and other ExtendScript targets. The specified path should be an absolute path:

#include "xlsx.extendscript.js"
/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsx');
/* at this point, out.xlsx is a file that you can distribute */

The extendscript demo includes a more complex example.

Browser add TABLE element to page (click to show)

The sheet_to_html utility function generates HTML code that can be added to any DOM element.

var worksheet = workbook.Sheets[workbook.SheetNames[0]];
var container = document.getElementById('tableau');
container.innerHTML = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(worksheet);

Browser upload file (ajax) (click to show)

A complete example using XHR is included in the XHR demo, along with examples for fetch and wrapper libraries. This example assumes the server can handle Base64-encoded files (see the demo for a basic nodejs server):

/* in this example, send a base64 string to the server */
var wopts = { bookType:'xlsx', bookSST:false, type:'base64' };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("POST", "/upload", true);
var formdata = new FormData();
formdata.append('file', 'test.xlsx'); // <-- server expects `file` to hold name
formdata.append('data', wbout); // <-- `data` holds the base64-encoded data
req.send(formdata);

Browser save file (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile wraps a few techniques for triggering a file save:

  • URL browser API creates an object URL for the file, which the library uses by creating a link and forcing a click. It is supported in modern browsers.
  • msSaveBlob is an IE10+ API for triggering a file save.
  • IE_FileSave uses VBScript and ActiveX to write a file in IE6+ for Windows XP and Windows 7. The shim must be included in the containing HTML page.

There is no standard way to determine if the actual file has been downloaded.

/* output format determined by filename */
XLSX.writeFile(workbook, 'out.xlsb');
/* at this point, out.xlsb will have been downloaded */

Browser save file (compatibility) (click to show)

XLSX.writeFile techniques work for most modern browsers as well as older IE. For much older browsers, there are workarounds implemented by wrapper libraries.

FileSaver.js implements saveAs. Note: XLSX.writeFile will automatically call saveAs if available.

/* bookType can be any supported output type */
var wopts = { bookType:'xlsx', bookSST:false, type:'array' };

var wbout = XLSX.write(workbook,wopts);

/* the saveAs call downloads a file on the local machine */
saveAs(new Blob([wbout],{type:"application/octet-stream"}), "test.xlsx");

Downloadify uses a Flash SWF button to generate local files, suitable for environments where ActiveX is unavailable:

Downloadify.create(id,{
    /* other options are required! read the downloadify docs for more info */
    filename: "test.xlsx",
    data: function() { return XLSX.write(wb, {bookType:"xlsx", type:'base64'}); },
    append: false,
    dataType: 'base64'
});

The oldie demo shows an IE-compatible fallback scenario.

The included demos cover mobile apps and other special deployments.

Writing Examples

Streaming Write

The streaming write functions are available in the XLSX.stream object. They take the same arguments as the normal write functions but return a Readable Stream. They are only exposed in NodeJS.

  • XLSX.stream.to_csv is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv.
  • XLSX.stream.to_html is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html.
  • XLSX.stream.to_json is the streaming version of XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json.

nodejs convert to CSV and write file (click to show)

var output_file_name = "out.csv";
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_csv(worksheet);
stream.pipe(fs.createWriteStream(output_file_name));

nodejs write JSON stream to screen (click to show)

/* to_json returns an object-mode stream */
var stream = XLSX.stream.to_json(worksheet, {raw:true});

/* the following stream converts JS objects to text via JSON.stringify */
var conv = new Transform({writableObjectMode:true});
conv._transform = function(obj, e, cb){ cb(null, JSON.stringify(obj) + "\n"); };

stream.pipe(conv); conv.pipe(process.stdout);

https://github.com/sheetjs/sheetaki pipes write streams to nodejs response.

Interface

XLSX is the exposed variable in the browser and the exported node variable

XLSX.version is the version of the library (added by the build script).

XLSX.SSF is an embedded version of the format library.

Parsing functions

XLSX.read(data, read_opts) attempts to parse data.

XLSX.readFile(filename, read_opts) attempts to read filename and parse.

Parse options are described in the Parsing Options section.

Writing functions

XLSX.write(wb, write_opts) attempts to write the workbook wb

XLSX.writeFile(wb, filename, write_opts) attempts to write wb to filename. In browser-based environments, it will attempt to force a client-side download.

XLSX.writeFileAsync(wb, filename, o, cb) attempts to write wb to filename. If o is omitted, the writer will use the third argument as the callback.

XLSX.stream contains a set of streaming write functions.

Write options are described in the Writing Options section.

Utilities

Utilities are available in the XLSX.utils object and are described in the Utility Functions section:

Importing:

  • aoa_to_sheet converts an array of arrays of JS data to a worksheet.
  • json_to_sheet converts an array of JS objects to a worksheet.
  • table_to_sheet converts a DOM TABLE element to a worksheet.
  • sheet_add_aoa adds an array of arrays of JS data to an existing worksheet.
  • sheet_add_json adds an array of JS objects to an existing worksheet.

Exporting:

  • sheet_to_json converts a worksheet object to an array of JSON objects.
  • sheet_to_csv generates delimiter-separated-values output.
  • sheet_to_txt generates UTF16 formatted text.
  • sheet_to_html generates HTML output.
  • sheet_to_formulae generates a list of the formulae (with value fallbacks).

Cell and cell address manipulation:

  • format_cell generates the text value for a cell (using number formats).
  • encode_row / decode_row converts between 0-indexed rows and 1-indexed rows.
  • encode_col / decode_col converts between 0-indexed columns and column names.
  • encode_cell / decode_cell converts cell addresses.
  • encode_range / decode_range converts cell ranges.

Common Spreadsheet Format

SheetJS conforms to the Common Spreadsheet Format (CSF):

General Structures

Cell address objects are stored as {c:C, r:R} where C and R are 0-indexed column and row numbers, respectively. For example, the cell address B5 is represented by the object {c:1, r:4}.

Cell range objects are stored as {s:S, e:E} where S is the first cell and E is the last cell in the range. The ranges are inclusive. For example, the range A3:B7 is represented by the object {s:{c:0, r:2}, e:{c:1, r:6}}. Utility functions perform a row-major order walk traversal of a sheet range:

for(var R = range.s.r; R <= range.e.r; ++R) {
  for(var C = range.s.c; C <= range.e.c; ++C) {
    var cell_address = {c:C, r:R};
    /* if an A1-style address is needed, encode the address */
    var cell_ref = XLSX.utils.encode_cell(cell_address);
  }
}

Cell Object

Cell objects are plain JS objects with keys and values following the convention:

KeyDescription
vraw value (see Data Types section for more info)
wformatted text (if applicable)
ttype: b Boolean, e Error, n Number, d Date, s Text, z Stub
fcell formula encoded as an A1-style string (if applicable)
Frange of enclosing array if formula is array formula (if applicable)
rrich text encoding (if applicable)
hHTML rendering of the rich text (if applicable)
ccomments associated with the cell
znumber format string associated with the cell (if requested)
lcell hyperlink object (.Target holds link, .Tooltip is tooltip)
sthe style/theme of the cell (if applicable)

Built-in export utilities (such as the CSV exporter) will use the w text if it is available. To change a value, be sure to delete cell.w (or set it to undefined) before attempting to export. The utilities will regenerate the w text from the number format (cell.z) and the raw value if possible.

The actual array formula is stored in the f field of the first cell in the array range. Other cells in the range will omit the f field.

Data Types

The raw value is stored in the v value property, interpreted based on the t type property. This separation allows for representation of numbers as well as numeric text. There are 6 valid cell types:

TypeDescription
bBoolean: value interpreted as JS boolean
eError: value is a numeric code and w property stores common name **
nNumber: value is a JS number **
dDate: value is a JS Date object or string to be parsed as Date **
sText: value interpreted as JS string and written as text **
zStub: blank stub cell that is ignored by data processing utilities **

Error values and interpretation (click to show)

ValueError Meaning
0x00#NULL!
0x07#DIV/0!
0x0F#VALUE!
0x17#REF!
0x1D#NAME?
0x24#NUM!
0x2A#N/A
0x2B#GETTING_DATA

Type n is the Number type. This includes all forms of data that Excel stores as numbers, such as dates/times and Boolean fields. Excel exclusively uses data that can be fit in an IEEE754 floating point number, just like JS Number, so the v field holds the raw number. The w field holds formatted text. Dates are stored as numbers by default and converted with XLSX.SSF.parse_date_code.

Type d is the Date type, generated only when the option cellDates is passed. Since JSON does not have a natural Date type, parsers are generally expected to store ISO 8601 Date strings like you would get from date.toISOString(). On the other hand, writers and exporters should be able to handle date strings and JS Date objects. Note that Excel disregards timezone modifiers and treats all dates in the local timezone. The library does not correct for this error.

Type s is the String type. Values are explicitly stored as text. Excel will interpret these cells as "number stored as text". Generated Excel files automatically suppress that class of error, but other formats may elicit errors.

Type z represents blank stub cells. They are generated in cases where cells have no assigned value but hold comments or other metadata. They are ignored by the core library data processing utility functions. By default these cells are not generated; the parser sheetStubs option must be set to true.

Dates

Excel Date Code details (click to show)

By default, Excel stores dates as numbers with a format code that specifies date processing. For example, the date 19-Feb-17 is stored as the number 42785 with a number format of d-mmm-yy. The SSF module understands number formats and performs the appropriate conversion.

XLSX also supports a special date type d where the data is an ISO 8601 date string. The formatter converts the date back to a number.

The default behavior for all parsers is to generate number cells. Setting cellDates to true will force the generators to store dates.

Time Zones and Dates (click to show)

Excel has no native concept of universal time. All times are specified in the local time zone. Excel limitations prevent specifying true absolute dates.

Following Excel, this library treats all dates as relative to local time zone.

Epochs: 1900 and 1904 (click to show)

Excel supports two epochs (January 1 1900 and January 1 1904). The workbook's epoch can be determined by examining the workbook's wb.Workbook.WBProps.date1904 property:

!!(((wb.Workbook||{}).WBProps||{}).date1904)

Sheet Objects

Each key that does not start with ! maps to a cell (using A-1 notation)

sheet[address] returns the cell object for the specified address.

Special sheet keys (accessible as sheet[key], each starting with !):

sheet['!ref']: A-1 based range representing the sheet range. Functions that work with sheets should use this parameter to determine the range. Cells that are assigned outside of the range are not processed. In particular, when writing a sheet by hand, cells outside of the range are not included

Functions that handle sheets should test for the presence of !ref field. If the !ref is omitted or is not a valid range, functions are free to treat the sheet as empty or attempt to guess the range. The standard utilities that ship with this library treat sheets as empty (for example, the CSV output is empty string).

When reading a worksheet with the sheetRows property set, the ref parameter will use the restricted range. The original range is set at ws['!fullref']

sheet['!margins']: Object representing the page margins. The default values follow Excel's "normal" preset. Excel also has a "wide" and a "narrow" preset but they are stored as raw measurements. The main properties are listed below:

Page margin details (click to show)

keydescription"normal""wide""narrow"
leftleft margin (inches)0.71.00.25
rightright margin (inches)0.71.00.25
toptop margin (inches)0.751.00.75
bottombottom margin (inches)0.751.00.75
headerheader margin (inches)0.30.50.3
footerfooter margin (inches)0.30.50.3
/* Set worksheet sheet to "normal" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.7, right:0.7, top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "wide" */
ws["!margins"]={left:1.0, right:1.0, top:1.0, bottom:1.0, header:0.5,footer:0.5}
/* Set worksheet sheet to "narrow" */
ws["!margins"]={left:0.25,right:0.25,top:0.75,bottom:0.75,header:0.3,footer:0.3}

Worksheet Object

In addition to the base sheet keys, worksheets also add:

ws['!cols']: array of column properties objects. Column widths are actually stored in files in a normalized manner, measured in terms of the "Maximum Digit Width" (the largest width of the rendered digits 0-9, in pixels). When parsed, the column objects store the pixel width in the wpx field, character width in the wch field, and the maximum digit width in the MDW field.

ws['!rows']: array of row properties objects as explained later in the docs. Each row object encodes properties including row height and visibility.

ws['!merges']: array of range objects corresponding to the merged cells in the worksheet. Plain text formats do not support merge cells. CSV export will write all cells in the merge range if they exist, so be sure that only the first cell (upper-left) in the range is set.

ws['!outline']: configure how outlines should behave. Options default to the default settings in Excel 2019:

keyExcel featuredefault
aboveUncheck "Summary rows below detail"false
leftUncheck "Summary rows to the right of detail"false
  • ws['!protect']: object of write sheet protection properties. The password key specifies the password for formats that support password-protected sheets (XLSX/XLSB/XLS). The writer uses the XOR obfuscation method. The following keys control the sheet protection -- set to false to enable a feature when sheet is locked or set to true to disable a feature:

Worksheet Protection Details (click to show)

keyfeature (true=disabled / false=enabled)default
selectLockedCellsSelect locked cellsenabled
selectUnlockedCellsSelect unlocked cellsenabled
formatCellsFormat cellsdisabled
formatColumnsFormat columnsdisabled
formatRowsFormat rowsdisabled
insertColumnsInsert columnsdisabled
insertRowsInsert rowsdisabled
insertHyperlinksInsert hyperlinksdisabled
deleteColumnsDelete columnsdisabled
deleteRowsDelete rowsdisabled
sortSortdisabled
autoFilterFilterdisabled
pivotTablesUse PivotTable reportsdisabled
objectsEdit objectsenabled
scenariosEdit scenariosenabled
  • ws['!autofilter']: AutoFilter object following the schema:
type AutoFilter = {
  ref:string; // A-1 based range representing the AutoFilter table range
}

Chartsheet Object

Chartsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "chart".

