JS-Quickie: Pretty-printing A JSON Object without External Dependencies

Ever wanted to properly format a JSON string without external library? JavaScript’s native JSON.stringify() provides you with exactly that functionality out of the box.

I’ve been implementing an external API interface recently and during the implementation, one task was to add a log entry to the database for the request and response payload (JSON) and display those payloads inside a user interface. Pretty straightforward.

As those JSON request/response payloads can be a few hundred lines long, it would be a mess to display them just as they are (minified and everything in one line, no spaces and no line breaks).

Of course I could have just searched for an npm package and used that one, but I usually try to install as few additional packages as possible to avoid eventual security issues for such small tasks.

JSON.stringify() to the rescue

After a quick search, I came across JSON.stringify() 's MDN documentation and voilá, it already provides the needed functionality out of the box, no additional library required.

Usually I’m using JSON.stringify() to convert a JavaScript object or value to a string in order to quickly clone an object without copying just the references to that object ( read more on references in JavaScript here) or to pass data along with a POST request.

#javascript #quickie #tips

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JS-Quickie: Pretty-printing A JSON Object without External Dependencies
Tamale  Moses

Tamale Moses

1669003576

Exploring Mutable and Immutable in Python

In this Python article, let's learn about Mutable and Immutable in Python. 

Mutable and Immutable in Python

Mutable is a fancy way of saying that the internal state of the object is changed/mutated. So, the simplest definition is: An object whose internal state can be changed is mutable. On the other hand, immutable doesn’t allow any change in the object once it has been created.

Both of these states are integral to Python data structure. If you want to become more knowledgeable in the entire Python Data Structure, take this free course which covers multiple data structures in Python including tuple data structure which is immutable. You will also receive a certificate on completion which is sure to add value to your portfolio.

Mutable Definition

Mutable is when something is changeable or has the ability to change. In Python, ‘mutable’ is the ability of objects to change their values. These are often the objects that store a collection of data.

Immutable Definition

Immutable is the when no change is possible over time. In Python, if the value of an object cannot be changed over time, then it is known as immutable. Once created, the value of these objects is permanent.

List of Mutable and Immutable objects

Objects of built-in type that are mutable are:

  • Lists
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries
  • User-Defined Classes (It purely depends upon the user to define the characteristics) 

Objects of built-in type that are immutable are:

  • Numbers (Integer, Rational, Float, Decimal, Complex & Booleans)
  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Frozen Sets
  • User-Defined Classes (It purely depends upon the user to define the characteristics)

Object mutability is one of the characteristics that makes Python a dynamically typed language. Though Mutable and Immutable in Python is a very basic concept, it can at times be a little confusing due to the intransitive nature of immutability.

Objects in Python

In Python, everything is treated as an object. Every object has these three attributes:

  • Identity – This refers to the address that the object refers to in the computer’s memory.
  • Type – This refers to the kind of object that is created. For example- integer, list, string etc. 
  • Value – This refers to the value stored by the object. For example – List=[1,2,3] would hold the numbers 1,2 and 3

While ID and Type cannot be changed once it’s created, values can be changed for Mutable objects.

Check out this free python certificate course to get started with Python.

Mutable Objects in Python

I believe, rather than diving deep into the theory aspects of mutable and immutable in Python, a simple code would be the best way to depict what it means in Python. Hence, let us discuss the below code step-by-step:

#Creating a list which contains name of Indian cities  

cities = [‘Delhi’, ‘Mumbai’, ‘Kolkata’]

# Printing the elements from the list cities, separated by a comma & space

for city in cities:
		print(city, end=’, ’)

Output [1]: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(cities)))

Output [2]: 0x1691d7de8c8

#Adding a new city to the list cities

cities.append(‘Chennai’)

#Printing the elements from the list cities, separated by a comma & space 

for city in cities:
	print(city, end=’, ’)

Output [3]: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(cities)))

Output [4]: 0x1691d7de8c8

The above example shows us that we were able to change the internal state of the object ‘cities’ by adding one more city ‘Chennai’ to it, yet, the memory address of the object did not change. This confirms that we did not create a new object, rather, the same object was changed or mutated. Hence, we can say that the object which is a type of list with reference variable name ‘cities’ is a MUTABLE OBJECT.

Let us now discuss the term IMMUTABLE. Considering that we understood what mutable stands for, it is obvious that the definition of immutable will have ‘NOT’ included in it. Here is the simplest definition of immutable– An object whose internal state can NOT be changed is IMMUTABLE.

Again, if you try and concentrate on different error messages, you have encountered, thrown by the respective IDE; you use you would be able to identify the immutable objects in Python. For instance, consider the below code & associated error message with it, while trying to change the value of a Tuple at index 0. 

#Creating a Tuple with variable name ‘foo’

foo = (1, 2)

#Changing the index[0] value from 1 to 3

foo[0] = 3
	
TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment 

Immutable Objects in Python

Once again, a simple code would be the best way to depict what immutable stands for. Hence, let us discuss the below code step-by-step:

#Creating a Tuple which contains English name of weekdays

weekdays = ‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’

# Printing the elements of tuple weekdays

print(weekdays)

Output [1]:  (‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’)

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(weekdays)))

Output [2]: 0x1691cc35090

#tuples are immutable, so you cannot add new elements, hence, using merge of tuples with the # + operator to add a new imaginary day in the tuple ‘weekdays’

weekdays  +=  ‘Pythonday’,

#Printing the elements of tuple weekdays

print(weekdays)

Output [3]: (‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’, ‘Pythonday’)

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(weekdays)))

Output [4]: 0x1691cc8ad68

This above example shows that we were able to use the same variable name that is referencing an object which is a type of tuple with seven elements in it. However, the ID or the memory location of the old & new tuple is not the same. We were not able to change the internal state of the object ‘weekdays’. The Python program manager created a new object in the memory address and the variable name ‘weekdays’ started referencing the new object with eight elements in it.  Hence, we can say that the object which is a type of tuple with reference variable name ‘weekdays’ is an IMMUTABLE OBJECT.

Also Read: Understanding the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) in Python

Where can you use mutable and immutable objects:

Mutable objects can be used where you want to allow for any updates. For example, you have a list of employee names in your organizations, and that needs to be updated every time a new member is hired. You can create a mutable list, and it can be updated easily.

