Annetta  Robel

Annetta Robel

1605753135

How to become a better programmer: Do Not If Else

Every young developer gets to know the most common rules in programming quickly, either by their own research or by code review comments. Write small classes and small methods/functions. Be SOLIDDon’t Repeat YourselfKeep It Simple Stupid and a lot of other programming principles.

Today I would like to propose another way - one that may be a bit controversial in principle; let’s call it - DNIE (read as deny) unrolled to Do Not If Else.

If’s are often considered harmful. They are the source of evil and sometimes bugs. But the worst thing is that they hide abstractions.

Before we go further, I have to make an important disclaimer - I don’t want to say never ever use if or anything like that. There are cases when an if statement is the easiest, the cleanest and the most appropriate solution for a problem. E.g. I cannot imagine implementing most sorting algorithms without such construction. Unfortunately if’s are overused and often makes software harder to maintain.

#development #programming

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Buddha Community

How to become a better programmer: Do Not If Else
Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami

1651383480

A Simple Wrapper Around Amplify AppSync Simulator

This serverless plugin is a wrapper for amplify-appsync-simulator made for testing AppSync APIs built with serverless-appsync-plugin.

Install

npm install serverless-appsync-simulator
# or
yarn add serverless-appsync-simulator

Usage

This plugin relies on your serverless yml file and on the serverless-offline plugin.

plugins:
  - serverless-dynamodb-local # only if you need dynamodb resolvers and you don't have an external dynamodb
  - serverless-appsync-simulator
  - serverless-offline

Note: Order is important serverless-appsync-simulator must go before serverless-offline

To start the simulator, run the following command:

sls offline start

You should see in the logs something like:

...
Serverless: AppSync endpoint: http://localhost:20002/graphql
Serverless: GraphiQl: http://localhost:20002
...

Configuration

Put options under custom.appsync-simulator in your serverless.yml file

| option | default | description | | ------------------------ | -------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------- | | apiKey | 0123456789 | When using API_KEY as authentication type, the key to authenticate to the endpoint. | | port | 20002 | AppSync operations port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20002, 20012, 20022, etc.) | | wsPort | 20003 | AppSync subscriptions port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20003, 20013, 20023, etc.) | | location | . (base directory) | Location of the lambda functions handlers. | | refMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the Ref function | | getAttMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the GetAtt function | | importValueMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the ImportValue function | | functions | {} | A mapping of external functions for providing invoke url for external fucntions | | dynamoDb.endpoint | http://localhost:8000 | Dynamodb endpoint. Specify it if you're not using serverless-dynamodb-local. Otherwise, port is taken from dynamodb-local conf | | dynamoDb.region | localhost | Dynamodb region. Specify it if you're connecting to a remote Dynamodb intance. | | dynamoDb.accessKeyId | DEFAULT_ACCESS_KEY | AWS Access Key ID to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.secretAccessKey | DEFAULT_SECRET | AWS Secret Key to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.sessionToken | DEFAULT_ACCESS_TOKEEN | AWS Session Token to access DynamoDB, only if you have temporary security credentials configured on AWS | | dynamoDb.* | | You can add every configuration accepted by DynamoDB SDK | | rds.dbName | | Name of the database | | rds.dbHost | | Database host | | rds.dbDialect | | Database dialect. Possible values (mysql | postgres) | | rds.dbUsername | | Database username | | rds.dbPassword | | Database password | | rds.dbPort | | Database port | | watch | - *.graphql
- *.vtl | Array of glob patterns to watch for hot-reloading. |

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    location: '.webpack/service' # use webpack build directory
    dynamoDb:
      endpoint: 'http://my-custom-dynamo:8000'

Hot-reloading

By default, the simulator will hot-relad when changes to *.graphql or *.vtl files are detected. Changes to *.yml files are not supported (yet? - this is a Serverless Framework limitation). You will need to restart the simulator each time you change yml files.

Hot-reloading relies on watchman. Make sure it is installed on your system.

You can change the files being watched with the watch option, which is then passed to watchman as the match expression.

e.g.