The underlying data and !ref refer to the cached data in the chartsheet. The first row of the chartsheet is the underlying header.

Macrosheet Object

Macrosheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "macro".

Dialogsheet Object

Dialogsheets are represented as standard sheets. They are distinguished with the !type property set to "dialog".

Workbook Object

workbook.SheetNames is an ordered list of the sheets in the workbook

wb.Sheets[sheetname] returns an object representing the worksheet.

wb.Props is an object storing the standard properties. wb.Custprops stores custom properties. Since the XLS standard properties deviate from the XLSX standard, XLS parsing stores core properties in both places.

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Workbook File Properties

The various file formats use different internal names for file properties. The workbook Props object normalizes the names:

File Properties (click to show)

JS NameExcel Description
TitleSummary tab "Title"
SubjectSummary tab "Subject"
AuthorSummary tab "Author"
ManagerSummary tab "Manager"
CompanySummary tab "Company"
CategorySummary tab "Category"
KeywordsSummary tab "Keywords"
CommentsSummary tab "Comments"
LastAuthorStatistics tab "Last saved by"
CreatedDateStatistics tab "Created"

For example, to set the workbook title property:

if(!wb.Props) wb.Props = {};
wb.Props.Title = "Insert Title Here";

Custom properties are added in the workbook Custprops object:

if(!wb.Custprops) wb.Custprops = {};
wb.Custprops["Custom Property"] = "Custom Value";

Writers will process the Props key of the options object:

/* force the Author to be "SheetJS" */
XLSX.write(wb, {Props:{Author:"SheetJS"}});

Workbook-Level Attributes

wb.Workbook stores workbook-level attributes.

Defined Names

wb.Workbook.Names is an array of defined name objects which have the keys:

Defined Name Properties (click to show)

KeyDescription
SheetName scope. Sheet Index (0 = first sheet) or null (Workbook)
NameCase-sensitive name. Standard rules apply **
RefA1-style Reference ("Sheet1!$A$1:$D$20")
CommentComment (only applicable for XLS/XLSX/XLSB)

Excel allows two sheet-scoped defined names to share the same name. However, a sheet-scoped name cannot collide with a workbook-scope name. Workbook writers may not enforce this constraint.

Workbook Views

wb.Workbook.Views is an array of workbook view objects which have the keys:

KeyDescription
RTLIf true, display right-to-left

Miscellaneous Workbook Properties

wb.Workbook.WBProps holds other workbook properties:

KeyDescription
CodeNameVBA Project Workbook Code Name
date1904epoch: 0/false for 1900 system, 1/true for 1904
filterPrivacyWarn or strip personally identifying info on save

Document Features

Even for basic features like date storage, the official Excel formats store the same content in different ways. The parsers are expected to convert from the underlying file format representation to the Common Spreadsheet Format. Writers are expected to convert from CSF back to the underlying file format.

Formulae

The A1-style formula string is stored in the f field. Even though different file formats store the formulae in different ways, the formats are translated. Even though some formats store formulae with a leading equal sign, CSF formulae do not start with =.

Representation of A1=1, A2=2, A3=A1+A2 (click to show)

{
  "!ref": "A1:A3",
  A1: { t:'n', v:1 },
  A2: { t:'n', v:2 },
  A3: { t:'n', v:3, f:'A1+A2' }
}

Shared formulae are decompressed and each cell has the formula corresponding to its cell. Writers generally do not attempt to generate shared formulae.

Cells with formula entries but no value will be serialized in a way that Excel and other spreadsheet tools will recognize. This library will not automatically compute formula results! For example, to compute BESSELJ in a worksheet:

Formula without known value (click to show)

{
  "!ref": "A1:A3",
  A1: { t:'n', v:3.14159 },
  A2: { t:'n', v:2 },
  A3: { t:'n', f:'BESSELJ(A1,A2)' }
}

Array Formulae

Array formulae are stored in the top-left cell of the array block. All cells of an array formula have a F field corresponding to the range. A single-cell formula can be distinguished from a plain formula by the presence of F field.

Array Formula examples (click to show)

For example, setting the cell C1 to the array formula {=SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)}:

worksheet['C1'] = { t:'n', f: "SUM(A1:A3*B1:B3)", F:"C1:C1" };

For a multi-cell array formula, every cell has the same array range but only the first cell specifies the formula. Consider D1:D3=A1:A3*B1:B3:

worksheet['D1'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3", f:"A1:A3*B1:B3" };
worksheet['D2'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };
worksheet['D3'] = { t:'n', F:"D1:D3" };

Utilities and writers are expected to check for the presence of a F field and ignore any possible formula element f in cells other than the starting cell. They are not expected to perform validation of the formulae!

Formula Output Utility Function (click to show)

The sheet_to_formulae method generates one line per formula or array formula. Array formulae are rendered in the form range=formula while plain cells are rendered in the form cell=formula or value. Note that string literals are prefixed with an apostrophe ', consistent with Excel's formula bar display.

Formulae File Format Details (click to show)

Storage RepresentationFormatsReadWrite
A1-style stringsXLSX
RC-style stringsXLML and plain text
BIFF Parsed formulaeXLSB and all XLS formats 
OpenFormula formulaeODS/FODS/UOS
Lotus Parsed formulaeAll Lotus WK_ formats 

Since Excel prohibits named cells from colliding with names of A1 or RC style cell references, a (not-so-simple) regex conversion is possible. BIFF Parsed formulae and Lotus Parsed formulae have to be explicitly unwound. OpenFormula formulae can be converted with regular expressions.

Column Properties

The !cols array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of ColInfo objects which have the following properties:

type ColInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the column is hidden

  /* column width is specified in one of the following ways: */
  wpx?:    number;  // width in screen pixels
  width?:  number;  // width in Excel's "Max Digit Width", width*256 is integral
  wch?:    number;  // width in characters

  /* other fields for preserving features from files */
  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
  MDW?:    number;  // Excel's "Max Digit Width" unit, always integral
};

Why are there three width types? (click to show)

There are three different width types corresponding to the three different ways spreadsheets store column widths:

SYLK and other plain text formats use raw character count. Contemporaneous tools like Visicalc and Multiplan were character based. Since the characters had the same width, it sufficed to store a count. This tradition was continued into the BIFF formats.

SpreadsheetML (2003) tried to align with HTML by standardizing on screen pixel count throughout the file. Column widths, row heights, and other measures use pixels. When the pixel and character counts do not align, Excel rounds values.

XLSX internally stores column widths in a nebulous "Max Digit Width" form. The Max Digit Width is the width of the largest digit when rendered (generally the "0" character is the widest). The internal width must be an integer multiple of the the width divided by 256. ECMA-376 describes a formula for converting between pixels and the internal width. This represents a hybrid approach.

Read functions attempt to populate all three properties. Write functions will try to cycle specified values to the desired type. In order to avoid potential conflicts, manipulation should delete the other properties first. For example, when changing the pixel width, delete the wch and width properties.

Implementation details (click to show)

Given the constraints, it is possible to determine the MDW without actually inspecting the font! The parsers guess the pixel width by converting from width to pixels and back, repeating for all possible MDW and selecting the MDW that minimizes the error. XLML actually stores the pixel width, so the guess works in the opposite direction.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use width field if available
  2. use wpx pixel width if available
  3. use wch character count if available

Row Properties

The !rows array in each worksheet, if present, is a collection of RowInfo objects which have the following properties:

type RowInfo = {
  /* visibility */
  hidden?: boolean; // if true, the row is hidden

  /* row height is specified in one of the following ways: */
  hpx?:    number;  // height in screen pixels
  hpt?:    number;  // height in points

  level?:  number;  // 0-indexed outline / group level
};

Note: Excel UI displays the base outline level as 1 and the max level as 8. The level field stores the base outline as 0 and the max level as 7.

Implementation details (click to show)

Excel internally stores row heights in points. The default resolution is 72 DPI or 96 PPI, so the pixel and point size should agree. For different resolutions they may not agree, so the library separates the concepts.

Even though all of the information is made available, writers are expected to follow the priority order:

  1. use hpx pixel height if available
  2. use hpt point height if available

Number Formats

The cell.w formatted text for each cell is produced from cell.v and cell.z format. If the format is not specified, the Excel General format is used. The format can either be specified as a string or as an index into the format table. Parsers are expected to populate workbook.SSF with the number format table. Writers are expected to serialize the table.

Custom tools should ensure that the local table has each used format string somewhere in the table. Excel convention mandates that the custom formats start at index 164. The following example creates a custom format from scratch:

New worksheet with custom format (click to show)

var wb = {
  SheetNames: ["Sheet1"],
  Sheets: {
    Sheet1: {
      "!ref":"A1:C1",
      A1: { t:"n", v:10000 },                    // <-- General format
      B1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "0%" },           // <-- Builtin format
      C1: { t:"n", v:10000, z: "\"T\"\ #0.00" }  // <-- Custom format
    }
  }
}

The rules are slightly different from how Excel displays custom number formats. In particular, literal characters must be wrapped in double quotes or preceded by a backslash. For more info, see the Excel documentation article Create or delete a custom number format or ECMA-376 18.8.31 (Number Formats)

Default Number Formats (click to show)

The default formats are listed in ECMA-376 18.8.30:

IDFormat
0General
10
20.00
3#,##0
4#,##0.00
90%
100.00%
110.00E+00
12# ?/?
13# ??/??
14m/d/yy (see below)
15d-mmm-yy
16d-mmm
17mmm-yy
18h:mm AM/PM
19h:mm:ss AM/PM
20h:mm
21h:mm:ss
22m/d/yy h:mm
37#,##0 ;(#,##0)
38#,##0 ;[Red](#,##0)
39#,##0.00;(#,##0.00)
40#,##0.00;[Red](#,##0.00)
45mm:ss
46[h]:mm:ss
47mmss.0
48##0.0E+0
49@

Format 14 (m/d/yy) is localized by Excel: even though the file specifies that number format, it will be drawn differently based on system settings. It makes sense when the producer and consumer of files are in the same locale, but that is not always the case over the Internet. To get around this ambiguity, parse functions accept the dateNF option to override the interpretation of that specific format string.

Hyperlinks

Format Support (click to show)

Cell Hyperlinks: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML, ODS

Tooltips: XLSX/M, XLSB, BIFF8 XLS, XLML

Hyperlinks are stored in the l key of cell objects. The Target field of the hyperlink object is the target of the link, including the URI fragment. Tooltips are stored in the Tooltip field and are displayed when you move your mouse over the text.

For example, the following snippet creates a link from cell A3 to https://sheetjs.com with the tip "Find us @ SheetJS.com!":

ws['A1'].l = { Target:"https://sheetjs.com", Tooltip:"Find us @ SheetJS.com!" };

Note that Excel does not automatically style hyperlinks -- they will generally be displayed as normal text.

Remote Links

HTTP / HTTPS links can be used directly:

ws['A2'].l = { Target:"https://docs.sheetjs.com/#hyperlinks" };
ws['A3'].l = { Target:"http://localhost:7262/yes_localhost_works" };

Excel also supports mailto email links with subject line:

ws['A4'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null" };
ws['A5'].l = { Target:"mailto:ignored@dev.null?subject=Test Subject" };

Local Links

Links to absolute paths should use the file:// URI scheme:

ws['B1'].l = { Target:"file:///SheetJS/t.xlsx" }; /* Link to /SheetJS/t.xlsx */
ws['B2'].l = { Target:"file:///c:/SheetJS.xlsx" }; /* Link to c:\SheetJS.xlsx */

Links to relative paths can be specified without a scheme:

ws['B3'].l = { Target:"SheetJS.xlsb" }; /* Link to SheetJS.xlsb */
ws['B4'].l = { Target:"../SheetJS.xlsm" }; /* Link to ../SheetJS.xlsm */

Relative Paths have undefined behavior in the SpreadsheetML 2003 format. Excel 2019 will treat a ..\ parent mark as two levels up.