Immutability offers a lot of useful applications to different sensitive tasks we do in a network centred environment where we allow for parallel processing. By creating immutable objects, you seal the values and ensure that no threads can invoke overwrite/update to your data. This is also useful in situations where you would like to write a piece of code that cannot be modified. For example, a debug code that attempts to find the value of an immutable object.

Watch outs:  Non transitive nature of Immutability:

OK! Now we do understand what mutable & immutable objects in Python are. Let’s go ahead and discuss the combination of these two and explore the possibilities. Let’s discuss, as to how will it behave if you have an immutable object which contains the mutable object(s)? Or vice versa? Let us again use a code to understand this behaviour–

#creating a tuple (immutable object) which contains 2 lists(mutable) as it’s elements

#The elements (lists) contains the name, age & gender 

person = (['Ayaan', 5, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the tuple

print(person)

Output [1]: (['Ayaan', 5, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(person)))

Output [2]: 0x1691ef47f88

#Changing the age for the 1st element. Selecting 1st element of tuple by using indexing [0] then 2nd element of the list by using indexing [1] and assigning a new value for age as 4

person[0][1] = 4

#printing the updated tuple

print(person)

Output [3]: (['Ayaan', 4, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(person)))

Output [4]: 0x1691ef47f88

In the above code, you can see that the object ‘person’ is immutable since it is a type of tuple. However, it has two lists as it’s elements, and we can change the state of lists (lists being mutable). So, here we did not change the object reference inside the Tuple, but the referenced object was mutated.

Also Read: Real-Time Object Detection Using TensorFlow

Same way, let’s explore how it will behave if you have a mutable object which contains an immutable object? Let us again use a code to understand the behaviour–

#creating a list (mutable object) which contains tuples(immutable) as it’s elements

list1 = [(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the list

print(list1)

Output [1]: [(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(list1)))

Output [2]: 0x1691d5b13c8	

#changing object reference at index 0

list1[0] = (7, 8, 9)

#printing the list

Output [3]: [(7, 8, 9), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(list1)))

Output [4]: 0x1691d5b13c8

As an individual, it completely depends upon you and your requirements as to what kind of data structure you would like to create with a combination of mutable & immutable objects. I hope that this information will help you while deciding the type of object you would like to select going forward.

Before I end our discussion on IMMUTABILITY, allow me to use the word ‘CAVITE’ when we discuss the String and Integers. There is an exception, and you may see some surprising results while checking the truthiness for immutability. For instance:
#creating an object of integer type with value 10 and reference variable name ‘x’ 

x = 10
 

#printing the value of ‘x’

print(x)

Output [1]: 10

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(x)))

Output [2]: 0x538fb560

#creating an object of integer type with value 10 and reference variable name ‘y’

y = 10

#printing the value of ‘y’

print(y)

Output [3]: 10

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(y)))

Output [4]: 0x538fb560

As per our discussion and understanding, so far, the memory address for x & y should have been different, since, 10 is an instance of Integer class which is immutable. However, as shown in the above code, it has the same memory address. This is not something that we expected. It seems that what we have understood and discussed, has an exception as well.

Quick checkPython Data Structures

Immutability of Tuple

Tuples are immutable and hence cannot have any changes in them once they are created in Python. This is because they support the same sequence operations as strings. We all know that strings are immutable. The index operator will select an element from a tuple just like in a string. Hence, they are immutable.

Exceptions in immutability

Like all, there are exceptions in the immutability in python too. Not all immutable objects are really mutable. This will lead to a lot of doubts in your mind. Let us just take an example to understand this.

Consider a tuple ‘tup’.

Now, if we consider tuple tup = (‘GreatLearning’,[4,3,1,2]) ;

We see that the tuple has elements of different data types. The first element here is a string which as we all know is immutable in nature. The second element is a list which we all know is mutable. Now, we all know that the tuple itself is an immutable data type. It cannot change its contents. But, the list inside it can change its contents. So, the value of the Immutable objects cannot be changed but its constituent objects can. change its value.

FAQs

1. Difference between mutable vs immutable in Python?

Mutable ObjectImmutable Object
State of the object can be modified after it is created.State of the object can’t be modified once it is created.
They are not thread safe.They are thread safe
Mutable classes are not final.It is important to make the class final before creating an immutable object.

2. What are the mutable and immutable data types in Python?

  • Some mutable data types in Python are:

list, dictionary, set, user-defined classes.

  • Some immutable data types are: 

int, float, decimal, bool, string, tuple, range.

3. Are lists mutable in Python?

Lists in Python are mutable data types as the elements of the list can be modified, individual elements can be replaced, and the order of elements can be changed even after the list has been created.
(Examples related to lists have been discussed earlier in this blog.)

4. Why are tuples called immutable types?

Tuple and list data structures are very similar, but one big difference between the data types is that lists are mutable, whereas tuples are immutable. The reason for the tuple’s immutability is that once the elements are added to the tuple and the tuple has been created; it remains unchanged.

A programmer would always prefer building a code that can be reused instead of making the whole data object again. Still, even though tuples are immutable, like lists, they can contain any Python object, including mutable objects.

5. Are sets mutable in Python?

A set is an iterable unordered collection of data type which can be used to perform mathematical operations (like union, intersection, difference etc.). Every element in a set is unique and immutable, i.e. no duplicate values should be there, and the values can’t be changed. However, we can add or remove items from the set as the set itself is mutable.

6. Are strings mutable in Python?

Strings are not mutable in Python. Strings are a immutable data types which means that its value cannot be updated.