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    watch:
      - ["match", "handlers/**/*.vtl", "wholename"] # => array is interpreted as the literal match expression
      - "*.graphql"                                 # => string like this is equivalent to `["match", "*.graphql"]`

Or you can opt-out by leaving an empty array or set the option to false

Note: Functions should not require hot-reloading, unless you are using a transpiler or a bundler (such as webpack, babel or typescript), un which case you should delegate hot-reloading to that instead.

Resource CloudFormation functions resolution

This plugin supports some resources resolution from the Ref, Fn::GetAtt and Fn::ImportValue functions in your yaml file. It also supports some other Cfn functions such as Fn::Join, Fb::Sub, etc.

Note: Under the hood, this features relies on the cfn-resolver-lib package. For more info on supported cfn functions, refer to the documentation

Basic usage

You can reference resources in your functions' environment variables (that will be accessible from your lambda functions) or datasource definitions. The plugin will automatically resolve them for you.

provider:
  environment:
    BUCKET_NAME:
      Ref: MyBucket # resolves to `my-bucket-name`

resources:
  Resources:
    MyDbTable:
      Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
      Properties:
        TableName: myTable
      ...
    MyBucket:
      Type: AWS::S3::Bucket
      Properties:
        BucketName: my-bucket-name
    ...

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_DYNAMODB
    name: dynamosource
    config:
      tableName:
        Ref: MyDbTable # resolves to `myTable`

Override (or mock) values

Sometimes, some references cannot be resolved, as they come from an Output from Cloudformation; or you might want to use mocked values in your local environment.

In those cases, you can define (or override) those values using the refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap options.

  • refMap takes a mapping of resource name to value pairs
  • getAttMap takes a mapping of resource name to attribute/values pairs
  • importValueMap takes a mapping of import name to values pairs

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    refMap:
      # Override `MyDbTable` resolution from the previous example.
      MyDbTable: 'mock-myTable'
    getAttMap:
      # define ElasticSearchInstance DomainName
      ElasticSearchInstance:
        DomainEndpoint: 'localhost:9200'
    importValueMap:
      other-service-api-url: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_ELASTICSEARCH
    name: elasticsource
    config:
      # endpoint resolves as 'http://localhost:9200'
      endpoint:
        Fn::Join:
          - ''
          - - https://
            - Fn::GetAtt:
                - ElasticSearchInstance
                - DomainEndpoint

Key-value mock notation

In some special cases you will need to use key-value mock nottation. Good example can be case when you need to include serverless stage value (${self:provider.stage}) in the import name.

This notation can be used with all mocks - refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap

provider:
  environment:
    FINISH_ACTIVITY_FUNCTION_ARN:
      Fn::ImportValue: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url

custom:
  serverless-appsync-simulator:
    importValueMap:
      - key: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url
        value: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

Limitations

This plugin only tries to resolve the following parts of the yml tree:

  • provider.environment
  • functions[*].environment
  • custom.appSync

If you have the need of resolving others, feel free to open an issue and explain your use case.

For now, the supported resources to be automatically resovled by Ref: are:

  • DynamoDb tables
  • S3 Buckets

Feel free to open a PR or an issue to extend them as well.

External functions

When a function is not defined withing the current serverless file you can still call it by providing an invoke url which should point to a REST method. Make sure you specify "get" or "post" for the method. Default is "get", but you probably want "post".

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    functions:
      addUser:
        url: http://localhost:3016/2015-03-31/functions/addUser/invocations
        method: post
      addPost:
        url: https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts
        method: post

Supported Resolver types

This plugin supports resolvers implemented by amplify-appsync-simulator, as well as custom resolvers.

