Top 10 Kubernetes Best Practices

This video give brief about 10 best practices of Kubernetes

10 Kubernetes Best Practices You Can Easily Apply to Your Clusters

All processes in a container run as the root user (uid 0), by default. To prevent potential compromise of container hosts, it is important to specify a non-root and least privileged user ID when building the container image and make sure that all application containers run as a non-root user.

Disallow privileged containers

Privileged containers are defined as any container where the container uid 0 is mapped to the host’s uid 0. A process within a privileged container can get unrestricted host access. Without proper settings, a process can also gain privileges from its parent. Application containers should not be allowed to execute in privileged mode and privilege escalation should not be allowed.

Disallow adding new capabilities

Linux allows defining fine-grained permissions using capabilities. With Kubernetes, it is possible to add capabilities that escalate the level of kernel access and allow other potentially dangerous behaviors. Ensure that application pods cannot add new capabilities at runtime.

Disallow changes to kernel parameters

The Sysctl interface allows modifications to kernel parameters at runtime. In a Kubernetes pod these parameters can be specified as part of the configurations. Kernel parameter modifications can be used for exploits and adding new parameters should be restricted.

Disallow use of bind mounts (hostPath volumes)

Kubernetes pods can use host bind mounts (i.e. directories and volumes mounted on the container host) in containers. Using host resources can enable access of shared data or may allow privilege escalation. In addition, using host volumes couples application pods to a specific host. Using bind mounts should not be allowed for application pods.

Disallow access to the docker socket bind mount

The docker socket bind mount allows access to the Docker daemon on the node. This access can be used for privilege escalation and to manage containers outside of Kubernetes. Hence access to the docker socket should not be allowed for application workloads.

Disallow use of host network and ports

Using the container host network interfaces allows pods to share the host networking stack allowing potential snooping of network traffic across application pods.

Require read-only root filesystem

A read-only root filesystem helps to enforce an immutable infrastructure strategy; the container only needs to write on mounted volumes that can persist state even if the container exits. An immutable root filesystem can also prevent malicious binaries from writing to the host system.

Require pod resource requests and limits

Application workloads share cluster resources. Hence, it is important to manage resources assigned for each pod. It is recommended that requests and limits are configured per pod and include at least CPU and memory resources.

Require livenessProbe and readinessProbe

Liveness and readiness probes help manage a pod’s lifecycle during deployments, restarts, and upgrades. If these checks are not properly configured, pods may be terminated while initializing or may start receiving user requests before they are ready.

Applying Kubernetes Best Practices

Now that we understand the best practices, let’s take a look at how to apply these to your clusters and ensure that all workloads comply with them.

For a number of the pod security settings, Kubernetes itself provides a policy object called the Pod Security Policy (PSP). However, PSPs are themselves complex to configure and manage across workloads and can result in errors where pods are not scheduled. Also, PSPs are a beta resource and are not likely to be generally available (GA) due to their inherent limitations and usability issues. Hence, there exists a need for better solutions.

Kyverno is an open source Kubernetes native policy management framework that can validate, mutate, and generate workload configurations. Kyverno installs as an admission controller webhook receiver. This means that all requests to create, edit and delete workload configurations can be inspected by Kyverno.

Kyverno policies are a Kubernetes resource and simple to write. For example, here is a policy that checks for liveness and readiness probes in each pod:

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apiVersion: kyverno.io/v1
kind: ClusterPolicy
metadata:
 name: require-pod-probes
spec:
 rules:
 - name: validate-livenessProbe-readinessProbe
   match:
    resources:
     kinds:
     - Pod
    validate:
     message: "Liveness and readiness probes are required"
     pattern:
      spec:
       containers:
       - livenessProbe:
          periodSeconds: ">0"
         readinessProbe:
          periodSeconds: ">0"

Kyverno is designed for Kubernetes, and hence has deep knowledge of how Kubernetes works. For example, if a pod cannot be deployed due to policy enforcement, Kyverno will check for the pod controller (e.g. the Deployment that created the pod) and reports a Policy Violation on the pod controller. The policy violations are also created as Kubernetes resources, and in the same namespace as the workload. This makes for a good developer experience as it’s easy to inspect and fix the non-compliant configurations.

Installing Kyverno in your cluster is easy using this single command:

kubectl create -f https://github.com/nirmata/kyverno/raw/master/definitions/install.yaml

Next, you can apply the best practice policies that include the ones above and several more:

git clone https://github.com/nirmata/kyverno.git
cd kyverno
kubectl create -f samples/best_practices

The policies can be set to simply validate new and existing configurations and report violations. Or, you can set them to enforce checks and block configuration changes that do not comply with the policies.

You can read more about Kyverno at the GitHub site.

Using Kyverno with Nirmata

An easier way to operate Kyverno and manage policies is with Nirmata. Simply sign up for a free account and register your cluster by selecting the option to manage an existing Kubernetes cluster. Once your cluster is registered, Nirmata can automatically deploy Kyverno as a cluster add-on service:

Kyverno screenshot

As Kyverno runs in your cluster, Nirmata collects policy violations and correlates them back to workloads. Nirmata provides easy ways to centrally manage policies for multiple clusters, manage violations, create exceptions for workloads, and even generate alarms for violations.

Kyverno workload policies screenshot

Summary

Kubernetes is powerful and provides many configuration options for workloads. However, Kubernetes is insecure out-of-the-box and requires careful tuning to secure the cluster resources and workloads.

Kyverno makes it easy to audit workloads for best practice compliance and enforce policies. The Kyverno repository has several best practice policies you can immediately use to get started.

#kubernetes #devops

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Top 10 Kubernetes Best Practices
Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1602964260

50+ Useful Kubernetes Tools for 2020 - Part 2

Introduction

Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.