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Original article source at: https://www.mygreatlearning.com

#python 

Sasha  Lee

Sasha Lee

1650636000

Dl4clj: Clojure Wrapper for Deeplearning4j.

dl4clj

Port of deeplearning4j to clojure

Contact info

If you have any questions,

  • my email is will@yetanalytics.com
  • I'm will_hoyt in the clojurians slack
  • twitter is @FeLungz (don't check very often)

TODO

  • update examples dir
  • finish README
    • add in examples using Transfer Learning
  • finish tests
    • eval is missing regression tests, roc tests
    • nn-test is missing regression tests
    • spark tests need to be redone
    • need dl4clj.core tests
  • revist spark for updates
  • write specs for user facing functions
    • this is very important, match isnt strict for maps
    • provides 100% certianty of the input -> output flow
    • check the args as they come in, dispatch once I know its safe, test the pure output
  • collapse overlapping api namespaces
  • add to core use case flows

Features

Stable Features with tests

  • Neural Networks DSL
  • Early Stopping Training
  • Transfer Learning
  • Evaluation
  • Data import

Features being worked on for 0.1.0

  • Clustering (testing in progress)
  • Spark (currently being refactored)
  • Front End (maybe current release, maybe future release. Not sure yet)
  • Version of dl4j is 0.0.8 in this project. Current dl4j version is 0.0.9
  • Parallelism
  • Kafka support
  • Other items mentioned in TODO

Features being worked on for future releases

  • NLP
  • Computational Graphs
  • Reinforement Learning
  • Arbiter

Artifacts

NOT YET RELEASED TO CLOJARS

  • fork or clone to try it out

If using Maven add the following repository definition to your pom.xml:

<repository>
  <id>clojars.org</id>
  <url>http://clojars.org/repo</url>
</repository>

Latest release

With Leiningen:

n/a

With Maven:

n/a

<dependency>
  <groupId>_</groupId>
  <artifactId>_</artifactId>
  <version>_</version>
</dependency>

Usage

Things you need to know

All functions for creating dl4j objects return code by default

  • All of these functions have an option to return the dl4j object
    • :as-code? = false
  • This because all builders require the code representation of dl4j objects
    • this requirement is not going to change
  • INDarray creation fns default to objects, this is for convenience
    • :as-code? is still respected

API functions return code when all args are provided as code

API functions return the value of calling the wrapped method when args are provided as a mixture of objects and code or just objects

The tests are there to help clarify behavior, if you are unsure of how to use a fn, search the tests

  • for questions about spark, refer to the spark section bellow

Example of obj/code duality

(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.layers :as l]))

;; as code (the default)

(l/dense-layer-builder
 :activation-fn :relu
 :learning-rate 0.006
 :weight-init :xavier
 :layer-name "example layer"
 :n-in 10
 :n-out 1)

;; =>

(doto
 (org.deeplearning4j.nn.conf.layers.DenseLayer$Builder.)
 (.nOut 1)
 (.activation (dl4clj.constants/value-of {:activation-fn :relu}))
 (.weightInit (dl4clj.constants/value-of {:weight-init :xavier}))
 (.nIn 10)
 (.name "example layer")
 (.learningRate 0.006))

;; as an object

(l/dense-layer-builder
 :activation-fn :relu
 :learning-rate 0.006
 :weight-init :xavier
 :layer-name "example layer"
 :n-in 10
 :n-out 1
 :as-code? false)

;; =>

#object[org.deeplearning4j.nn.conf.layers.DenseLayer 0x69d7d160 "DenseLayer(super=FeedForwardLayer(super=Layer(layerName=example layer, activationFn=relu, weightInit=XAVIER, biasInit=NaN, dist=null, learningRate=0.006, biasLearningRate=NaN, learningRateSchedule=null, momentum=NaN, momentumSchedule=null, l1=NaN, l2=NaN, l1Bias=NaN, l2Bias=NaN, dropOut=NaN, updater=null, rho=NaN, epsilon=NaN, rmsDecay=NaN, adamMeanDecay=NaN, adamVarDecay=NaN, gradientNormalization=null, gradientNormalizationThreshold=NaN), nIn=10, nOut=1))"]

General usage examples

Importing data

Loading data from a file (here its a csv)


(ns my.ns
 (:require [dl4clj.datasets.input-splits :as s]
           [dl4clj.datasets.record-readers :as rr]
           [dl4clj.datasets.api.record-readers :refer :all]
           [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :as ds-iter]
           [dl4clj.datasets.api.iterators :refer :all]
           [dl4clj.helpers :refer [data-from-iter]]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; file splits (convert the data to records)
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def poker-path "resources/poker-hand-training.csv")
;; this is not a complete dataset, it is just here to sever as an example

(def file-split (s/new-filesplit :path poker-path))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; record readers, (read the records created by the file split)
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def csv-rr (initialize-rr! :rr (rr/new-csv-record-reader :skip-n-lines 0 :delimiter ",")
                                 :input-split file-split))

;; lets look at some data
(println (next-record! :rr csv-rr :as-code? false))
;; => #object[java.util.ArrayList 0x2473e02d [1, 10, 1, 11, 1, 13, 1, 12, 1, 1, 9]]
;; this is our first line from the csv


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; record readers dataset iterators (turn our writables into a dataset)
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def rr-ds-iter (ds-iter/new-record-reader-dataset-iterator
                 :record-reader csv-rr
                 :batch-size 1
                 :label-idx 10
                 :n-possible-labels 10))

;; we use our record reader created above
;; we want to see one example per dataset obj returned (:batch-size = 1)
;; we know our label is at the last index, so :label-idx = 10
;; there are 10 possible types of poker hands so :n-possible-labels = 10
;; you can also set :label-idx to -1 to use the last index no matter the size of the seq

(def other-rr-ds-iter (ds-iter/new-record-reader-dataset-iterator
                       :record-reader csv-rr
                       :batch-size 1
                       :label-idx -1
                       :n-possible-labels 10))

(str (next-example! :iter rr-ds-iter :as-code? false))
;; =>
;;===========INPUT===================
;;[1.00, 10.00, 1.00, 11.00, 1.00, 13.00, 1.00, 12.00, 1.00, 1.00]
;;=================OUTPUT==================
;;[0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 0.00, 1.00]


;; and to show that :label-idx = -1 gives us the same output

(= (next-example! :iter rr-ds-iter :as-code? false)
   (next-example! :iter other-rr-ds-iter :as-code? false)) ;; => true

INDArrays and Datasets from clojure data structures


(ns my.ns
  (:require [nd4clj.linalg.factory.nd4j :refer [vec->indarray matrix->indarray
                                                indarray-of-zeros indarray-of-ones
                                                indarray-of-rand vec-or-matrix->indarray]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.new-datasets :refer [new-ds]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.api.datasets :refer [as-list]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :refer [new-existing-dataset-iterator]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.api.iterators :refer :all]
            [dl4clj.datasets.pre-processors :as ds-pp]
            [dl4clj.datasets.api.pre-processors :refer :all]
            [dl4clj.core :as c]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; INDArray creation
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;;TODO: consider defaulting to code