From Aws Amplify:

  • NONE
  • AWS_LAMBDA
  • AMAZON_DYNAMODB
  • PIPELINE

Implemented by this plugin

  • AMAZON_ELASTIC_SEARCH
  • HTTP
  • RELATIONAL_DATABASE

Relational Database

Sample VTL for a create mutation

#set( $cols = [] )
#set( $vals = [] )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #set( $discard = $cols.add("$toSnake") )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($ctx.args.input[$entry]) )
      #if( $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("1") )
      #else
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("0") )
      #end
  #else
      #set( $discard = $vals.add("'$ctx.args.input[$entry]'") )
  #end
#end
#set( $valStr = $vals.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#set( $colStr = $cols.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#if ( $valStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $valStr = "($valStr)" )
#end
#if ( $colStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $colStr = "($colStr)" )
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["INSERT INTO <name-of-table> $colStr VALUES $valStr", "SELECT * FROM    <name-of-table> ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1"]
}

Sample VTL for an update mutation

#set( $update = "" )
#set( $equals = "=" )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $cur = $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($cur) )
      #if( $cur )
        #set ( $cur = "1" )
      #else
        #set ( $cur = "0" )
      #end
  #end
  #if ( $util.isNullOrEmpty($update) )
      #set($update = "$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #else
      #set($update = "$update,$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #end
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> SET $update WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id"]
}

Sample resolver for delete mutation

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=$ctx.args.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.id"]
}

Sample mutation response VTL with support for handling AWSDateTime

#set ( $index = -1)
#set ( $result = $util.parseJson($ctx.result) )
#set ( $meta = $result.sqlStatementResults[1].columnMetadata)
#foreach ($column in $meta)
    #set ($index = $index + 1)
    #if ( $column["typeName"] == "timestamptz" )
        #set ($time = $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index]["stringValue"] )
        #set ( $nowEpochMillis = $util.time.parseFormattedToEpochMilliSeconds("$time.substring(0,19)+0000", "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ssZ") )
        #set ( $isoDateTime = $util.time.epochMilliSecondsToISO8601($nowEpochMillis) )
        $util.qr( $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index].put("stringValue", "$isoDateTime") )
    #end
#end
#set ( $res = $util.parseJson($util.rds.toJsonString($util.toJson($result)))[1][0] )
#set ( $response = {} )
#foreach($mapKey in $res.keySet())
    #set ( $s = $mapKey.split("_") )
    #set ( $camelCase="" )
    #set ( $isFirst=true )
    #foreach($entry in $s)
        #if ( $isFirst )
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1) )
        #else
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1).toUpperCase() )
        #end
        #set ( $isFirst=false )
        #set ( $stringLength = $entry.length() )
        #set ( $remaining = $entry.substring(1, $stringLength) )
        #set ( $camelCase = "$camelCase$first$remaining" )
    #end
    $util.qr( $response.put("$camelCase", $res[$mapKey]) )
#end
$utils.toJson($response)

Using Variable Map

Variable map support is limited and does not differentiate numbers and strings data types, please inject them directly if needed.

Will be escaped properly: null, true, and false values.

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   [
    "UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=:ID",
    "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=:ID and unix_timestamp > $ctx.args.newerThan"
  ],
  variableMap: {
    ":ID": $ctx.args.id,
##    ":TIMESTAMP": $ctx.args.newerThan -- This will be handled as a string!!!
  }
}

Requires

Author: Serverless-appsync
Source Code: https://github.com/serverless-appsync/serverless-appsync-simulator 
License: MIT License

#serverless #sync #graphql 

Avian: A lightweight Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

Quick Start

These are examples of building Avian on various operating systems for the x86_64 architecture. You may need to modify JAVA_HOME according to where the JDK is installed on your system. In all cases, be sure to use forward slashes in the path.

on Linux:

$ export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64
$ make
$ build/linux-x86_64/avian -cp build/linux-x86_64/test Hello

on Mac OS X:

$ export JAVA_HOME=$(/usr/libexec/java_home)
$ make
$ build/macosx-x86_64/avian -cp build/macosx-x86_64/test Hello

on Windows (Cygwin):

$ git clone git@github.com:ReadyTalk/win64.git ../win64
$ export JAVA_HOME="/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Java/jdk1.7.0_45"
$ make
$ build/windows-x86_64/avian -cp build/windows-x86_64/test Hello

on FreeBSD:

$ export JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/openjdk7
$ gmake
$ build/freebsd-x86_64/avian -cp build/freebsd-x86_64/test Hello

Introduction

Avian is a lightweight virtual machine and class library designed to provide a useful subset of Java's features, suitable for building self-contained applications.