Internal Links

Links where the target is a cell or range or defined name in the same workbook ("Internal Links") are marked with a leading hash character:

ws['C1'].l = { Target:"#E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 */
ws['C2'].l = { Target:"#Sheet2!E2" }; /* Link to cell E2 in sheet Sheet2 */
ws['C3'].l = { Target:"#SomeDefinedName" }; /* Link to Defined Name */

Cell Comments

Cell comments are objects stored in the c array of cell objects. The actual contents of the comment are split into blocks based on the comment author. The a field of each comment object is the author of the comment and the t field is the plain text representation.

For example, the following snippet appends a cell comment into cell A1:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"I'm a little comment, short and stout!"});

Note: XLSB enforces a 54 character limit on the Author name. Names longer than 54 characters may cause issues with other formats.

To mark a comment as normally hidden, set the hidden property:

if(!ws.A1.c) ws.A1.c = [];
ws.A1.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment is visible"});

if(!ws.A2.c) ws.A2.c = [];
ws.A2.c.hidden = true;
ws.A2.c.push({a:"SheetJS", t:"This comment will be hidden"});

Sheet Visibility

Excel enables hiding sheets in the lower tab bar. The sheet data is stored in the file but the UI does not readily make it available. Standard hidden sheets are revealed in the "Unhide" menu. Excel also has "very hidden" sheets which cannot be revealed in the menu. It is only accessible in the VB Editor!

The visibility setting is stored in the Hidden property of sheet props array.

More details (click to show)

ValueDefinition
0Visible
1Hidden
2Very Hidden

With https://rawgit.com/SheetJS/test_files/HEAD/sheet_visibility.xlsx:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', 0 ], [ 'Hidden', 1 ], [ 'VeryHidden', 2 ] ]

Non-Excel formats do not support the Very Hidden state. The best way to test if a sheet is visible is to check if the Hidden property is logical truth:

> wb.Workbook.Sheets.map(function(x) { return [x.name, !x.Hidden] })
[ [ 'Visible', true ], [ 'Hidden', false ], [ 'VeryHidden', false ] ]

VBA and Macros

VBA Macros are stored in a special data blob that is exposed in the vbaraw property of the workbook object when the bookVBA option is true. They are supported in XLSM, XLSB, and BIFF8 XLS formats. The supported format writers automatically insert the data blobs if it is present in the workbook and associate with the worksheet names.

Custom Code Names (click to show)

The workbook code name is stored in wb.Workbook.WBProps.CodeName. By default, Excel will write ThisWorkbook or a translated phrase like DieseArbeitsmappe. Worksheet and Chartsheet code names are in the worksheet properties object at wb.Workbook.Sheets[i].CodeName. Macrosheets and Dialogsheets are ignored.

The readers and writers preserve the code names, but they have to be manually set when adding a VBA blob to a different workbook.

Macrosheets (click to show)

Older versions of Excel also supported a non-VBA "macrosheet" sheet type that stored automation commands. These are exposed in objects with the !type property set to "macro".

Detecting macros in workbooks (click to show)

The vbaraw field will only be set if macros are present, so testing is simple:

function wb_has_macro(wb/*:workbook*/)/*:boolean*/ {
    if(!!wb.vbaraw) return true;
    const sheets = wb.SheetNames.map((n) => wb.Sheets[n]);
    return sheets.some((ws) => !!ws && ws['!type']=='macro');
}

Parsing Options

The exported read and readFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Input data encoding (see Input Type below)
rawfalseIf true, plain text parsing will not parse values **
codepage If specified, use code page when appropriate **
cellFormulatrueSave formulae to the .f field
cellHTMLtrueParse rich text and save HTML to the .h field
cellNFfalseSave number format string to the .z field
cellStylesfalseSave style/theme info to the .s field
cellTexttrueGenerated formatted text to the .w field
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
dateNF If specified, use the string for date code 14 **
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for stub cells
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows **
bookDepsfalseIf true, parse calculation chains
bookFilesfalseIf true, add raw files to book object **
bookPropsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get book metadata **
bookSheetsfalseIf true, only parse enough to get the sheet names
bookVBAfalseIf true, copy VBA blob to vbaraw field **
password""If defined and file is encrypted, use password **
WTFfalseIf true, throw errors on unexpected file features **
sheets If specified, only parse specified sheets **
PRNfalseIf true, allow parsing of PRN files **
xlfnfalseIf true, preserve _xlfn. prefixes in formulae **
FS DSV Field Separator override
  • Even if cellNF is false, formatted text will be generated and saved to .w
  • In some cases, sheets may be parsed even if bookSheets is false.
  • Excel aggressively tries to interpret values from CSV and other plain text. This leads to surprising behavior! The raw option suppresses value parsing.
  • bookSheets and bookProps combine to give both sets of information
  • Deps will be an empty object if bookDeps is false
  • bookFiles behavior depends on file type:
    • keys array (paths in the ZIP) for ZIP-based formats
    • files hash (mapping paths to objects representing the files) for ZIP
    • cfb object for formats using CFB containers
  • sheetRows-1 rows will be generated when looking at the JSON object output (since the header row is counted as a row when parsing the data)
  • By default all worksheets are parsed. sheets restricts based on input type:
    • number: zero-based index of worksheet to parse (0 is first worksheet)
    • string: name of worksheet to parse (case insensitive)
    • array of numbers and strings to select multiple worksheets.
  • bookVBA merely exposes the raw VBA CFB object. It does not parse the data. XLSM and XLSB store the VBA CFB object in xl/vbaProject.bin. BIFF8 XLS mixes the VBA entries alongside the core Workbook entry, so the library generates a new XLSB-compatible blob from the XLS CFB container.
  • codepage is applied to BIFF2 - BIFF5 files without CodePage records and to CSV files without BOM in type:"binary". BIFF8 XLS always defaults to 1200.
  • PRN affects parsing of text files without a common delimiter character.
  • Currently only XOR encryption is supported. Unsupported error will be thrown for files employing other encryption methods.
  • Newer Excel functions are serialized with the _xlfn. prefix, hidden from the user. SheetJS will strip _xlfn. normally. The xlfn option preserves them.
  • WTF is mainly for development. By default, the parser will suppress read errors on single worksheets, allowing you to read from the worksheets that do parse properly. Setting WTF:true forces those errors to be thrown.

Input Type

Strings can be interpreted in multiple ways. The type parameter for read tells the library how to parse the data argument:

typeexpected input
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"array: array of 8-bit unsigned int (byte n is data[n])
"file"string: path of file that will be read (nodejs only)

Guessing File Type

Implementation Details (click to show)

Excel and other spreadsheet tools read the first few bytes and apply other heuristics to determine a file type. This enables file type punning: renaming files with the .xls extension will tell your computer to use Excel to open the file but Excel will know how to handle it. This library applies similar logic:

Byte 0Raw File TypeSpreadsheet Types
0xD0CFB ContainerBIFF 5/8 or protected XLSX/XLSB or WQ3/QPW or XLR
0x09BIFF StreamBIFF 2/3/4/5
0x3CXML/HTMLSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x50ZIP ArchiveXLSB or XLSX/M or ODS or UOS2 or plain text
0x49Plain TextSYLK or plain text
0x54Plain TextDIF or plain text
0xEFUTF8 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0xFFUTF16 EncodedSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x00Record StreamLotus WK* or Quattro Pro or plain text
0x7BPlain textRTF or plain text
0x0APlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x0DPlain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text
0x20Plain textSpreadsheetML / Flat ODS / UOS1 / HTML / plain text

DBF files are detected based on the first byte as well as the third and fourth bytes (corresponding to month and day of the file date)

Works for Windows files are detected based on the BOF record with type 0xFF

Plain text format guessing follows the priority order:

FormatTest
XML<?xml appears in the first 1024 characters
HTMLstarts with < and HTML tags appear in the first 1024 characters *
XMLstarts with < and the first tag is valid
RTFstarts with {\rt
DSVstarts with /sep=.$/, separator is the specified character
DSVmore unquoted `
DSVmore unquoted ; chars than \t or , in the first 1024
TSVmore unquoted \t chars than , chars in the first 1024
CSVone of the first 1024 characters is a comma ","
ETHstarts with socialcalc:version:
PRNPRN option is set to true
CSV(fallback)
  • HTML tags include: html, table, head, meta, script, style, div

Why are random text files valid? (click to show)

Excel is extremely aggressive in reading files. Adding an XLS extension to any display text file (where the only characters are ANSI display chars) tricks Excel into thinking that the file is potentially a CSV or TSV file, even if it is only one column! This library attempts to replicate that behavior.

The best approach is to validate the desired worksheet and ensure it has the expected number of rows or columns. Extracting the range is extremely simple:

var range = XLSX.utils.decode_range(worksheet['!ref']);
var ncols = range.e.c - range.s.c + 1, nrows = range.e.r - range.s.r + 1;

Writing Options

The exported write and writeFile functions accept an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
type Output data encoding (see Output Type below)
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
bookSSTfalseGenerate Shared String Table **
bookType"xlsx"Type of Workbook (see below for supported formats)
sheet""Name of Worksheet for single-sheet formats **
compressionfalseUse ZIP compression for ZIP-based formats **
Props Override workbook properties when writing **
themeXLSX Override theme XML when writing XLSX/XLSB/XLSM **
ignoreECtrueSuppress "number as text" errors **
  • bookSST is slower and more memory intensive, but has better compatibility with older versions of iOS Numbers
  • The raw data is the only thing guaranteed to be saved. Features not described in this README may not be serialized.
  • cellDates only applies to XLSX output and is not guaranteed to work with third-party readers. Excel itself does not usually write cells with type d so non-Excel tools may ignore the data or error in the presence of dates.
  • Props is an object mirroring the workbook Props field. See the table from the Workbook File Properties section.
  • if specified, the string from themeXLSX will be saved as the primary theme for XLSX/XLSB/XLSM files (to xl/theme/theme1.xml in the ZIP)
  • Due to a bug in the program, some features like "Text to Columns" will crash Excel on worksheets where error conditions are ignored. The writer will mark files to ignore the error by default. Set ignoreEC to false to suppress.

Supported Output Formats

For broad compatibility with third-party tools, this library supports many output formats. The specific file type is controlled with bookType option:

bookTypefile extcontainersheetsDescription
xlsx.xlsxZIPmultiExcel 2007+ XML Format
xlsm.xlsmZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Macro XML Format
xlsb.xlsbZIPmultiExcel 2007+ Binary Format
biff8.xlsCFBmultiExcel 97-2004 Workbook Format
biff5.xlsCFBmultiExcel 5.0/95 Workbook Format
biff4.xlsnonesingleExcel 4.0 Worksheet Format
biff3.xlsnonesingleExcel 3.0 Worksheet Format
biff2.xlsnonesingleExcel 2.0 Worksheet Format
xlml.xlsnonemultiExcel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)
ods.odsZIPmultiOpenDocument Spreadsheet
fods.fodsnonemultiFlat OpenDocument Spreadsheet
wk3.wk3nonesingleLotus Workbook (WK3)
csv.csvnonesingleComma Separated Values
txt.txtnonesingleUTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
sylk.sylknonesingleSymbolic Link (SYLK)
html.htmlnonesingleHTML Document
dif.difnonesingleData Interchange Format (DIF)
dbf.dbfnonesingledBASE II + VFP Extensions (DBF)
wk1.wk1nonesingleLotus Worksheet (WK1)
rtf.rtfnonesingleRich Text Format (RTF)
prn.prnnonesingleLotus Formatted Text
eth.ethnonesingleEthercalc Record Format (ETH)
  • compression only applies to formats with ZIP containers.
  • Formats that only support a single sheet require a sheet option specifying the worksheet. If the string is empty, the first worksheet is used.
  • writeFile will automatically guess the output file format based on the file extension if bookType is not specified. It will choose the first format in the aforementioned table that matches the extension.

Output Type

The type argument for write mirrors the type argument for read:

typeoutput
"base64"string: Base64 encoding of the file
"binary"string: binary string (byte n is data.charCodeAt(n))
"string"string: JS string (characters interpreted as UTF8)
"buffer"nodejs Buffer
"array"ArrayBuffer, fallback array of 8-bit unsigned int
"file"string: path of file that will be created (nodejs only)

Utility Functions

The sheet_to_* functions accept a worksheet and an optional options object.

The *_to_sheet functions accept a data object and an optional options object.

The examples are based on the following worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |

Array of Arrays Input

XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet takes an array of arrays of JS values and returns a worksheet resembling the input data. Numbers, Booleans and Strings are stored as the corresponding styles. Dates are stored as date or numbers. Array holes and explicit undefined values are skipped. null values may be stubbed. All other values are stored as strings. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet:

var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([
  "SheetJS".split(""),
  [1,2,3,4,5,6,7],
  [2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
]);

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa takes an array of arrays of JS values and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as aoa_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetStubsfalseCreate cell objects of type z for null values
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.aoa_to_sheet([ "SheetJS".split("") ]);

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[1,2], [2,3], [3,4]], {origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[5,6,7], [6,7,8], [7,8,9]], {origin:{r:1, c:4}});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_aoa(ws, [[4,5,6,7,8,9,0]], {origin: -1});

Array of Objects Input

XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet takes an array of objects and returns a worksheet with automatically-generated "headers" based on the keys of the objects. The default column order is determined by the first appearance of the field using Object.keys. The function accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified field order (default Object.keys) **
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
  • All fields from each row will be written. If header is an array and it does not contain a particular field, the key will be appended to the array.
  • Cell types are deduced from the type of each value. For example, a Date object will generate a Date cell, while a string will generate a Text cell.
  • Null values will be skipped by default. If nullError is true, an error cell corresponding to #NULL! will be written to the worksheet.