;; can create from a vector

(vec->indarray [1 2 3 4])
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x269df212 [1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00]]

;; or from a matrix

(matrix->indarray [[1 2 3 4] [2 4 6 8]])
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x20aa7fe1
;; [[1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00], [2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00]]]


;; will fill in spareness with zeros

(matrix->indarray [[1 2 3 4] [2 4 6 8] [10 12]])
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x8b7796c
;;[[1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00],
;; [2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00],
;; [10.00, 12.00, 0.00, 0.00]]]

;; can create an indarray of all zeros with specified shape
;; defaults to :rows = 1 :columns = 1

(indarray-of-zeros :rows 3 :columns 2)
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x6f586a7e
;;[[0.00, 0.00],
;; [0.00, 0.00],
;; [0.00, 0.00]]]

(indarray-of-zeros) ;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0xe59ffec 0.00]

;; and if only one is supplied, will get a vector of specified length

(indarray-of-zeros :rows 2)
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x2899d974 [0.00, 0.00]]

(indarray-of-zeros :columns 2)
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0xa5b9782 [0.00, 0.00]]

;; same considerations/defaults for indarray-of-ones and indarray-of-rand

(indarray-of-ones :rows 2 :columns 3)
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x54f08662 [[1.00, 1.00, 1.00], [1.00, 1.00, 1.00]]]

(indarray-of-rand :rows 2 :columns 3)
;; all values are greater than 0 but less than 1
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x2f20293b [[0.85, 0.86, 0.13], [0.94, 0.04, 0.36]]]



;; vec-or-matrix->indarray is built into all functions which require INDArrays
;; so that you can use clojure data structures
;; but you still have the option of passing existing INDArrays

(def example-array (vec-or-matrix->indarray [1 2 3 4]))
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x5c44c71f [1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00]]

(vec-or-matrix->indarray example-array)
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x607b03b0 [1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00]]

(vec-or-matrix->indarray (indarray-of-rand :rows 2))
;; => #object[org.nd4j.linalg.cpu.nativecpu.NDArray 0x49143b08 [0.76, 0.92]]

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; data-set creation
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def ds-with-single-example (new-ds :input [1 2 3 4]
                                    :output [0.0 1.0 0.0]))

(as-list :ds ds-with-single-example :as-code? false)
;; =>
;; #object[java.util.ArrayList 0x5d703d12
;;[===========INPUT===================
;;[1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00]
;;=================OUTPUT==================
;;[0.00, 1.00, 0.00]]]

(def ds-with-multiple-examples (new-ds
                                :input [[1 2 3 4] [2 4 6 8]]
                                :output [[0.0 1.0 0.0] [0.0 0.0 1.0]]))

(as-list :ds ds-with-multiple-examples :as-code? false)
;; =>
;;#object[java.util.ArrayList 0x29c7a9e2
;;[===========INPUT===================
;;[1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00]
;;=================OUTPUT==================
;;[0.00, 1.00, 0.00],
;;===========INPUT===================
;;[2.00, 4.00, 6.00, 8.00]
;;=================OUTPUT==================
;;[0.00, 0.00, 1.00]]]

;; we can create a dataset iterator from the code which creates datasets
;; and set the labels for our outputs (optional)

(def ds-with-multiple-examples
  (new-ds
   :input [[1 2 3 4] [2 4 6 8]]
   :output [[0.0 1.0 0.0] [0.0 0.0 1.0]]))

;; iterator
(def training-rr-ds-iter
  (new-existing-dataset-iterator
   :dataset ds-with-multiple-examples
   :labels ["foo" "baz" "foobaz"]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; data-set normalization
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; this gathers statistics on the dataset and normalizes the data
;; and applies the transformation to all dataset objects in the iterator
(def train-iter-normalized
  (c/normalize-iter! :iter training-rr-ds-iter
                     :normalizer (ds-pp/new-standardize-normalization-ds-preprocessor)
                     :as-code? false))

;; above returns the normalized iterator
;; to get fit normalizer

(def the-normalizer
  (get-pre-processor train-iter-normalized))

Model configuration

Creating a neural network configuration with singe and multiple layers

(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.layers :as l]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.distributions :as dist]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.input-pre-processor :as pp]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.step-fns :as s-fn]))

;; nn/builder has 3 types of args
;; 1) args which set network configuration params
;; 2) args which set default values for layers
;; 3) args which set multi layer network configuration params

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; single layer nn configuration
;; here we are setting network configuration
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(nn/builder :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
            :seed 123
            :iterations 1
            :minimize? true
            :use-drop-connect? false
            :lr-score-based-decay-rate 0.002
            :regularization? false
            :step-fn :default-step-fn
            :layers {:dense-layer {:activation-fn :relu
                                   :updater :adam
                                   :adam-mean-decay 0.2
                                   :adam-var-decay 0.1
                                   :learning-rate 0.006
                                   :weight-init :xavier
                                   :layer-name "single layer model example"
                                   :n-in 10
                                   :n-out 20}})

;; there are several options within a nn-conf map which can be configuration maps
;; or calls to fns
;; It doesn't matter which option you choose and you don't have to stay consistent
;; the list of params which can be passed as config maps or fn calls will
;; be enumerated at a later date

(nn/builder :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
            :seed 123
            :iterations 1
            :minimize? true
            :use-drop-connect? false
            :lr-score-based-decay-rate 0.002
            :regularization? false
            :step-fn (s-fn/new-default-step-fn)
            :build? true
            ;; dont need to specify layer order, theres only one
            :layers (l/dense-layer-builder
                    :activation-fn :relu
                    :updater :adam
                    :adam-mean-decay 0.2
                    :adam-var-decay 0.1
                    :dist (dist/new-normal-distribution :mean 0 :std 1)
                    :learning-rate 0.006
                    :weight-init :xavier
                    :layer-name "single layer model example"
                    :n-in 10
                    :n-out 20))

;; these configurations are the same

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; multi-layer configuration
;; here we are also setting layer defaults
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; defaults will apply to layers which do not specify those value in their config

(nn/builder
 :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
 :seed 123
 :iterations 1
 :minimize? true
 :use-drop-connect? false
 :lr-score-based-decay-rate 0.002
 :regularization? false
 :default-activation-fn :sigmoid
 :default-weight-init :uniform