Supported Platforms

Avian can currently target the following platforms:

  • Linux (i386, x86_64, ARM, and ARM64)
  • Windows (i386 and x86_64)
  • Mac OS X (i386 and x86_64)
  • Apple iOS (i386, x86_64, ARM, and ARM64)
  • FreeBSD (i386, x86_64)

Building

Build requirements include:

  • GNU make 3.80 or later
  • GCC 4.6 or later or LLVM Clang 3.1 or later (see use-clang option below)
  • JDK 1.6 or later
  • MinGW 3.4 or later (only if compiling for Windows)
  • zlib 1.2.3 or later

Earlier versions of some of these packages may also work but have not been tested.

The build is directed by a single makefile and may be influenced via certain flags described below, all of which are optional.

$ make \
    platform={linux,windows,macosx,ios,freebsd} \
    arch={i386,x86_64,arm,arm64} \
    process={compile,interpret} \
    mode={debug,debug-fast,fast,small} \
    lzma=<lzma source directory> \
    bootimage={true,false} \
    tails={true,false} \
    continuations={true,false} \
    use-clang={true,false} \
    openjdk=<openjdk installation directory> \
    openjdk-src=<openjdk source directory> \
    android=<android source directory> \
    ios-version=<iOS minimum version>

platform - the target platform

  • default: output of $(uname -s | tr [:upper:] [:lower:]), normalized in some cases (e.g. CYGWIN_NT-5.1 -> windows)

arch - the target architecture

  • default: output of $(uname -m), normalized in some cases (e.g. i686 -> i386)

process - choice between pure interpreter or JIT compiler

  • default: compile

mode - which set of compilation flags to use to determine optimization level, debug symbols, and whether to enable assertions

  • default: fast

lzma - if set, support use of LZMA to compress embedded JARs and boot images. The value of this option should be a directory containing a recent LZMA SDK (available here). Currently, only version 9.20 of the SDK has been tested, but other versions might work.

  • default: not set

armv6 - if true, don't use any instructions newer than armv6. By default, we assume the target is armv7 or later, and thus requires explicit memory barrier instructions to ensure cache coherency

bootimage - if true, create a boot image containing the pre-parsed class library and ahead-of-time compiled methods. This option is only valid for process=compile builds. Note that you may need to specify both build-arch=x86_64 and arch=x86_64 on 64-bit systems where "uname -m" prints "i386".

  • default: false

tails - if true, optimize each tail call by replacing the caller's stack frame with the callee's. This convention ensures proper tail recursion, suitable for languages such as Scheme. This option is only valid for process=compile builds.

  • default: false

continuations - if true, support continuations via the avian.Continuations methods callWithCurrentContinuation and dynamicWind. See Continuations.java for details. This option is only valid for process=compile builds.

  • default: false

use-clang - if true, use LLVM's clang instead of GCC to build. Note that this does not currently affect cross compiles, only native builds.

  • default: false

openjdk - if set, use the OpenJDK class library instead of the default Avian class library. See "Building with the OpenJDK Class Library" below for details.

  • default: not set

openjdk-src - if this and the openjdk option above are both set, build an embeddable VM using the OpenJDK class library. The JNI components of the OpenJDK class library will be built from the sources found under the specified directory. See "Building with the OpenJDK Class Library" below for details.

  • default: not set

android - if set, use the Android class library instead of the default Avian class library. See "Building with the Android Class Library" below for details.

  • default: not set

ios-version - the minimum iOS SDK version which will be used when compiling for ios target. Do not use a value 11.0 or larger, if you want to support 32 bit version. This option is only valid for platform=ios .

  • default: 8.0

These flags determine the name of the directory used for the build. The name always starts with ${platform}-${arch}, and each non-default build option is appended to the name. For example, a debug build with bootimage enabled on Linux/x86_64 would be built in build/linux-x86_64-debug-bootimage. This allows you to build with several different sets of options independently and even simultaneously without doing a clean build each time.