Examples (click to show)

The original sheet cannot be reproduced using plain objects since JS object keys must be unique. After replacing the second e and S with e_1 and S_1:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { S:1, h:2, e:3, e_1:4, t:5, J:6, S_1:7 },
  { S:2, h:3, e:4, e_1:5, t:6, J:7, S_1:8 }
], {header:["S","h","e","e_1","t","J","S_1"]});

Alternatively, the header row can be skipped:

var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A:"S", B:"h", C:"e", D:"e", E:"t", F:"J", G:"S" },
  { A: 1,  B: 2,  C: 3,  D: 4,  E: 5,  F: 6,  G: 7  },
  { A: 2,  B: 3,  C: 4,  D: 5,  E: 6,  F: 7,  G: 8  }
], {header:["A","B","C","D","E","F","G"], skipHeader:true});

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json takes an array of objects and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as json_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
header Use specified column order (default Object.keys)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
skipHeaderfalseIf true, do not include header row in output
nullErrorfalseIf true, emit #NULL! error cells for null values
origin Use specified cell as starting point (see below)

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

Consider the worksheet:

XXX| A | B | C | D | E | F | G |
---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
 1 | S | h | e | e | t | J | S |
 2 | 1 | 2 |   |   | 5 | 6 | 7 |
 3 | 2 | 3 |   |   | 6 | 7 | 8 |
 4 | 3 | 4 |   |   | 7 | 8 | 9 |
 5 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 |

This worksheet can be built up in the order A1:G1, A2:B4, E2:G4, A5:G5:

/* Initial row */
var ws = XLSX.utils.json_to_sheet([
  { A: "S", B: "h", C: "e", D: "e", E: "t", F: "J", G: "S" }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true});

/* Write data starting at A2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 1, B: 2 }, { A: 2, B: 3 }, { A: 3, B: 4 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: "A2"});

/* Write data starting at E2 */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 5, B: 6, C: 7 }, { A: 6, B: 7, C: 8 }, { A: 7, B: 8, C: 9 }
], {skipHeader: true, origin: { r: 1, c: 4 }, header: [ "A", "B", "C" ]});

/* Append row */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_json(ws, [
  { A: 4, B: 5, C: 6, D: 7, E: 8, F: 9, G: 0 }
], {header: ["A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G"], skipHeader: true, origin: -1});

HTML Table Input

XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet takes a table DOM element and returns a worksheet resembling the input table. Numbers are parsed. All other data will be stored as strings.

XLSX.utils.table_to_book produces a minimal workbook based on the worksheet.

Both functions accept options arguments:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

Examples (click to show)

To generate the example sheet, start with the HTML table:

<table id="sheetjs">
<tr><td>S</td><td>h</td><td>e</td><td>e</td><td>t</td><td>J</td><td>S</td></tr>
<tr><td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td></tr>
<tr><td>2</td><td>3</td><td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td><td>7</td><td>8</td></tr>
</table>

To process the table:

var tbl = document.getElementById('sheetjs');
var wb = XLSX.utils.table_to_book(tbl);

Note: XLSX.read can handle HTML represented as strings.

XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom takes a table DOM element and updates an existing worksheet object. It follows the same process as table_to_sheet and accepts an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
raw If true, every cell will hold raw strings
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
cellDatesfalseStore dates as type d (default is n)
sheetRows0If >0, read the first sheetRows rows of the table
displayfalseIf true, hidden rows and cells will not be parsed

origin is expected to be one of:

originDescription
(cell object)Use specified cell (cell object)
(string)Use specified cell (A1-style cell)
(number >= 0)Start from the first column at specified row (0-indexed)
-1Append to bottom of worksheet starting on first column
(default)Start from cell A1

Examples (click to show)

A small helper function can create gap rows between tables:

function create_gap_rows(ws, nrows) {
  var ref = XLSX.utils.decode_range(ws["!ref"]);       // get original range
  ref.e.r += nrows;                                    // add to ending row
  ws["!ref"] = XLSX.utils.encode_range(ref);           // reassign row
}

/* first table */
var ws = XLSX.utils.table_to_sheet(document.getElementById('table1'));
create_gap_rows(ws, 1); // one row gap after first table

/* second table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table2'), {origin: -1});
create_gap_rows(ws, 3); // three rows gap after second table

/* third table */
XLSX.utils.sheet_add_dom(ws, document.getElementById('table3'), {origin: -1});

Formulae Output

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae generates an array of commands that represent how a person would enter data into an application. Each entry is of the form A1-cell-address=formula-or-value. String literals are prefixed with a ' in accordance with Excel.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> var o = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_formulae(ws);
> [o[0], o[5], o[10], o[15], o[20]];
[ 'A1=\'S', 'F1=\'J', 'D2=4', 'B3=3', 'G3=8' ]

Delimiter-Separated Output

As an alternative to the writeFile CSV type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv also produces CSV output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
FS",""Field Separator" delimiter between fields
RS"\n""Record Separator" delimiter between rows
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
stripfalseRemove trailing field separators in each record **
blankrowstrueInclude blank lines in the CSV output
skipHiddenfalseSkips hidden rows/columns in the CSV output
forceQuotesfalseForce quotes around fields
  • strip will remove trailing commas from each line under default FS/RS
  • blankrows must be set to false to skip blank lines.
  • Fields containing the record or field separator will automatically be wrapped in double quotes; forceQuotes forces all cells to be wrapped in quotes.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws));
S,h,e,e,t,J,S
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
2,3,4,5,6,7,8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws, {FS:"\t"}));
S    h    e    e    t    J    S
1    2    3    4    5    6    7
2    3    4    5    6    7    8
> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(ws,{FS:":",RS:"|"}));
S:h:e:e:t:J:S|1:2:3:4:5:6:7|2:3:4:5:6:7:8|

UTF-16 Unicode Text

The txt output type uses the tab character as the field separator. If the codepage library is available (included in full distribution but not core), the output will be encoded in CP1200 and the BOM will be prepended.

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_txt takes the same arguments as sheet_to_csv.

HTML Output

As an alternative to the writeFile HTML type, XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html also produces HTML output. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
id Specify the id attribute for the TABLE element
editablefalseIf true, set contenteditable="true" for every TD
header Override header (default html body)
footer Override footer (default /body /html)

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_html(ws));
// ...

JSON

XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json generates different types of JS objects. The function takes an options argument:

Option NameDefaultDescription
rawtrueUse raw values (true) or formatted strings (false)
rangefrom WSOverride Range (see table below)
header Control output format (see table below)
dateNFFMT 14Use specified date format in string output
defval Use specified value in place of null or undefined
blankrows**Include blank lines in the output **
  • raw only affects cells which have a format code (.z) field or a formatted text (.w) field.
  • If header is specified, the first row is considered a data row; if header is not specified, the first row is the header row and not considered data.
  • When header is not specified, the conversion will automatically disambiguate header entries by affixing _ and a count starting at 1. For example, if three columns have header foo the output fields are foo, foo_1, foo_2
  • null values are returned when raw is true but are skipped when false.
  • If defval is not specified, null and undefined values are skipped normally. If specified, all null and undefined points will be filled with defval
  • When header is 1, the default is to generate blank rows. blankrows must be set to false to skip blank rows.
  • When header is not 1, the default is to skip blank rows. blankrows must be true to generate blank rows

range is expected to be one of:

rangeDescription
(number)Use worksheet range but set starting row to the value
(string)Use specified range (A1-style bounded range string)
(default)Use worksheet range (ws['!ref'])

header is expected to be one of:

headerDescription
1Generate an array of arrays ("2D Array")
"A"Row object keys are literal column labels
array of stringsUse specified strings as keys in row objects
(default)Read and disambiguate first row as keys

If header is not 1, the row object will contain the non-enumerable property __rowNum__ that represents the row of the sheet corresponding to the entry.

Examples (click to show)

For the example sheet:

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws);
[ { S: 1, h: 2, e: 3, e_1: 4, t: 5, J: 6, S_1: 7 },
  { S: 2, h: 3, e: 4, e_1: 5, t: 6, J: 7, S_1: 8 } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:"A"});
[ { A: 'S', B: 'h', C: 'e', D: 'e', E: 't', F: 'J', G: 'S' },
  { A: '1', B: '2', C: '3', D: '4', E: '5', F: '6', G: '7' },
  { A: '2', B: '3', C: '4', D: '5', E: '6', F: '7', G: '8' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:["A","E","I","O","U","6","9"]});
[ { '6': 'J', '9': 'S', A: 'S', E: 'h', I: 'e', O: 'e', U: 't' },
  { '6': '6', '9': '7', A: '1', E: '2', I: '3', O: '4', U: '5' },
  { '6': '7', '9': '8', A: '2', E: '3', I: '4', O: '5', U: '6' } ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

Example showing the effect of raw:

> ws['A2'].w = "3";                          // set A2 formatted string value

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1, raw:false});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ '3', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7' ],     // <-- A2 uses the formatted string
  [ '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8' ] ]

> XLSX.utils.sheet_to_json(ws, {header:1});
[ [ 'S', 'h', 'e', 'e', 't', 'J', 'S' ],
  [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ],                   // <-- A2 uses the raw value
  [ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ] ]

File Formats

Despite the library name xlsx, it supports numerous spreadsheet file formats:

FormatReadWrite
Excel Worksheet/Workbook Formats:-----::-----:
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)
Excel 2003-2004 XML Format (XML "SpreadsheetML")
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)
Excel 4.0 (XLS/XLW BIFF4)
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)
Excel Supported Text Formats:-----::-----:
Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)
Data Interchange Format (DIF)
Symbolic Link (SYLK/SLK)
Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)
UTF-16 Unicode Text (TXT)
Other Workbook/Worksheet Formats:-----::-----:
OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS)
Flat XML ODF Spreadsheet (FODS)
Uniform Office Format Spreadsheet (标文通 UOS1/UOS2) 
dBASE II/III/IV / Visual FoxPro (DBF)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WK1/WK3)
Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK2/WK4/123) 
Quattro Pro Spreadsheet (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW) 
Works 1.x-3.x DOS / 2.x-5.x Windows Spreadsheet (WKS) 
Works 6.x-9.x Spreadsheet (XLR) 
Other Common Spreadsheet Output Formats:-----::-----:
HTML Tables
Rich Text Format tables (RTF) 
Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

Features not supported by a given file format will not be written. Formats with range limits will be silently truncated:

FormatLast CellMax ColsMax Rows
Excel 2007+ XML Formats (XLSX/XLSM)XFD1048576163841048576
Excel 2007+ Binary Format (XLSB BIFF12)XFD1048576163841048576
Excel 97-2004 (XLS BIFF8)IV6553625665536
Excel 5.0/95 (XLS BIFF5)IV1638425616384
Excel 4.0 (XLS BIFF4)IV1638425616384
Excel 3.0 (XLS BIFF3)IV1638425616384
Excel 2.0/2.1 (XLS BIFF2)IV1638425616384
Lotus 1-2-3 R2 - R5 (WK1/WK3/WK4)IV81922568192
Lotus 1-2-3 R1 (WKS)IV20482562048

Excel 2003 SpreadsheetML range limits are governed by the version of Excel and are not enforced by the writer.

Excel 2007+ XML (XLSX/XLSM)

(click to show)

XLSX and XLSM files are ZIP containers containing a series of XML files in accordance with the Open Packaging Conventions (OPC). The XLSM format, almost identical to XLSX, is used for files containing macros.

The format is standardized in ECMA-376 and later in ISO/IEC 29500. Excel does not follow the specification, and there are additional documents discussing how Excel deviates from the specification.

Excel 2.0-95 (BIFF2/BIFF3/BIFF4/BIFF5)

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BIFF 2/3 XLS are single-sheet streams of binary records. Excel 4 introduced the concept of a workbook (XLW files) but also had single-sheet XLS format. The structure is largely similar to the Lotus 1-2-3 file formats. BIFF5/8/12 extended the format in various ways but largely stuck to the same record format.

There is no official specification for any of these formats. Excel 95 can write files in these formats, so record lengths and fields were determined by writing in all of the supported formats and comparing files. Excel 2016 can generate BIFF5 files, enabling a full suite of file tests starting from XLSX or BIFF2.

Excel 97-2004 Binary (BIFF8)

(click to show)

BIFF8 exclusively uses the Compound File Binary container format, splitting some content into streams within the file. At its core, it still uses an extended version of the binary record format from older versions of BIFF.