 ;; we need to specify the layer order
 :layers {0 (l/activation-layer-builder
             :activation-fn :relu
             :updater :adam
             :adam-mean-decay 0.2
             :adam-var-decay 0.1
             :learning-rate 0.006
             :weight-init :xavier
             :layer-name "example first layer"
             :n-in 10
             :n-out 20)
          1 {:output-layer {:n-in 20
                            :n-out 2
                            :loss-fn :mse
                            :layer-name "example output layer"}}})

;; specifying multi-layer config params

(nn/builder
 ;; network args
 :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
 :seed 123
 :iterations 1
 :minimize? true
 :use-drop-connect? false
 :lr-score-based-decay-rate 0.002
 :regularization? false

 ;; layer defaults
 :default-activation-fn :sigmoid
 :default-weight-init :uniform

 ;; the layers
 :layers {0 (l/activation-layer-builder
             :activation-fn :relu
             :updater :adam
             :adam-mean-decay 0.2
             :adam-var-decay 0.1
             :learning-rate 0.006
             :weight-init :xavier
             :layer-name "example first layer"
             :n-in 10
             :n-out 20)
          1 {:output-layer {:n-in 20
                            :n-out 2
                            :loss-fn :mse
                            :layer-name "example output layer"}}}
 ;; multi layer network args
 :backprop? true
 :backprop-type :standard
 :pretrain? false
 :input-pre-processors {0 (pp/new-zero-mean-pre-pre-processor)
                        1 {:unit-variance-processor {}}})

Configuration to Trained models

Multi Layer models

(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :as iter]
            [dl4clj.datasets.input-splits :as split]
            [dl4clj.datasets.record-readers :as rr]
            [dl4clj.optimize.listeners :as listener]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.nn.multilayer.multi-layer-network :as mln]
            [dl4clj.nn.api.model :refer [init! set-listeners!]]
            [dl4clj.nn.api.multi-layer-network :refer [evaluate-classification]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.api.record-readers :refer [initialize-rr!]]
            [dl4clj.eval.api.eval :refer [get-stats get-accuracy]]
            [dl4clj.core :as c]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; nn-conf -> multi-layer-network
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def nn-conf
  (nn/builder
   ;; network args
   :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
   :seed 123 :iterations 1 :regularization? true

   ;; setting layer defaults
   :default-activation-fn :relu :default-l2 7.5e-6
   :default-weight-init :xavier :default-learning-rate 0.0015
   :default-updater :nesterovs :default-momentum 0.98

   ;; setting layer configuration
   :layers {0 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example first layer"
                :n-in 784 :n-out 500}}
            1 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example second layer"
                :n-in 500 :n-out 100}}
            2 {:output-layer
               {:n-in 100 :n-out 10
                ;; layer specific params
                :loss-fn :negativeloglikelihood
                :activation-fn :softmax
                :layer-name "example output layer"}}}

   ;; multi layer args
   :backprop? true
   :pretrain? false))

(def multi-layer-network (c/model-from-conf nn-conf))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; local cpu training with dl4j pre-built iterators
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; lets use the pre-built Mnist data set iterator

(def train-mnist-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? true
   :seed 123))

(def test-mnist-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? false
   :seed 123))

;; and lets set a listener so we can know how training is going

(def score-listener (listener/new-score-iteration-listener :print-every-n 5))

;; and attach it to our model

;; TODO: listeners are broken, look into log4j warnning
(def mln-with-listener (set-listeners! :model multi-layer-network
                                       :listeners [score-listener]))

(def trained-mln (mln/train-mln-with-ds-iter! :mln mln-with-listener
                                              :iter train-mnist-iter
                                              :n-epochs 15
                                              :as-code? false))

;; training happens because :as-code? = false
;; if it was true, we would still just have a data structure
;; we now have a trained model that has seen the training dataset 15 times
;; time to evaluate our model

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;Create an evaluation object
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def eval-obj (evaluate-classification :mln trained-mln
                                       :iter test-mnist-iter))

;; always remember that these objects are stateful, dont use the same eval-obj
;; to eval two different networks
;; we trained the model on a training dataset.  We evaluate on a test set

(println (get-stats :evaler eval-obj))
;; this will print the stats to standard out for each feature/label pair

;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 0: 968 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 1: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 2: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 3: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 5: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 6: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 7: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 8: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 0 classified by model as 9: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 1: 1126 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 2: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 3: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 5: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 6: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 7: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 1 classified by model as 8: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 0: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 1: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 2: 1006 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 3: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 4: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 6: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 7: 7 times
;;Examples labeled as 2 classified by model as 8: 6 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 2: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 3: 990 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 5: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 7: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 8: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 3 classified by model as 9: 7 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 2: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 3: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 4: 967 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 6: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 7: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 4 classified by model as 9: 7 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 0: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 3: 6 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 4: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 5: 874 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 6: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 7: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 8: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 5 classified by model as 9: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 0: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 1: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 3: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 4: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 5: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 6: 939 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 7: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 6 classified by model as 8: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 1: 7 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 2: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 3: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 7: 1005 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 8: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 7 classified by model as 9: 7 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 0: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 2: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 3: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 4: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 5: 3 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 6: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 7: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 8: 947 times
;;Examples labeled as 8 classified by model as 9: 6 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 0: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 1: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 3: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 4: 8 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 6: 1 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 7: 4 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 8: 2 times
;;Examples labeled as 9 classified by model as 9: 986 times

;;==========================Scores========================================
;; Accuracy:        0.9808
;; Precision:       0.9808
;; Recall:          0.9807
;; F1 Score:        0.9807
;;========================================================================

;; can get the stats that are printed via fns in the evaluation namespace
;; after running eval-model-whole-ds

(get-accuracy :evaler evaler-with-stats) ;; => 0.9808

Model Tuning

Early Stopping (controlling training)

it is recommened you start here when designing models

using dl4clj.core


(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.earlystopping.termination-conditions :refer :all]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.model-saver :refer [new-in-memory-saver]]
            [dl4clj.nn.api.multi-layer-network :refer [evaluate-classification]]
            [dl4clj.eval.api.eval :refer [get-stats]]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :as iter]
            [dl4clj.core :as c]))