According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

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bindu singh

bindu singh

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Procedure To Become An Air Hostess/Cabin Crew

Minimum educational required – 10+2 passed in any stream from a recognized board.

The age limit is 18 to 25 years. It may differ from one airline to another!

 

Physical and Medical standards –

  • Females must be 157 cm in height and males must be 170 cm in height (for males). This parameter may vary from one airline toward the next.
  • The candidate's body weight should be proportional to his or her height.
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  • Physical fitness is required of the candidate.
  • Eyesight requirements: a minimum of 6/9 vision is required. Many airlines allow applicants to fix their vision to 20/20!
  • There should be no history of mental disease in the candidate's past.
  • The candidate should not have a significant cardiovascular condition.

You can become an air hostess if you meet certain criteria, such as a minimum educational level, an age limit, language ability, and physical characteristics.

As can be seen from the preceding information, a 10+2 pass is the minimal educational need for becoming an air hostess in India. So, if you have a 10+2 certificate from a recognized board, you are qualified to apply for an interview for air hostess positions!

You can still apply for this job if you have a higher qualification (such as a Bachelor's or Master's Degree).

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Lokesh Kumar

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Top 10 Trending Technologies Must Learn in 2021 | igmGuru

Technology has taken a place of more productiveness and give the best to the world. In the current situation, everything is done through the technical process, you don’t have to bother about doing task, everything will be done automatically.This is an article which has some important technologies which are new in the market are explained according to the career preferences. So let’s have a look into the top trending technologies followed in 2021 and its impression in the coming future in the world.

  1. Data Science
    First in the list of newest technologies is surprisingly Data Science. Data Science is the automation that helps to be reasonable for complicated data. The data is produces in a very large amount every day by several companies which comprise sales data, customer profile information, server data, business data, and financial structures. Almost all of the data which is in the form of big data is very indeterminate. The character of a data scientist is to convert the indeterminate datasets into determinate datasets. Then these structured data will examine to recognize trends and patterns. These trends and patterns are beneficial to understand the company’s business performance, customer retention, and how they can be enhanced.

  2. DevOps
    Next one is DevOps, This technology is a mixture of two different things and they are development (Dev) and operations (Ops). This process and technology provide value to their customers in a continuous manner. This technology plays an important role in different aspects and they can be- IT operations, development, security, quality, and engineering to synchronize and cooperate to develop the best and more definitive products. By embracing a culture of DevOps with creative tools and techniques, because through that company will gain the capacity to preferable comeback to consumer requirement, expand the confidence in the request they construct, and accomplish business goals faster. This makes DevOps come into the top 10 trending technologies.

  3. Machine learning
    Next one is Machine learning which is constantly established in all the categories of companies or industries, generating a high command for skilled professionals. The machine learning retailing business is looking forward to enlarging to $8.81 billion by 2022. Machine learning practices is basically use for data mining, data analytics, and pattern recognition. In today’s scenario, Machine learning has its own reputed place in the industry. This makes machine learning come into the top 10 trending technologies. Get the best machine learning course and make yourself future-ready.

To want to know more click on Top 10 Trending Technologies in 2021

You may also read more blogs mentioned below

How to Become a Salesforce Developer

Python VS R Programming

The Scope of Hadoop and Big Data in 2021

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Maud  Rosenbaum

Maud Rosenbaum

1601051854

Kubernetes in the Cloud: Strategies for Effective Multi Cloud Implementations

Kubernetes is a highly popular container orchestration platform. Multi cloud is a strategy that leverages cloud resources from multiple vendors. Multi cloud strategies have become popular because they help prevent vendor lock-in and enable you to leverage a wide variety of cloud resources. However, multi cloud ecosystems are notoriously difficult to configure and maintain.

This article explains how you can leverage Kubernetes to reduce multi cloud complexities and improve stability, scalability, and velocity.

Kubernetes: Your Multi Cloud Strategy

Maintaining standardized application deployments becomes more challenging as your number of applications and the technologies they are based on increase. As environments, operating systems, and dependencies differ, management and operations require more effort and extensive documentation.

In the past, teams tried to get around these difficulties by creating isolated projects in the data center. Each project, including its configurations and requirements were managed independently. This required accurately predicting performance and the number of users before deployment and taking down applications to update operating systems or applications. There were many chances for error.

Kubernetes can provide an alternative to the old method, enabling teams to deploy applications independent of the environment in containers. This eliminates the need to create resource partitions and enables teams to operate infrastructure as a unified whole.

In particular, Kubernetes makes it easier to deploy a multi cloud strategy since it enables you to abstract away service differences. With Kubernetes deployments you can work from a consistent platform and optimize services and applications according to your business needs.

The Compelling Attributes of Multi Cloud Kubernetes

Multi cloud Kubernetes can provide multiple benefits beyond a single cloud deployment. Below are some of the most notable advantages.

Stability

In addition to the built-in scalability, fault tolerance, and auto-healing features of Kubernetes, multi cloud deployments can provide service redundancy. For example, you can mirror applications or split microservices across vendors. This reduces the risk of a vendor-related outage and enables you to create failovers.

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Best NFT Marketplaces To Buy And Sell Non-Fungible Tokens

Non-fungible token or NFT is actually a collectible digital asset. It holds value in the form of cryptocurrency as well as in the form of representatives for art or culture. 

There are many marketplaces to buy and sell NFTs but they type of marketplace totally depends on the kind of NFT you want to buy or sell.
Here are some of the best marketplaces to buy and sell Nfts in 2021.

1- OpenSea

2- NiftyGateway 

3- Rarible

4- Foundation

5- SuperRare

 

Read the full Blog for detailed info- https://tech.climbaxentertainment.com/best-nft-marketplaces-to-buy-and-sell-non-fungible-tokens/

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