The MS-XLS specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

Excel 2003-2004 (SpreadsheetML)

(click to show)

Predating XLSX, SpreadsheetML files are simple XML files. There is no official and comprehensive specification, although MS has released documentation on the format. Since Excel 2016 can generate SpreadsheetML files, mapping features is pretty straightforward.

Excel 2007+ Binary (XLSB, BIFF12)

(click to show)

Introduced in parallel with XLSX, the XLSB format combines the BIFF architecture with the content separation and ZIP container of XLSX. For the most part nodes in an XLSX sub-file can be mapped to XLSB records in a corresponding sub-file.

The MS-XLSB specification covers the basics of the file format, and other specifications expand on serialization of features like properties.

Delimiter-Separated Values (CSV/TXT)

(click to show)

Excel CSV deviates from RFC4180 in a number of important ways. The generated CSV files should generally work in Excel although they may not work in RFC4180 compatible readers. The parser should generally understand Excel CSV. The writer proactively generates cells for formulae if values are unavailable.

Excel TXT uses tab as the delimiter and code page 1200.

Notes:

  • Like in Excel, files starting with 0x49 0x44 ("ID") are treated as Symbolic Link files. Unlike Excel, if the file does not have a valid SYLK header, it will be proactively reinterpreted as CSV. There are some files with semicolon delimiter that align with a valid SYLK file. For the broadest compatibility, all cells with the value of ID are automatically wrapped in double-quotes.

Other Workbook Formats

(click to show)

Support for other formats is generally far XLS/XLSB/XLSX support, due in large part to a lack of publicly available documentation. Test files were produced in the respective apps and compared to their XLS exports to determine structure. The main focus is data extraction.

Lotus 1-2-3 (WKS/WK1/WK2/WK3/WK4/123)

(click to show)

The Lotus formats consist of binary records similar to the BIFF structure. Lotus did release a specification decades ago covering the original WK1 format. Other features were deduced by producing files and comparing to Excel support.

Generated WK1 worksheets are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R2 and Excel 5.0.

Generated WK3 workbooks are compatible with Lotus 1-2-3 R9 and Excel 5.0.

Quattro Pro (WQ1/WQ2/WB1/WB2/WB3/QPW)

(click to show)

The Quattro Pro formats use binary records in the same way as BIFF and Lotus. Some of the newer formats (namely WB3 and QPW) use a CFB enclosure just like BIFF8 XLS.

Works for DOS / Windows Spreadsheet (WKS/XLR)

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All versions of Works were limited to a single worksheet.

Works for DOS 1.x - 3.x and Works for Windows 2.x extends the Lotus WKS format with additional record types.

Works for Windows 3.x - 5.x uses the same format and WKS extension. The BOF record has type FF

Works for Windows 6.x - 9.x use the XLR format. XLR is nearly identical to BIFF8 XLS: it uses the CFB container with a Workbook stream. Works 9 saves the exact Workbook stream for the XLR and the 97-2003 XLS export. Works 6 XLS includes two empty worksheets but the main worksheet has an identical encoding. XLR also includes a WksSSWorkBook stream similar to Lotus FM3/FMT files.

OpenDocument Spreadsheet (ODS/FODS)

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ODS is an XML-in-ZIP format akin to XLSX while FODS is an XML format akin to SpreadsheetML. Both are detailed in the OASIS standard, but tools like LO/OO add undocumented extensions. The parsers and writers do not implement the full standard, instead focusing on parts necessary to extract and store raw data.

Uniform Office Spreadsheet (UOS1/2)

(click to show)

UOS is a very similar format, and it comes in 2 varieties corresponding to ODS and FODS respectively. For the most part, the difference between the formats is in the names of tags and attributes.

Other Single-Worksheet Formats

Many older formats supported only one worksheet:

dBASE and Visual FoxPro (DBF)

(click to show)

DBF is really a typed table format: each column can only hold one data type and each record omits type information. The parser generates a header row and inserts records starting at the second row of the worksheet. The writer makes files compatible with Visual FoxPro extensions.

Multi-file extensions like external memos and tables are currently unsupported, limited by the general ability to read arbitrary files in the web browser. The reader understands DBF Level 7 extensions like DATETIME.

Symbolic Link (SYLK)

(click to show)

There is no real documentation. All knowledge was gathered by saving files in various versions of Excel to deduce the meaning of fields. Notes:

  • Plain formulae are stored in the RC form.
  • Column widths are rounded to integral characters.

Lotus Formatted Text (PRN)

(click to show)

There is no real documentation, and in fact Excel treats PRN as an output-only file format. Nevertheless we can guess the column widths and reverse-engineer the original layout. Excel's 240 character width limitation is not enforced.

Data Interchange Format (DIF)

(click to show)

There is no unified definition. Visicalc DIF differs from Lotus DIF, and both differ from Excel DIF. Where ambiguous, the parser/writer follows the expected behavior from Excel. In particular, Excel extends DIF in incompatible ways:

  • Since Excel automatically converts numbers-as-strings to numbers, numeric string constants are converted to formulae: "0.3" -> "=""0.3""
  • DIF technically expects numeric cells to hold the raw numeric data, but Excel permits formatted numbers (including dates)
  • DIF technically has no support for formulae, but Excel will automatically convert plain formulae. Array formulae are not preserved.

HTML

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Excel HTML worksheets include special metadata encoded in styles. For example, mso-number-format is a localized string containing the number format. Despite the metadata the output is valid HTML, although it does accept bare & symbols.

The writer adds type metadata to the TD elements via the t tag. The parser looks for those tags and overrides the default interpretation. For example, text like <td>12345</td> will be parsed as numbers but <td t="s">12345</td> will be parsed as text.

Rich Text Format (RTF)

(click to show)

Excel RTF worksheets are stored in clipboard when copying cells or ranges from a worksheet. The supported codes are a subset of the Word RTF support.

Ethercalc Record Format (ETH)

(click to show)

Ethercalc is an open source web spreadsheet powered by a record format reminiscent of SYLK wrapped in a MIME multi-part message.

Testing

Node

(click to show)

make test will run the node-based tests. By default it runs tests on files in every supported format. To test a specific file type, set FMTS to the format you want to test. Feature-specific tests are available with make test_misc

$ make test_misc   # run core tests
$ make test        # run full tests
$ make test_xls    # only use the XLS test files
$ make test_xlsx   # only use the XLSX test files
$ make test_xlsb   # only use the XLSB test files
$ make test_xml    # only use the XML test files
$ make test_ods    # only use the ODS test files

To enable all errors, set the environment variable WTF=1:

$ make test        # run full tests
$ WTF=1 make test  # enable all error messages

flow and eslint checks are available:

$ make lint        # eslint checks
$ make flow        # make lint + Flow checking
$ make tslint      # check TS definitions

Browser

(click to show)

The core in-browser tests are available at tests/index.html within this repo. Start a local server and navigate to that directory to run the tests. make ctestserv will start a server on port 8000.

make ctest will generate the browser fixtures. To add more files, edit the tests/fixtures.lst file and add the paths.

To run the full in-browser tests, clone the repo for oss.sheetjs.com and replace the xlsx.js file (then open a browser window and go to stress.html):

$ cp xlsx.js ../SheetJS.github.io
$ cd ../SheetJS.github.io
$ simplehttpserver # or "python -mSimpleHTTPServer" or "serve"
$ open -a Chromium.app http://localhost:8000/stress.html

Tested Environments

(click to show)

  • NodeJS 0.8, 0.10, 0.12, 4.x, 5.x, 6.x, 7.x, 8.x
  • IE 6/7/8/9/10/11 (IE 6-9 require shims)
  • Chrome 24+ (including Android 4.0+)
  • Safari 6+ (iOS and Desktop)
  • Edge 13+, FF 18+, and Opera 12+

Tests utilize the mocha testing framework.

The test suite also includes tests for various time zones. To change the timezone locally, set the TZ environment variable:

$ env TZ="Asia/Kolkata" WTF=1 make test_misc

Test Files

Test files are housed in another repo.

Running make init will refresh the test_files submodule and get the files. Note that this requires svn, git, hg and other commands that may not be available. If make init fails, please download the latest version of the test files snapshot from the repo

Latest Snapshot (click to show)

Latest test files snapshot: http://github.com/SheetJS/test_files/releases/download/20170409/test_files.zip

(download and unzip to the test_files subdirectory)

Contributing

Due to the precarious nature of the Open Specifications Promise, it is very important to ensure code is cleanroom. Contribution Notes

File organization (click to show)

At a high level, the final script is a concatenation of the individual files in the bits folder. Running make should reproduce the final output on all platforms. The README is similarly split into bits in the docbits folder.

Folders:

foldercontents
bitsraw source files that make up the final script
docbitsraw markdown files that make up README.md
binserver-side bin scripts (xlsx.njs)
distdist files for web browsers and nonstandard JS environments
demosdemo projects for platforms like ExtendScript and Webpack
testsbrowser tests (run make ctest to rebuild)
typestypescript definitions and tests
miscmiscellaneous supporting scripts
test_filestest files (pulled from the test files repository)

After cloning the repo, running make help will display a list of commands.

OSX/Linux

(click to show)

The xlsx.js file is constructed from the files in the bits subdirectory. The build script (run make) will concatenate the individual bits to produce the script. Before submitting a contribution, ensure that running make will produce the xlsx.js file exactly. The simplest way to test is to add the script:

$ git add xlsx.js
$ make clean
$ make
$ git diff xlsx.js

To produce the dist files, run make dist. The dist files are updated in each version release and should not be committed between versions.

Windows

(click to show)

The included make.cmd script will build xlsx.js from the bits directory. Building is as simple as:

> make

To prepare development environment:

> make init

The full list of commands available in Windows are displayed in make help:

make init -- install deps and global modules
make lint -- run eslint linter
make test -- run mocha test suite
make misc -- run smaller test suite
make book -- rebuild README and summary
make help -- display this message

As explained in Test Files, on Windows the release ZIP file must be downloaded and extracted. If Bash on Windows is available, it is possible to run the OSX/Linux workflow. The following steps prepares the environment:

# Install support programs for the build and test commands
sudo apt-get install make git subversion mercurial

# Install nodejs and NPM within the WSL
wget -qO- https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_8.x | sudo bash
sudo apt-get install nodejs

# Install dev dependencies
sudo npm install -g mocha voc blanket xlsjs

Tests

(click to show)

The test_misc target (make test_misc on Linux/OSX / make misc on Windows) runs the targeted feature tests. It should take 5-10 seconds to perform feature tests without testing against the entire test battery. New features should be accompanied with tests for the relevant file formats and features.

For tests involving the read side, an appropriate feature test would involve reading an existing file and checking the resulting workbook object. If a parameter is involved, files should be read with different values to verify that the feature is working as expected.

For tests involving a new write feature which can already be parsed, appropriate feature tests would involve writing a workbook with the feature and then opening and verifying that the feature is preserved.

For tests involving a new write feature without an existing read ability, please add a feature test to the kitchen sink tests/write.js.

License

Please consult the attached LICENSE file for details. All rights not explicitly granted by the Apache 2.0 License are reserved by the Original Author.