(def nn-conf
  (nn/builder
   ;; network args
   :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
   :seed 123
   :iterations 1
   :regularization? true

   ;; setting layer defaults
   :default-activation-fn :relu
   :default-l2 7.5e-6
   :default-weight-init :xavier
   :default-learning-rate 0.0015
   :default-updater :nesterovs
   :default-momentum 0.98

   ;; setting layer configuration
   :layers {0 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example first layer"
                :n-in 784 :n-out 500}}
            1 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example second layer"
                :n-in 500 :n-out 100}}
            2 {:output-layer
               {:n-in 100 :n-out 10
                ;; layer specific params
                :loss-fn :negativeloglikelihood
                :activation-fn :softmax
                :layer-name "example output layer"}}}

   ;; multi layer args
   :backprop? true
   :pretrain? false))

(def train-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? true
   :seed 123))

(def test-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? false
   :seed 123))

(def invalid-score-condition (new-invalid-score-iteration-termination-condition))

(def max-score-condition (new-max-score-iteration-termination-condition
                          :max-score 20.0))

(def max-time-condition (new-max-time-iteration-termination-condition
                         :max-time-val 10
                         :max-time-unit :minutes))

(def score-doesnt-improve-condition (new-score-improvement-epoch-termination-condition
                                     :max-n-epoch-no-improve 5))

(def target-score-condition (new-best-score-epoch-termination-condition
                             :best-expected-score 0.009))

(def max-number-epochs-condition (new-max-epochs-termination-condition :max-n 20))

(def in-mem-saver (new-in-memory-saver))

(def trained-mln
;; defaults to returning the model
  (c/train-with-early-stopping
   :nn-conf nn-conf
   :training-iter train-mnist-iter
   :testing-iter test-mnist-iter
   :eval-every-n-epochs 1
   :iteration-termination-conditions [invalid-score-condition
                                      max-score-condition
                                      max-time-condition]
   :epoch-termination-conditions [score-doesnt-improve-condition
                                  target-score-condition
                                  max-number-epochs-condition]
   :save-last-model? true
   :model-saver in-mem-saver
   :as-code? false))

(def model-evaler
  (evaluate-classification :mln trained-mln :iter test-mnist-iter))

(println (get-stats :evaler model-evaler))
  • explicit, step by step way of doing this
(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.earlystopping.early-stopping-config :refer [new-early-stopping-config]]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.termination-conditions :refer :all]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.model-saver :refer [new-in-memory-saver new-local-file-model-saver]]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.score-calc :refer [new-ds-loss-calculator]]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.early-stopping-trainer :refer [new-early-stopping-trainer]]
            [dl4clj.earlystopping.api.early-stopping-trainer :refer [fit-trainer!]]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.nn.multilayer.multi-layer-network :as mln]
            [dl4clj.utils :refer [load-model!]]
            [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :as iter]
            [dl4clj.core :as c]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; start with our network config
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def nn-conf
  (nn/builder
   ;; network args
   :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
   :seed 123 :iterations 1 :regularization? true
   ;; setting layer defaults
   :default-activation-fn :relu :default-l2 7.5e-6
   :default-weight-init :xavier :default-learning-rate 0.0015
   :default-updater :nesterovs :default-momentum 0.98
   ;; setting layer configuration
   :layers {0 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example first layer"
                :n-in 784 :n-out 500}}
            1 {:dense-layer
               {:layer-name "example second layer"
                :n-in 500 :n-out 100}}
            2 {:output-layer
               {:n-in 100 :n-out 10
                ;; layer specific params
                :loss-fn :negativeloglikelihood
                :activation-fn :softmax
                :layer-name "example output layer"}}}
   ;; multi layer args
   :backprop? true
   :pretrain? false))

(def mln (c/model-from-conf nn-conf))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; the training/testing data
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def train-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? true
   :seed 123))

(def test-iter
  (iter/new-mnist-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 64
   :train? false
   :seed 123))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; we are going to need termination conditions
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; these allow us to control when we exit training

;; this can be based off of iterations or epochs

;; iteration termination conditions

(def invalid-score-condition (new-invalid-score-iteration-termination-condition))

(def max-score-condition (new-max-score-iteration-termination-condition
                          :max-score 20.0))

(def max-time-condition (new-max-time-iteration-termination-condition
                         :max-time-val 10
                         :max-time-unit :minutes))

;; epoch termination conditions

(def score-doesnt-improve-condition (new-score-improvement-epoch-termination-condition
                                     :max-n-epoch-no-improve 5))

(def target-score-condition (new-best-score-epoch-termination-condition :best-expected-score 0.009))

(def max-number-epochs-condition (new-max-epochs-termination-condition :max-n 20))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; we also need a way to save our model
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; can be in memory or to a local directory

(def in-mem-saver (new-in-memory-saver))

(def local-file-saver (new-local-file-model-saver :directory "resources/tmp/readme/"))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; set up your score calculator
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def score-calcer (new-ds-loss-calculator :iter test-iter
                                          :average? true))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; create an early stopping configuration
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; termination conditions
;; a way to save our model
;; a way to calculate the score of our model on the dataset

(def early-stopping-conf
  (new-early-stopping-config
   :epoch-termination-conditions [score-doesnt-improve-condition
                                  target-score-condition
                                  max-number-epochs-condition]
   :iteration-termination-conditions [invalid-score-condition
                                      max-score-condition
                                      max-time-condition]
   :eval-every-n-epochs 5
   :model-saver local-file-saver
   :save-last-model? true
   :score-calculator score-calcer))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; create an early stopping trainer from our data, model and early stopping conf
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def es-trainer (new-early-stopping-trainer :early-stopping-conf early-stopping-conf
                                            :mln mln
                                            :iter train-iter))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; fit and use our early stopping trainer
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def es-trainer-fitted (fit-trainer! es-trainer :as-code? false))

;; when the trainer terminates, you will see something like this
;;[nREPL-worker-24] BaseEarlyStoppingTrainer INFO  Completed training epoch 14
;;[nREPL-worker-24] BaseEarlyStoppingTrainer INFO  New best model: score = 0.005225599372851298,
;;                                                   epoch = 14 (previous: score = 0.018243224899038346, epoch = 7)
;;[nREPL-worker-24] BaseEarlyStoppingTrainer INFO Hit epoch termination condition at epoch 14.
;;                                           Details: BestScoreEpochTerminationCondition(0.009)