Note that not all combinations of these flags are valid. For instance, non-jailbroken iOS devices do not allow JIT compilation, so only process=interpret or bootimage=true builds will run on such devices. See here for an example of an Xcode project for iOS which uses Avian.

If you are compiling for Windows, you may either cross-compile using MinGW or build natively on Windows under Cygwin.

Installing Cygwin:

1. Download and run setup.exe from cygwin's website, installing the base system and these packages: make, gcc-mingw-g++, mingw64-i686-gcc-g++, mingw64-x86_64-gcc-g++, and (optionally) git.

You may also find our win32 repository useful: (run this from the directory containing the avian directory)

$ git clone git@github.com:ReadyTalk/win32.git

This gives you the Windows JNI headers, zlib headers and library, and a few other useful libraries like OpenSSL, libjpeg, and libpng. There's also a win64 repository for 64-bit builds:

  $ git clone git@github.com:ReadyTalk/win64.git

Building with the Microsoft Visual C++ Compiler

You can also build using the MSVC compiler, which makes debugging with tools like WinDbg and Visual Studio much easier. Note that you will still need to have GCC installed - MSVC is only used to compile the C++ portions of the VM, while the assembly code and helper tools are built using GCC.

Note that the MSVC build isn't tested regularly, so is fairly likely to be broken.

Avian targets MSVC 11 and above (it uses c++ features not available in older versions).

To build with MSVC, install Cygwin as described above and set the following environment variables:

$ export PATH="/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin:/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0/Common7/IDE:/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0/VC/BIN:/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0/Common7/Tools:/cygdrive/c/WINDOWS/Microsoft.NET/Framework/v3.5:/cygdrive/c/WINDOWS/Microsoft.NET/Framework/v2.0.50727:/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0/VC/VCPackages:/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft SDKs/Windows/v6.0A/bin:/cygdrive/c/WINDOWS/system32:/cygdrive/c/WINDOWS:/cygdrive/c/WINDOWS/System32/Wbem"
$ export LIBPATH="C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v3.5;C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0\VC\LIB;"
$ export VCINSTALLDIR="C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0\VC"
$ export LIB="C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0\VC\LIB;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v6.0A\lib;"
$ export INCLUDE="C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0\VC\INCLUDE;C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v6.0A\include;"

Adjust these definitions as necessary according to your MSVC installation.

Finally, build with the msvc flag set to the MSVC tool directory:

$ make msvc="/cygdrive/c/Program Files/Microsoft Visual Studio 11.0/VC"

Building with the OpenJDK Class Library

By default, Avian uses its own lightweight class library. However, that library only contains a relatively small subset of the classes and methods included in the JRE. If your application requires features beyond that subset, you may want to tell Avian to use OpenJDK's class library instead. To do so, specify the directory where OpenJDK is installed, e.g.:

$ make openjdk=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk

This will build Avian as a conventional JVM (e.g. libjvm.so) which loads its boot class library and native libraries (e.g. libjava.so) from /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk/jre at runtime. Note that you must use an absolute path here, or else the result will not work when run from other directories. In this configuration, OpenJDK needs to remain installed for Avian to work, and you can run applications like this:

$ build/linux-x86_64-openjdk/avian-dynamic -cp /path/to/my/application \
    com.example.MyApplication

Alternatively, you can enable a stand-alone build using OpenJDK by specifying the location of the OpenJDK source code, e.g.:

$ make openjdk=$(pwd)/../jdk7/build/linux-amd64/j2sdk-image \
    openjdk-src=$(pwd)/../jdk7/jdk/src

You must ensure that the path specified for openjdk-src does not have any spaces in it; make gets confused when dependency paths include spaces, and we haven't found away around that except to avoid paths with spaces entirely.