References

OSP-covered Specifications (click to show)

  • MS-CFB: Compound File Binary File Format
  • MS-CTXLS: Excel Custom Toolbar Binary File Format
  • MS-EXSPXML3: Excel Calculation Version 2 Web Service XML Schema
  • MS-ODATA: Open Data Protocol (OData)
  • MS-ODRAW: Office Drawing Binary File Format
  • MS-ODRAWXML: Office Drawing Extensions to Office Open XML Structure
  • MS-OE376: Office Implementation Information for ECMA-376 Standards Support
  • MS-OFFCRYPTO: Office Document Cryptography Structure
  • MS-OI29500: Office Implementation Information for ISO/IEC 29500 Standards Support
  • MS-OLEDS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Data Structures
  • MS-OLEPS: Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Property Set Data Structures
  • MS-OODF3: Office Implementation Information for ODF 1.2 Standards Support
  • MS-OSHARED: Office Common Data Types and Objects Structures
  • MS-OVBA: Office VBA File Format Structure
  • MS-XLDM: Spreadsheet Data Model File Format
  • MS-XLS: Excel Binary File Format (.xls) Structure Specification
  • MS-XLSB: Excel (.xlsb) Binary File Format
  • MS-XLSX: Excel (.xlsx) Extensions to the Office Open XML SpreadsheetML File Format
  • XLS: Microsoft Office Excel 97-2007 Binary File Format Specification
  • RTF: Rich Text Format
  • ISO/IEC 29500:2012(E) "Information technology — Document description and processing languages — Office Open XML File Formats"
  • Open Document Format for Office Applications Version 1.2 (29 September 2011)
  • Worksheet File Format (From Lotus) December 1984

Download Details:
Author: SheetJS
Source Code: https://github.com/SheetJS/sheetjs
License: Apache-2.0 License

#database  #javascript #react 

渚  直樹

渚 直樹

1635917640

ループを使用して、Rustのデータを反復処理します

このモジュールでは、Rustでハッシュマップ複合データ型を操作する方法について説明します。ハッシュマップのようなコレクション内のデータを反復処理するループ式を実装する方法を学びます。演習として、要求された注文をループし、条件をテストし、さまざまなタイプのデータを処理することによって車を作成するRustプログラムを作成します。

さび遊び場

錆遊び場は錆コンパイラにブラウザインタフェースです。言語をローカルにインストールする前、またはコンパイラが利用できない場合は、Playgroundを使用してRustコードの記述を試すことができます。このコース全体を通して、サンプルコードと演習へのPlaygroundリンクを提供します。現時点でRustツールチェーンを使用できない場合でも、コードを操作できます。

Rust Playgroundで実行されるすべてのコードは、ローカルの開発環境でコンパイルして実行することもできます。コンピューターからRustコンパイラーと対話することを躊躇しないでください。Rust Playgroundの詳細については、What isRust?をご覧ください。モジュール。

学習目標

このモジュールでは、次のことを行います。

  • Rustのハッシュマップデータ型、およびキーと値にアクセスする方法を確認してください
  • ループ式を使用してRustプログラムのデータを反復処理する方法を探る
  • Rustプログラムを作成、コンパイル、実行して、ループを使用してハッシュマップデータを反復処理します

Rustのもう1つの一般的なコレクションの種類は、ハッシュマップです。このHashMap<K, V>型は、各キーKをその値にマッピングすることによってデータを格納しますV。ベクトル内のデータは整数インデックスを使用してアクセスされますが、ハッシュマップ内のデータはキーを使用してアクセスされます。

ハッシュマップタイプは、オブジェクト、ハッシュテーブル、辞書などのデータ項目の多くのプログラミング言語で使用されます。

ベクトルのように、ハッシュマップは拡張可能です。データはヒープに格納され、ハッシュマップアイテムへのアクセスは実行時にチェックされます。

ハッシュマップを定義する

次の例では、書評を追跡するためのハッシュマップを定義しています。ハッシュマップキーは本の名前であり、値は読者のレビューです。

use std::collections::HashMap;
let mut reviews: HashMap<String, String> = HashMap::new();

reviews.insert(String::from("Ancient Roman History"), String::from("Very accurate."));
reviews.insert(String::from("Cooking with Rhubarb"), String::from("Sweet recipes."));
reviews.insert(String::from("Programming in Rust"), String::from("Great examples."));

このコードをさらに詳しく調べてみましょう。最初の行に、新しいタイプの構文が表示されます。

use std::collections::HashMap;

このuseコマンドは、Rust標準ライブラリの一部HashMapからの定義をcollectionsプログラムのスコープに取り込みます。この構文は、他のプログラミング言語がインポートと呼ぶものと似ています。

HashMap::newメソッドを使用して空のハッシュマップを作成します。reviews必要に応じてキーと値を追加または削除できるように、変数を可変として宣言します。この例では、ハッシュマップのキーと値の両方がStringタイプを使用しています。

let mut reviews: HashMap<String, String> = HashMap::new();

キーと値のペアを追加します

このinsert(<key>, <value>)メソッドを使用して、ハッシュマップに要素を追加します。コードでは、構文は<hash_map_name>.insert()次のとおりです。

reviews.insert(String::from("Ancient Roman History"), String::from("Very accurate."));

キー値を取得する

ハッシュマップにデータを追加した後、get(<key>)メソッドを使用してキーの特定の値を取得できます。

// Look for a specific review
let book: &str = "Programming in Rust";
println!("\nReview for \'{}\': {:?}", book, reviews.get(book));

出力は次のとおりです。

Review for 'Programming in Rust': Some("Great examples.")

ノート

出力には、書評が単なる「すばらしい例」ではなく「Some( "すばらしい例。")」として表示されていることに注意してください。getメソッドはOption<&Value>型を返すため、Rustはメソッド呼び出しの結果を「Some()」表記でラップします。

キーと値のペアを削除します

この.remove()メソッドを使用して、ハッシュマップからエントリを削除できます。get無効なハッシュマップキーに対してメソッドを使用すると、getメソッドは「なし」を返します。

// Remove book review
let obsolete: &str = "Ancient Roman History";
println!("\n'{}\' removed.", obsolete);
reviews.remove(obsolete);

// Confirm book review removed
println!("\nReview for \'{}\': {:?}", obsolete, reviews.get(obsolete));

出力は次のとおりです。

'Ancient Roman History' removed.
Review for 'Ancient Roman History': None

このコードを試して、このRustPlaygroundでハッシュマップを操作できます。

演習:ハッシュマップを使用して注文を追跡する
この演習では、ハッシュマップを使用するように自動車工場のプログラムを変更します。

ハッシュマップキーと値のペアを使用して、車の注文に関する詳細を追跡し、出力を表示します。繰り返しになりますが、あなたの課題は、サンプルコードを完成させてコンパイルして実行することです。

この演習のサンプルコードで作業するには、次の2つのオプションがあります。

  • コードをコピーして、ローカル開発環境で編集します。
  • 準備されたRustPlaygroundでコードを開きます。

ノート

サンプルコードで、todo!マクロを探します。このマクロは、完了するか更新する必要があるコードを示します。

現在のプログラムをロードする

最初のステップは、既存のプログラムコードを取得することです。

  1. 編集のために既存のプログラムコードを開きます。コードは、データ型宣言、および定義のため含みcar_qualitycar_factoryおよびmain機能を。

次のコードをコピーしてローカル開発環境で編集する
か、この準備されたRustPlaygroundでコードを開きます。

#[derive(PartialEq, Debug)]
struct Car { color: String, motor: Transmission, roof: bool, age: (Age, u32) }

#[derive(PartialEq, Debug)]
enum Transmission { Manual, SemiAuto, Automatic }

#[derive(PartialEq, Debug)]
enum Age { New, Used }

// Get the car quality by testing the value of the input argument
// - miles (u32)
// Return tuple with car age ("New" or "Used") and mileage
fn car_quality (miles: u32) -> (Age, u32) {

    // Check if car has accumulated miles
    // Return tuple early for Used car
    if miles > 0 {
        return (Age::Used, miles);
    }

    // Return tuple for New car, no need for "return" keyword or semicolon
    (Age::New, miles)
}

// Build "Car" using input arguments
fn car_factory(order: i32, miles: u32) -> Car {
    let colors = ["Blue", "Green", "Red", "Silver"];

    // Prevent panic: Check color index for colors array, reset as needed
    // Valid color = 1, 2, 3, or 4
    // If color > 4, reduce color to valid index
    let mut color = order as usize;
    if color > 4 {        
        // color = 5 --> index 1, 6 --> 2, 7 --> 3, 8 --> 4
        color = color - 4;
    }

    // Add variety to orders for motor type and roof type
    let mut motor = Transmission::Manual;
    let mut roof = true;
    if order % 3 == 0 {          // 3, 6, 9
        motor = Transmission::Automatic;
    } else if order % 2 == 0 {   // 2, 4, 8, 10
        motor = Transmission::SemiAuto;
        roof = false;
    }                            // 1, 5, 7, 11

    // Return requested "Car"
    Car {
        color: String::from(colors[(color-1) as usize]),
        motor: motor,
        roof: roof,
        age: car_quality(miles)
    }
}

fn main() {
    // Initialize counter variable
    let mut order = 1;
    // Declare a car as mutable "Car" struct
    let mut car: Car;

    // Order 6 cars, increment "order" for each request
    // Car order #1: Used, Hard top
    car = car_factory(order, 1000);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    // Car order #2: Used, Convertible
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 2000);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);    

    // Car order #3: New, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 0);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    // Car order #4: New, Convertible
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 0);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    // Car order #5: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 3000);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    // Car order #6: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 4000);
    println!("{}: {:?}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);
}

2. プログラムをビルドします。次のセクションに進む前に、コードがコンパイルされて実行されることを確認してください。

次の出力が表示されます。

1: Used, Hard top = true, Manual, Blue, 1000 miles
2: Used, Hard top = false, SemiAuto, Green, 2000 miles
3: New, Hard top = true, Automatic, Red, 0 miles
4: New, Hard top = false, SemiAuto, Silver, 0 miles
5: Used, Hard top = true, Manual, Blue, 3000 miles
6: Used, Hard top = true, Automatic, Green, 4000 miles

注文の詳細を追跡するためのハッシュマップを追加する

現在のプログラムは、各車の注文を処理し、各注文が完了した後に要約を印刷します。car_factory関数を呼び出すたびにCar、注文の詳細を含む構造体が返され、注文が実行されます。結果はcar変数に格納されます。

お気づきかもしれませんが、このプログラムにはいくつかの重要な機能がありません。すべての注文を追跡しているわけではありません。car変数は、現在の注文の詳細のみを保持しています。関数carの結果で変数が更新されるたびcar_factoryに、前の順序の詳細が上書きされます。

ファイリングシステムのようにすべての注文を追跡するために、プログラムを更新する必要があります。この目的のために、<K、V>ペアでハッシュマップを定義します。ハッシュマップキーは、車の注文番号に対応します。ハッシュマップ値は、Car構造体で定義されているそれぞれの注文の詳細になります。

  1. ハッシュマップを定義するには、main関数の先頭、最初の中括弧の直後に次のコードを追加します{
// Initialize a hash map for the car orders
    // - Key: Car order number, i32
    // - Value: Car order details, Car struct
    use std::collections::HashMap;
    let mut orders: HashMap<i32, Car> = HashMap;

2. ordersハッシュマップを作成するステートメントの構文の問題を修正します。

ヒント

ハッシュマップを最初から作成しているので、おそらくこのnew()メソッドを使用することをお勧めします。

3. プログラムをビルドします。次のセクションに進む前に、コードがコンパイルされていることを確認してください。コンパイラからの警告メッセージは無視してかまいません。

ハッシュマップに値を追加する

次のステップは、履行された各自動車注文をハッシュマップに追加することです。

このmain関数では、car_factory車の注文ごとに関数を呼び出します。注文が履行された後、println!マクロを呼び出して、car変数に格納されている注文の詳細を表示します。

// Car order #1: Used, Hard top
    car = car_factory(order, 1000);
    println!("{}: {}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    ...

    // Car order #6: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 4000);
    println!("{}: {}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

新しいハッシュマップで機能するように、これらのコードステートメントを修正します。

  • car_factory関数の呼び出しは保持します。返された各Car構造体は、ハッシュマップの<K、V>ペアの一部として格納されます。
  • println!マクロの呼び出しを更新して、ハッシュマップに保存されている注文の詳細を表示します。
  1. main関数で、関数の呼び出しcar_factoryとそれに伴うprintln!マクロの呼び出しを見つけます。
// Car order #1: Used, Hard top
    car = car_factory(order, 1000);
    println!("{}: {}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

    ...

    // Car order #6: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 4000);
    println!("{}: {}, Hard top = {}, {:?}, {}, {} miles", order, car.age.0, car.roof, car.motor, car.color, car.age.1);

2. すべての自動車注文のステートメントの完全なセットを次の改訂されたコードに置き換えます。

// Car order #1: Used, Hard top
    car = car_factory(order, 1000);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    // Car order #2: Used, Convertible
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 2000);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    // Car order #3: New, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 0);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    // Car order #4: New, Convertible
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 0);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    // Car order #5: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 3000);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    // Car order #6: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 4000);
    orders(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

3. 今すぐプログラムをビルドしようとすると、コンパイルエラーが表示されます。<K、V>ペアをordersハッシュマップに追加するステートメントに構文上の問題があります。問題がありますか?先に進んで、ハッシュマップに順序を追加する各ステートメントの問題を修正してください。

ヒント

ordersハッシュマップに直接値を割り当てることはできません。挿入を行うにはメソッドを使用する必要があります。

プログラムを実行する

プログラムが正常にビルドされると、次の出力が表示されます。

Car order 1: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("Used", 1000) })
Car order 2: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 2000) })
Car order 3: Some(Car { color: "Red", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 4: Some(Car { color: "Silver", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 5: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("Used", 3000) })
Car order 6: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("Used", 4000) })

改訂されたコードの出力が異なることに注意してください。println!マクロディスプレイの内容Car各値を示すことによって、構造体と対応するフィールド名。

次の演習では、ループ式を使用してコードの冗長性を減らします。

for、while、およびloop式を使用します


多くの場合、プログラムには、その場で繰り返す必要のあるコードのブロックがあります。ループ式を使用して、繰り返しの実行方法をプログラムに指示できます。電話帳のすべてのエントリを印刷するには、ループ式を使用して、最初のエントリから最後のエントリまで印刷する方法をプログラムに指示できます。

Rustは、プログラムにコードのブロックを繰り返させるための3つのループ式を提供します。

  • loop:手動停止が発生しない限り、繰り返します。
  • while:条件が真のままで繰り返します。
  • for:コレクション内のすべての値に対して繰り返します。

この単元では、これらの各ループ式を見ていきます。

ループし続けるだけ

loop式は、無限ループを作成します。このキーワードを使用すると、式の本文でアクションを継続的に繰り返すことができます。ループを停止させるための直接アクションを実行するまで、アクションが繰り返されます。

次の例では、「We loopforever!」というテキストを出力します。そしてそれはそれ自体で止まりません。println!アクションは繰り返し続けます。

loop {
    println!("We loop forever!");
}

loop式を使用する場合、ループを停止する唯一の方法は、プログラマーとして直接介入する場合です。特定のコードを追加してループを停止したり、Ctrl + Cなどのキーボード命令を入力してプログラムの実行を停止したりできます。

loop式を停止する最も一般的な方法は、breakキーワードを使用してブレークポイントを設定することです。

loop {
    // Keep printing, printing, printing...
    println!("We loop forever!");
    // On the other hand, maybe we should stop!
    break;                            
}

プログラムがbreakキーワードを検出すると、loop式の本体でアクションの実行を停止し、次のコードステートメントに進みます。

breakキーワードは、特別な機能を明らかにするloop表現を。breakキーワードを使用すると、式本体でのアクションの繰り返しを停止することも、ブレークポイントで値を返すこともできます。

次の例はbreakloop式でキーワードを使用して値も返す方法を示しています。

let mut counter = 1;
// stop_loop is set when loop stops
let stop_loop = loop {
    counter *= 2;
    if counter > 100 {
        // Stop loop, return counter value
        break counter;
    }
};
// Loop should break when counter = 128
println!("Break the loop at counter = {}.", stop_loop);

出力は次のとおりです。

Break the loop at counter = 128.