;; and if we look at the es-trainer-fitted object we see

;;#object[org.deeplearning4j.earlystopping.EarlyStoppingResult 0x5ab74f27 EarlyStoppingResult
;;(terminationReason=EpochTerminationCondition,details=BestScoreEpochTerminationCondition(0.009),
;; bestModelEpoch=14,bestModelScore=0.005225599372851298,totalEpochs=15)]

;; and our model has been saved to /resources/tmp/readme/bestModel.bin
;; there we have our model config, model params and our updater state

;; we can then load this model to use it or continue refining it

(def loaded-model (load-model! :path "resources/tmp/readme/bestModel.bin"
                               :load-updater? true))

Transfer Learning (freezing layers)


;; TODO: need to write up examples

Spark Training

dl4j Spark usage

How it is done in dl4clj

  • Uses dl4clj.core
    • This example uses a fn which takes care of most steps for you
      • allows you to pass args as code bc the fn accounts for the multiple spark contexts issue encountered when everything is just a data structure

(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.layers :as l]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :refer [new-iris-data-set-iterator]]
            [dl4clj.eval.api.eval :refer [get-stats]]
            [dl4clj.spark.masters.param-avg :as master]
            [dl4clj.spark.data.java-rdd :refer [new-java-spark-context
                                                java-rdd-from-iter]]
            [dl4clj.spark.api.dl4j-multi-layer :refer [eval-classification-spark-mln
                                                       get-spark-context]]
            [dl4clj.core :as c]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 1, create your model config
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def mln-conf
  (nn/builder
   :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
   :default-learning-rate 0.006
   :layers {0 (l/dense-layer-builder :n-in 4 :n-out 2 :activation-fn :relu)
            1 {:output-layer
               {:loss-fn :negativeloglikelihood
                :n-in 2 :n-out 3
                :activation-fn :soft-max
                :weight-init :xavier}}}
   :backprop? true
   :backprop-type :standard))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 2, training master
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def training-master
  (master/new-parameter-averaging-training-master
   :build? true
   :rdd-n-examples 10
   :n-workers 4
   :averaging-freq 10
   :batch-size-per-worker 2
   :export-dir "resources/spark/master/"
   :rdd-training-approach :direct
   :repartition-data :always
   :repartition-strategy :balanced
   :seed 1234
   :save-updater? true
   :storage-level :none))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 3, spark context
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def your-spark-context
  (new-java-spark-context :app-name "example app"))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 4, training data
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def iris-iter
  (new-iris-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 1
   :n-examples 5))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 5, spark mln
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def fitted-spark-mln
  (c/train-with-spark :spark-context your-spark-context
                      :mln-conf mln-conf
                      :training-master training-master
                      :iter iris-iter
                      :n-epochs 1
                      :as-code? false))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 5, use spark context from spark-mln to create rdd
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; TODO: eliminate this step

(def our-rdd
  (let [sc (get-spark-context fitted-spark-mln :as-code? false)]
    (java-rdd-from-iter :spark-context sc
                        :iter iris-iter)))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 6, evaluation model and print stats (poor performance of model expected)
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def eval-obj
  (eval-classification-spark-mln
   :spark-mln fitted-spark-mln
   :rdd our-rdd))

(println (get-stats :evaler eval-obj))

  • this example demonstrates the dl4j workflow
    • NOTE: unlike the previous example, this one requires dl4j objects to be used
      • this is becaues spark only wants you to have one spark context at a time
(ns my.ns
  (:require [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.layers :as l]
            [dl4clj.nn.conf.builders.nn :as nn]
            [dl4clj.datasets.iterators :refer [new-iris-data-set-iterator]]
            [dl4clj.eval.api.eval :refer [get-stats]]
            [dl4clj.spark.masters.param-avg :as master]
            [dl4clj.spark.data.java-rdd :refer [new-java-spark-context java-rdd-from-iter]]
            [dl4clj.spark.dl4j-multi-layer :as spark-mln]
            [dl4clj.spark.api.dl4j-multi-layer :refer [fit-spark-mln!
                                                       eval-classification-spark-mln]]))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 1, create your model
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def mln-conf
  (nn/builder
   :optimization-algo :stochastic-gradient-descent
   :default-learning-rate 0.006
   :layers {0 (l/dense-layer-builder :n-in 4 :n-out 2 :activation-fn :relu)
            1 {:output-layer
               {:loss-fn :negativeloglikelihood
                :n-in 2 :n-out 3
                :activation-fn :soft-max
                :weight-init :xavier}}}
   :backprop? true
   :as-code? false
   :backprop-type :standard))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 2, create a training master
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; not all options specified, but most are

(def training-master
  (master/new-parameter-averaging-training-master
   :build? true
   :rdd-n-examples 10
   :n-workers 4
   :averaging-freq 10
   :batch-size-per-worker 2
   :export-dir "resources/spark/master/"
   :rdd-training-approach :direct
   :repartition-data :always
   :repartition-strategy :balanced
   :seed 1234
   :as-code? false
   :save-updater? true
   :storage-level :none))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 3, create a Spark Multi Layer Network
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def your-spark-context
  (new-java-spark-context :app-name "example app" :as-code? false))

;; new-java-spark-context will turn an existing spark-configuration into a java spark context
;; or create a new java spark context with master set to "local[*]" and the app name
;; set to :app-name


(def spark-mln
  (spark-mln/new-spark-multi-layer-network
   :spark-context your-spark-context
   :mln mln-conf
   :training-master training-master
   :as-code? false))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 4, load your data
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

;; one way is via a dataset-iterator
;; can make one directly from a dataset (iterator data-set)
;; see: nd4clj.linalg.dataset.api.data-set and nd4clj.linalg.dataset.data-set
;; we are going to use a pre-built one

(def iris-iter
  (new-iris-data-set-iterator
   :batch-size 1
   :n-examples 5
   :as-code? false))

;; now lets convert the data into a javaRDD

(def our-rdd
  (java-rdd-from-iter :spark-context your-spark-context
                      :iter iris-iter))

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; Step 5, fit and evaluate the model
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(def fitted-spark-mln
  (fit-spark-mln!
   :spark-mln spark-mln
   :rdd our-rdd
   :n-epochs 1))
;; this fn also has the option to supply :path-to-data instead of :rdd
;; that path should point to a directory containing a number of dataset objects

(def eval-obj
  (eval-classification-spark-mln
   :spark-mln fitted-spark-mln
   :rdd our-rdd))
;; we would want to have different testing and training rdd's but here we are using
;; the data we trained on

;; lets get the stats for how our model performed

(println (get-stats :evaler eval-obj))

Terminology

Coming soon

Packages to come back to:

Implement ComputationGraphs and the classes which use them

NLP

Parallelism

TSNE

UI


Author: yetanalytics
Source Code: https://github.com/yetanalytics/dl4clj
License: BSD-2-Clause License

#machine-learning #deep-learning 

Arvel  Parker

Arvel Parker

1591611780

How to Find Ulimit For user on Linux

How can I find the correct ulimit values for a user account or process on Linux systems?