私たちのloop表現の本体は、これらの連続したアクションを実行します。

  1. stop_loop変数を宣言します。
  2. 変数値をloop式の結果にバインドするようにプログラムに指示します。
  3. ループを開始します。loop式の本体でアクションを実行します:
    ループ本体
    1. counter値を現在の値の2倍にインクリメントします。
    2. counter値を確認してください。
    3. もしcounter値が100以上です。

ループから抜け出し、counter値を返します。

4. もしcounter値が100以上ではありません。

ループ本体でアクションを繰り返します。

5. stop_loop値を式のcounter結果である値に設定しますloop

loop式本体は、複数のブレークポイントを持つことができます。式に複数のブレークポイントがある場合、すべてのブレークポイントは同じタイプの値を返す必要があります。すべての値は、整数型、文字列型、ブール型などである必要があります。ブレークポイントが明示的に値を返さない場合、プログラムは式の結果を空のタプルとして解釈します()

しばらくループする

whileループは、条件式を使用しています。条件式が真である限り、ループが繰り返されます。このキーワードを使用すると、条件式がfalseになるまで、式本体のアクションを実行できます。

whileループは、ブール条件式を評価することから始まります。条件式がと評価されるtrueと、本体のアクションが実行されます。アクションが完了すると、制御は条件式に戻ります。条件式がと評価されるfalseと、while式は停止します。

次の例では、「しばらくループします...」というテキストを出力します。ループを繰り返すたびに、「カウントが5未満である」という条件がテストされます。条件が真のままである間、式本体のアクションが実行されます。条件が真でなくなった後、whileループは停止し、プログラムは次のコードステートメントに進みます。

while counter < 5 {
    println!("We loop a while...");
    counter = counter + 1;
}

これらの値のループ

forループは、項目のコレクションを処理するためにイテレータを使用しています。ループは、コレクション内の各アイテムの式本体のアクションを繰り返します。このタイプのループの繰り返しは、反復と呼ばれます。すべての反復が完了すると、ループは停止します。

Rustでは、配列、ベクトル、ハッシュマップなど、任意のコレクションタイプを反復処理できます。Rustはイテレータを使用して、コレクション内の各アイテムを最初から最後まで移動します

forループはイテレータとして一時変数を使用しています。変数はループ式の開始時に暗黙的に宣言され、現在の値は反復ごとに設定されます。

次のコードでは、コレクションはbig_birds配列であり、イテレーターの名前はbirdです。

let big_birds = ["ostrich", "peacock", "stork"];
for bird in big_birds

iter()メソッドを使用して、コレクション内のアイテムにアクセスします。for式は結果にイテレータの現在の値をバインドするiter()方法。式本体では、イテレータ値を操作できます。

let big_birds = ["ostrich", "peacock", "stork"];
for bird in big_birds.iter() {
    println!("The {} is a big bird.", bird);
}

出力は次のとおりです。

The ostrich is a big bird.
The peacock is a big bird.
The stork is a big bird.

イテレータを作成するもう1つの簡単な方法は、範囲表記を使用することですa..b。イテレータはa値から始まりb、1ステップずつ続きますが、値を使用しませんb

for number in 0..5 {
    println!("{}", number * 2);
}

このコードは、0、1、2、3、および4の数値をnumber繰り返し処理します。ループの繰り返しごとに、値を変数にバインドします。

出力は次のとおりです。

0
2
4
6
8

このコードを実行して、このRustPlaygroundでループを探索できます。

演習:ループを使用してデータを反復処理する


この演習では、自動車工場のプログラムを変更して、ループを使用して自動車の注文を反復処理します。

main関数を更新して、注文の完全なセットを処理するためのループ式を追加します。ループ構造は、コードの冗長性を減らすのに役立ちます。コードを簡素化することで、注文量を簡単に増やすことができます。

このcar_factory関数では、範囲外の値での実行時のパニックを回避するために、別のループを追加します。

課題は、サンプルコードを完成させて、コンパイルして実行することです。

この演習のサンプルコードで作業するには、次の2つのオプションがあります。

  • コードをコピーして、ローカル開発環境で編集します。
  • 準備されたRustPlaygroundでコードを開きます。

ノート

サンプルコードで、todo!マクロを探します。このマクロは、完了するか更新する必要があるコードを示します。

プログラムをロードする

前回の演習でプログラムコードを閉じた場合は、この準備されたRustPlaygroundでコードを再度開くことができます。

必ずプログラムを再構築し、コンパイラエラーなしで実行されることを確認してください。

ループ式でアクションを繰り返す

より多くの注文をサポートするには、プログラムを更新する必要があります。現在のコード構造では、冗長ステートメントを使用して6つの注文をサポートしています。冗長性は扱いにくく、維持するのが困難です。

ループ式を使用してアクションを繰り返し、各注文を作成することで、構造を単純化できます。簡略化されたコードを使用すると、多数の注文をすばやく作成できます。

  1. ではmain機能、削除次の文を。このコードブロックは、order変数を定義および設定し、自動車の注文のcar_factory関数とprintln!マクロを呼び出し、各注文をordersハッシュマップに挿入します。
// Order 6 cars
    // - Increment "order" after each request
    // - Add each order <K, V> pair to "orders" hash map
    // - Call println! to show order details from the hash map

    // Initialize order variable
    let mut order = 1;

    // Car order #1: Used, Hard top
    car = car_factory(order, 1000);
    orders.insert(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

    ...

    // Car order #6: Used, Hard top
    order = order + 1;
    car = car_factory(order, 4000);
    orders.insert(order, car);
    println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

2. 削除されたステートメントを次のコードブロックに置き換えます。

// Start with zero miles
    let mut miles = 0;

    todo!("Add a loop expression to fulfill orders for 6 cars, initialize `order` variable to 1") {

        // Call car_factory to fulfill order
        // Add order <K, V> pair to "orders" hash map
        // Call println! to show order details from the hash map        
        car = car_factory(order, miles);
        orders.insert(order, car);
        println!("Car order {}: {:?}", order, orders.get(&order));

        // Reset miles for order variety
        if miles == 2100 {
            miles = 0;
        } else {
            miles = miles + 700;
        }
    }

3. アクションを繰り返すループ式を追加して、6台の車の注文を作成します。order1に初期化された変数が必要です。

4. プログラムをビルドします。コードがエラーなしでコンパイルされることを確認してください。

次の例のような出力が表示されます。

Car order 1: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 2: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 700) })
Car order 3: Some(Car { color: "Red", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("Used", 1400) })
Car order 4: Some(Car { color: "Silver", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 2100) })
Car order 5: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 6: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("Used", 700) })

車の注文を11に増やす

 プログラムは現在、ループを使用して6台の車の注文を処理しています。6台以上注文するとどうなりますか?

  1. main関数のループ式を更新して、11台の車を注文します。
    todo!("Update the loop expression to create 11 cars");

2. プログラムを再構築します。実行時に、プログラムはパニックになります!

Compiling playground v0.0.1 (/playground)
    Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 1.26s
    Running `target/debug/playground`
thread 'main' panicked at 'index out of bounds: the len is 4 but the index is 4', src/main.rs:34:29

この問題を解決する方法を見てみましょう。

ループ式で実行時のパニックを防ぐ

このcar_factory関数では、if / else式を使用colorして、colors配列のインデックスの値を確認します。

// Prevent panic: Check color index for colors array, reset as needed
    // Valid color = 1, 2, 3, or 4
    // If color > 4, reduce color to valid index
    let mut color = order as usize;
    if color > 4 {        
        // color = 5 --> index 1, 6 --> 2, 7 --> 3, 8 --> 4
        color = color - 4;
    }

colors配列には4つの要素を持ち、かつ有効なcolor場合は、インデックスの範囲は0〜3の条件式をチェックしているcolor私たちはをチェックしません(インデックスが4よりも大きい場合color、その後の関数で4に等しいインデックスへのときに我々のインデックスを車の色を割り当てる配列では、インデックス値から1を減算しますcolor - 1color値4はcolors[3]、配列と同様に処理されます。)

現在のif / else式は、8台以下の車を注文するときの実行時のパニックを防ぐためにうまく機能します。しかし、11台の車を注文すると、プログラムは9番目の注文でパニックになります。より堅牢になるように式を調整する必要があります。この改善を行うために、別のループ式を使用します。

  1. ではcar_factory機能、ループ式であれば/他の条件文を交換してください。colorインデックス値が4より大きい場合に実行時のパニックを防ぐために、次の擬似コードステートメントを修正してください。
// Prevent panic: Check color index, reset as needed
    // If color = 1, 2, 3, or 4 - no change needed
    // If color > 4, reduce to color to a valid index
    let mut color = order as usize;
    todo!("Replace `if/else` condition with a loop to prevent run-time panic for color > 4");

ヒント

この場合、if / else条件からループ式への変更は実際には非常に簡単です。

2. プログラムをビルドします。コードがエラーなしでコンパイルされることを確認してください。

次の出力が表示されます。

Car order 1: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 2: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 700) })
Car order 3: Some(Car { color: "Red", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("Used", 1400) })
Car order 4: Some(Car { color: "Silver", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 2100) })
Car order 5: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 6: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("Used", 700) })
Car order 7: Some(Car { color: "Red", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("Used", 1400) })
Car order 8: Some(Car { color: "Silver", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 2100) })
Car order 9: Some(Car { color: "Blue", motor: Automatic, roof: true, age: ("New", 0) })
Car order 10: Some(Car { color: "Green", motor: SemiAuto, roof: false, age: ("Used", 700) })
Car order 11: Some(Car { color: "Red", motor: Manual, roof: true, age: ("Used", 1400) })

概要

このモジュールでは、Rustで使用できるさまざまなループ式を調べ、ハッシュマップの操作方法を発見しました。データは、キーと値のペアとしてハッシュマップに保存されます。ハッシュマップは拡張可能です。

loop手動でプロセスを停止するまでの式は、アクションを繰り返します。while式をループして、条件が真である限りアクションを繰り返すことができます。このfor式は、データ収集を反復処理するために使用されます。

この演習では、自動車プログラムを拡張して、繰り返されるアクションをループし、すべての注文を処理しました。注文を追跡するためにハッシュマップを実装しました。

このラーニングパスの次のモジュールでは、Rustコードでエラーと障害がどのように処理されるかについて詳しく説明します。

 リンク: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/learn/modules/rust-loop-expressions/

#rust #Beginners 

ERIC  MACUS

ERIC MACUS

1647540000

Substrate Knowledge Map For Hackathon Participants

Substrate Knowledge Map for Hackathon Participants

The Substrate Knowledge Map provides information that you—as a Substrate hackathon participant—need to know to develop a non-trivial application for your hackathon submission.

The map covers 6 main sections:

  1. Introduction
  2. Basics
  3. Preliminaries
  4. Runtime Development
  5. Polkadot JS API
  6. Smart Contracts

Each section contains basic information on each topic, with links to additional documentation for you to dig deeper. Within each section, you'll find a mix of quizzes and labs to test your knowledge as your progress through the map. The goal of the labs and quizzes is to help you consolidate what you've learned and put it to practice with some hands-on activities.

Introduction

One question we often get is why learn the Substrate framework when we can write smart contracts to build decentralized applications?