For proper operation, we must ensure that the correct ulimit values set after installing various software. The Linux system provides means of restricting the number of resources that can be used. Limits set for each Linux user account. However, system limits are applied separately to each process that is running for that user too. For example, if certain thresholds are too low, the system might not be able to server web pages using Nginx/Apache or PHP/Python app. System resource limits viewed or set with the NA command. Let us see how to use the ulimit that provides control over the resources available to the shell and processes.

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How to Bash Read Command

Bash has no built-in function to take the user’s input from the terminal. The read command of Bash is used to take the user’s input from the terminal. This command has different options to take an input from the user in different ways. Multiple inputs can be taken using the single read command. Different ways of using this command in the Bash script are described in this tutorial.

Syntax

read [options] [var1, var2, var3…]

The read command can be used without any argument or option. Many types of options can be used with this command to take the input of the particular data type. It can take more input from the user by defining the multiple variables with this command.

Some Useful Options of the Read Command

Some options of the read command require an additional parameter to use. The most commonly used options of the read command are mentioned in the following:

OptionPurpose
-d <delimiter>It is used to take the input until the delimiter value is provided.
-n <number>It is used to take the input of a particular number of characters from the terminal and stop taking the input earlier based on the delimiter.
-N <number>It is used to take the input of the particular number of characters from the terminal, ignoring the delimiter.
-p <prompt>It is used to print the output of the prompt message before taking the input.
-sIt is used to take the input without an echo. This option is mainly used to take the input for the password input.
-aIt is used to take the input for the indexed array.
-t <time>It is used to set a time limit for taking the input.
-u <file descriptor>It is used to take the input from the file.
-rIt is used to disable the backslashes.

 

Different Examples of the Read Command

The uses of read command with different options are shown in this part of this tutorial.

Example 1: Using Read Command without Any Option and variable

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command without any option and variable. If no variable is used with the read command, the input value is stored in the $REPLY variable. The value of this variable is printed later after taking the input.

#!/bin/bash  
#Print the prompt message
echo "Enter your favorite color: "  
#Take the input
read  
#Print the input value
echo "Your favorite color is $REPLY"

Output:

The following output appears if the “Blue” value is taken as an input:

Example 2: Using Read Command with a Variable

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable. The method of taking the single or multiple variables using a read command is shown in this example. The values of all variables are printed later.

#!/bin/bash  
#Print the prompt message
echo "Enter the product name: "  
#Take the input with a single variable
read item

#Print the prompt message
echo "Enter the color variations of the product: "  
#Take three input values in three variables
read color1 color2 color3

#Print the input value
echo "The product name is $item."  
#Print the input values
echo "Available colors are $color1, $color2, and $color3."

Output:

The following output appears after taking a single input first and three inputs later:

Example 3: Using Read Command with -p Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable and the -p option. The input value is printed later.

#!/bin/bash  
#Take the input with the prompt message
read -p "Enter the book name: " book
#Print the input value
echo "Book name: $book"

Output:

The following output appears after taking the input:

Example 4: Using Read Command with -s Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable and the -s option. The input value of the password will not be displayed for the -s option. The input values are checked later for authentication. A success or failure message is also printed.

#!/bin/bash  
#Take the input with the prompt message
read -p "Enter your email: " email
#Take the secret input with the prompt message
read -sp "Enter your password: " password

#Add newline
echo ""

#Check the email and password for authentication
if [[ $email == "admin@example.com" && $password == "secret" ]]
then
   #Print the success message
   echo "Authenticated."
else
   #Print the failure message
   echo "Not authenticated."
fi

Output:

The following output appears after taking the valid and invalid input values:

Example 5: Using Read Command with -a Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable and the -a option. The array values are printed later after taking the input values from the terminal.

#!/bin/bash  
echo "Enter the country names: "  
#Take multiple inputs using an array  
read -a countries

echo "Country names are:"
#Read the array values
for country in ${countries[@]}
do
    echo $country
done

Output:

The following output appears after taking the array values:

Example 6: Using Read Command with -n Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable and the -n option.

#!/bin/bash  
#Print the prompt message
echo "Enter the product code: "  
#Take the input of five characters
read -n 5 code
#Add newline
echo ""
#Print the input value
echo "The product code is $code"

Output:

The following output appears if the “78342” value is taken as input:

Example 7: Using Read Command with -t Option

Create a Bash file with the following script that takes the input from the terminal using the read command with a variable and the -t option.

#!/bin/bash  
#Print the prompt message
echo -n "Write the result of 10-6: "  
#Take the input of five characters
read -t 3 answer

#Check the input value
if [[ $answer == "4" ]]
then
   echo "Correct answer."
else
   echo "Incorrect answer."
fi

Output:

The following output appears after taking the correct and incorrect input values:

Conclusion

The uses of some useful options of the read command are explained in this tutorial using multiple examples to know the basic uses of the read command.

Original article source at: https://linuxhint.com/

#bash #command 

MEAN Stack Tutorial MongoDB ExpressJS AngularJS NodeJS

We are going to build a full stack Todo App using the MEAN (MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS and NodeJS). This is the last part of three-post series tutorial.

MEAN Stack tutorial series:

AngularJS tutorial for beginners (Part I)
Creating RESTful APIs with NodeJS and MongoDB Tutorial (Part II)
MEAN Stack Tutorial: MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS and NodeJS (Part III) 👈 you are here
Before completing the app, let’s cover some background about the this stack. If you rather jump to the hands-on part click here to get started.

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