The short answer is that using the Substrate framework and writing smart contracts are two different approaches.

Smart contract development

Traditional smart contract platforms allow users to publish additional logic on top of some core blockchain logic. Since smart contract logic can be published by anyone, including malicious actors and inexperienced developers, there are a number of intentional safeguards and restrictions built around these public smart contract platforms. For example:

Fees: Smart contract developers must ensure that contract users are charged for the computation and storage they impose on the computers running their contract. With fees, block creators are protected from abuse of the network.

Sandboxed: A contract is not able to modify core blockchain storage or storage items of other contracts directly. Its power is limited to only modifying its own state, and the ability to make outside calls to other contracts or runtime functions.

Reversion: Contracts can be prone to undesirable situations that lead to logical errors when wanting to revert or upgrade them. Developers need to learn additional patterns such as splitting their contract's logic and data to ensure seamless upgrades.

These safeguards and restrictions make running smart contracts slower and more costly. However, it's important to consider the different developer audiences for contract development versus Substrate runtime development.

Building decentralized applications with smart contracts allows your community to extend and develop on top of your runtime logic without worrying about proposals, runtime upgrades, and so on. You can also use smart contracts as a testing ground for future runtime changes, but done in an isolated way that protects your network from any errors the changes might introduce.

In summary, smart contract development:

  • Is inherently safer to the network.
  • Provides economic incentives and transaction fee mechanisms that can't be directly controlled by the smart contract author.
  • Provides computational overhead to support graceful logical failures.
  • Has a low barrier to entry for developers and enables a faster pace of community interaction.

Substrate runtime development

Unlike traditional smart contract development, Substrate runtime development offers none of the network protections or safeguards. Instead, as a runtime developer, you have total control over how the blockchain behaves. However, this level of control also means that there is a higher barrier to entry.

Substrate is a framework for building blockchains, which almost makes comparing it to smart contract development like comparing apples and oranges. With the Substrate framework, developers can build smart contracts but that is only a fraction of using Substrate to its full potential.

With Substrate, you have full control over the underlying logic that your network's nodes will run. You also have full access for modifying and controlling each and every storage item across your runtime modules. As you progress through this map, you'll discover concepts and techniques that will help you to unlock the potential of the Substrate framework, giving you the freedom to build the blockchain that best suits the needs of your application.

You'll also discover how you can upgrade the Substrate runtime with a single transaction instead of having to organize a community hard-fork. Upgradeability is one of the primary design features of the Substrate framework.

In summary, runtime development:

  • Provides low level access to your entire blockchain.
  • Removes the overhead of built-in safety for performance.
  • Has a higher barrier of entry for developers.
  • Provides flexibility to customize full-stack application logic.

To learn more about using smart contracts within Substrate, refer to the Smart Contract - Overview page as well as the Polkadot Builders Guide.

Navigating the documentation

If you need any community support, please join the following channels based on the area where you need help:

Alternatively, also look for support on Stackoverflow where questions are tagged with "substrate" or on the Parity Subport repo.

Use the following links to explore the sites and resources available on each:

Substrate Developer Hub has the most comprehensive all-round coverage about Substrate, from a "big picture" explanation of architecture to specific technical concepts. The site also provides tutorials to guide you as your learn the Substrate framework and the API reference documentation. You should check this site first if you want to look up information about Substrate runtime development. The site consists of:

Knowledge Base: Explaining the foundational concepts of building blockchain runtimes using Substrate.

Tutorials: Hand-on tutorials for developers to follow. The first SIX tutorials show the fundamentals in Substrate and are recommended for every Substrate learner to go through.

How-to Guides: These resources are like the O'Reilly cookbook series written in a task-oriented way for readers to get the job done. Some examples of the topics overed include:

  • Setting up proper weight functions for extrinsic calls.
  • Using off-chain workers to fetch HTTP requests.
  • Writing tests for your pallets It can also be read from

API docs: Substrate API reference documentation.

Substrate Node Template provides a light weight, minimal Substrate blockchain node that you can set up as a local development environment.

Substrate Front-end template provides a front-end interface built with React using Polkadot-JS API to connect to any Substrate node. Developers are encouraged to start new Substrate projects based on these templates.

If you face any technical difficulties and need support, feel free to join the Substrate Technical matrix channel and ask your questions there.

Additional resources

Polkadot Wiki documents the specific behavior and mechanisms of the Polkadot network. The Polkadot network allows multiple blockchains to connect and pass messages to each other. On the wiki, you can learn about how Polkadot—built using Substrate—is customized to support inter-blockchain message passing.

Polkadot JS API doc: documents how to use the Polkadot-JS API. This JavaScript-based API allows developers to build custom front-ends for their blockchains and applications. Polkadot JS API provides a way to connect to Substrate-based blockchains to query runtime metadata and send transactions.

Quiz #1

👉 Submit your answers to Quiz #1

Basics

Set up your local development environment

Here you will set up your local machine to install the Rust compiler—ensuring that you have both stable and nightly versions installed. Both stable and nightly versions are required because currently a Substrate runtime is compiled to a native binary using the stable Rust compiler, then compiled to a WebAssembly (WASM) binary, which only the nightly Rust compiler can do.

Also refer to:

Lab #1

👉 Complete Lab #1: Run a Substrate node

Interact with a Substrate network using Polkadot-JS apps

Polkadot JS Apps is the canonical front-end to interact with any Substrate-based chain.

You can configure whichever endpoint you want it to connected to, even to your localhost running node. Refer to the following two diagrams.

  1. Click on the top left side showing your currently connected network:

assets/01-polkadot-app-endpoint.png

  1. Scroll to the bottom of the menu, open DEVELOPMENT, and choose either Local Node or Custom to specify your own endpoint.

assets/02-polkadot-app-select-endpoint.png

Quiz #2

👉 Complete Quiz #2

Lab #2

👉 Complete Lab #2: Using Polkadot-JS Apps

Notes: If you are connecting Apps to a custom chain (or your locally-running node), you may need to specify your chain's custom data types in JSON under Settings > Developer.

Polkadot-JS Apps only receives a series of bytes from the blockchain. It is up to the developer to tell it how to decode and interpret these custom data type. To learn more on this, refer to:

You will also need to create an account. To do so, follow these steps on account generation. You'll learn that you can also use the Polkadot-JS Browser Plugin (a Metamask-like browser extension to manage your Substrate accounts) and it will automatically be imported into Polkadot-JS Apps.

Notes: When you run a Substrate chain in development mode (with the --dev flag), well-known accounts (Alice, Bob, Charlie, etc.) are always created for you.

Lab #3

👉 Complete Lab #3: Create an Account

Preliminaries

You need to know some Rust programming concepts and have a good understanding on how blockchain technology works in order to make the most of developing with Substrate. The following resources will help you brush up in these areas.

Rust

You will need familiarize yourself with Rust to understand how Substrate is built and how to make the most of its capabilities.

If you are new to Rust, or need a brush up on your Rust knowledge, please refer to The Rust Book. You could still continue learning about Substrate without knowing Rust, but we recommend you come back to this section whenever in doubt about what any of the Rust syntax you're looking at means. Here are the parts of the Rust book we recommend you familiarize yourself with:

  • ch 1 - 10: These chapters cover the foundational knowledge of programming in Rust
  • ch 13: On iterators and closures
  • ch 18 - 19: On advanced traits and advanced types. Learn a bit about macros as well. You will not necessarily be writing your own macros, but you'll be using a lot of Substrate and FRAME's built-in macros to write your blockchain runtime.

How blockchains work

Given that you'll be writing a blockchain runtime, you need to know what a blockchain is, and how it works. The **Web3 Blockchain Fundamental MOOC Youtube video series provides a good basis for understanding key blockchain concepts and how blockchains work.

The lectures we recommend you watch are: lectures 1 - 7 and lecture 10. That's 8 lectures, or about 4 hours of video.

Quiz #3

👉 Complete Quiz #3

Substrate runtime development

High level architecture

To know more about the high level architecture of Substrate, please go through the Knowledge Base articles on Getting Started: Overview and Getting Started: Architecture.

In this document, we assume you will develop a Substrate runtime with FRAME (v2). This is what a Substrate node consists of.

assets/03-substrate-architecture.png

Each node has many components that manage things like the transaction queue, communicating over a P2P network, reaching consensus on the state of the blockchain, and the chain's actual runtime logic (aka the blockchain runtime). Each aspect of the node is interesting in its own right, and the runtime is particularly interesting because it contains the business logic (aka "state transition function") that codifies the chain's functionality. The runtime contains a collection of pallets that are configured to work together.

On the node level, Substrate leverages libp2p for the p2p networking layer and puts the transaction pool, consensus mechanism, and underlying data storage (a key-value database) on the node level. These components all work "under the hood", and in this knowledge map we won't cover them in detail except for mentioning their existence.

Quiz #4

👉 Complete Quiz #4

Runtime development topics

In our Developer Hub, we have a thorough coverage on various subjects you need to know to develop with Substrate. So here we just list out the key topics and reference back to Developer Hub. Please go through the following key concepts and the directed resources to know the fundamentals of runtime development.

Key Concept: Runtime, this is where the blockchain state transition function (the blockchain application-specific logic) is defined. It is about composing multiple pallets (can be understood as Rust modules) together in the runtime and hooking them up together.

Runtime Development: Execution, this article describes how a block is produced, and how transactions are selected and executed to reach the next "stage" in the blockchain.

Runtime Develpment: Pallets, this article describes what the basic structure of a Substrate pallet is consists of.

Runtime Development: FRAME, this article gives a high level overview of the system pallets Substrate already implements to help you quickly develop as a runtime engineer. Have a quick skim so you have a basic idea of the different pallets Substrate is made of.

Lab #4

👉 Complete Lab #4: Adding a Pallet into a Runtime

Runtime Development: Storage, this article describes how data is stored on-chain and how you could access them.

Runtime Development: Events & Errors, this page describe how external parties know what has happened in the blockchain, via the emitted events and errors when executing transactions.

Notes: All of the above concepts we leverage on the #[pallet::*] macro to define them in the code. If you are interested to learn more about what other types of pallet macros exist go to the FRAME macro API documentation and this doc on some frequently used Substrate macros.

Lab #5

👉 Complete Lab #5: Building a Proof-of-Existence dApp

Lab #6

👉 Complete Lab #6: Building a Substrate Kitties dApp

Quiz #5

👉 Complete Quiz #5

Polkadot JS API

Polkadot JS API is the javascript API for Substrate. By using it you can build a javascript front end or utility and interact with any Substrate-based blockchain.

The Substrate Front-end Template is an example of using Polkadot JS API in a React front-end.

  • Runtime Development: Metadata, this article describes the API allowing external parties to query what API is open for the chain. Polkadot JS API makes use of a chain's metadata to know what queries and functions are available from a chain to call.

Lab #7

👉 Complete Lab #7: Using Polkadot-JS API

Quiz #6

👉 Complete Quiz #6: Using Polkadot-JS API

Smart contracts

Learn about the difference between smart contract development vs Substrate runtime development, and when to use each here.

In Substrate, you can program smart contracts using ink!.

Quiz #7

👉 Complete Quiz #7: Using ink!

What we do not cover

A lot 😄

On-chain runtime upgrades. We have a tutorial on On-chain (forkless) Runtime Upgrade. This tutorial introduces how to perform and schedule a runtime upgrade as an on-chain transaction.

About transaction weight and fee, and benchmarking your runtime to determine the proper transaction cost.

Off-chain Features

There are certain limits to on-chain logic. For instance, computation cannot be too intensive that it affects the block output time, and computation must be deterministic. This means that computation that relies on external data fetching cannot be done on-chain. In Substrate, developers can run these types of computation off-chain and have the result sent back on-chain via extrinsics.

Tightly- and Loosely-coupled pallets, calling one pallet's functions from another pallet via trait specification.

Blockchain Consensus Mechansim, and a guide on customizing it to proof-of-work here.

Parachains: one key feature of Substrate is the capability of becoming a parachain for relay chains like Polkadot. You can develop your own application-specific logic in your chain and rely on the validator community of the relay chain to secure your network, instead of building another validator community yourself. Learn more with the following resources:

Terms clarification

  • Substrate: the blockchain development framework built for writing highly customized, domain-specific blockchains.
  • Polkadot: Polkadot is the relay chain blockchain, built with Substrate.
  • Kusama: Kusama is Polkadot's canary network, used to launch features before these features are launched on Polkadot. You could view it as a beta-network with real economic value where the state of the blockchain is never reset.
  • Web 3.0: is the decentralized internet ecosystem that, instead of apps being centrally stored in a few servers and managed by a sovereign party, it is an open, trustless, and permissionless network when apps are not controlled by a centralized entity.
  • Web3 Foundation: A foundation setup to support the development of decentralized web software protocols. Learn more about what they do on thier website.

Others


Author: substrate-developer-hub
Source Code: https://github.com/substrate-developer-hub/hackathon-knowledge-map
License: 

#blockchain #substrate