The result of such a build is a self-contained binary which does not depend on external libraries, jars, or other files. In this case, the specified paths are used only at build time; anything needed at runtime is embedded in the binary. Thus, the process of running an application is simplified:

$ build/linux-x86_64-openjdk-src/avian -cp /path/to/my/application \
    com.example.MyApplication

Note that the resulting binary will be very large due to the size of OpenJDK's class library. This can be mitigated using UPX, preferably an LZMA-enabled version:

$ upx --lzma --best build/linux-x86_64-openjdk-src/avian

You can reduce the size futher for embedded builds by using ProGuard and the supplied openjdk.pro configuration file (see "Embedding with ProGuard and a Boot Image" below). Note that you'll still need to use vm.pro in that case -- openjdk.pro just adds additional constraints specific to the OpenJDK port. Also see app.mk in the avian-swt-examples project for an example of using Avian, OpenJDK, ProGuard, and UPX in concert.

Here are some examples of how to install OpenJDK and build Avian with it on various OSes:

Debian-based Linux:

Conventional build:

$ apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
$ make openjdk=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk test

Stand-alone build:

$ apt-get install openjdk-7-jdk
$ apt-get source openjdk-7-jdk
$ apt-get build-dep openjdk-7-jdk
$ (cd openjdk-7-7~b147-2.0 && dpkg-buildpackage)
$ make openjdk=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk \
    openjdk-src=$(pwd)/openjdk-7-7~b147-2.0/build/openjdk/jdk/src \
    test

Mac OS X:

Prerequisite: Build OpenJDK 7 according to this site.

Conventional build:

$ make openjdk=$(pwd)/../jdk7u-dev/build/macosx-amd64/j2sdk-image test

Stand-alone build:

$ make openjdk=$(pwd)/../jdk7u-dev/build/macosx-amd64/j2sdk-image \
    openjdk-src=$(pwd)/../p/jdk7u-dev/jdk/src test

Windows (Cygwin):

Prerequisite: Build OpenJDK 7 according to this site. Alternatively, use https://github.com/alexkasko/openjdk-unofficial-builds.

Conventional build:

$ make openjdk=$(pwd)/../jdk7u-dev/build/windows-i586/j2sdk-image test

Stand-alone build:

$ make openjdk=$(pwd)/../jdk7u-dev/build/windows-i586/j2sdk-image \
    openjdk-src=$(pwd)/../p/jdk7u-dev/jdk/src test

Currently, only OpenJDK 7 is supported. Later versions might work, but have not yet been tested.

Building with the Android Class Library

As an alternative to both the Avian and OpenJDK class libaries, you can also build with the Android class library. Now it should work on Linux, OS X and Windows.

The simpliest way to build Avian with Android classpath is to use avian-pack project: https://github.com/bigfatbrowncat/avian-pack

Avian-pack consists of Avian itself with some Android components (such as libcore and icu4c).

Note that we use the upstream OpenSSL repository and apply the Android patches to it. This is because it is not clear how to build the Android fork of OpenSSL directly without checking out and building the entire platform. As of this writing, the patches apply cleanly against OpenSSL 1.0.1h, so that's the tag we check out, but this may change in the future when the Android fork rebases against a new OpenSSL version.

Installing

Installing Avian is as simple as copying the executable to the desired directory:

$ cp build/${platform}-${arch}/avian ~/bin/

Embedding

The following series of commands illustrates how to produce a stand-alone executable out of a Java application using Avian.

Note: if you are building on Cygwin, prepend "x86_64-w64-mingw32-" or "i686-w64-mingw32-" to the ar, g++, gcc, strip, and dlltool commands below (e.g. x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc).

1. Build Avian, create a new directory, and populate it with the VM object files and bootstrap classpath jar.

$ make
$ mkdir hello
$ cd hello
$ ar x ../build/${platform}-${arch}/libavian.a
$ cp ../build/${platform}-${arch}/classpath.jar boot.jar

2. Build the Java code and add it to the jar.

$ cat >Hello.java <<EOF
public class Hello {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    System.out.println("hello, world!");
  }
}
EOF
 $ javac -bootclasspath boot.jar Hello.java
 $ jar u0f boot.jar Hello.class

3. Make an object file out of the jar.

$ ../build/${platform}-${arch}/binaryToObject/binaryToObject boot.jar \
     boot-jar.o _binary_boot_jar_start _binary_boot_jar_end ${platform} ${arch}

If you've built Avian using the lzma option, you may optionally compress the jar before generating the object:

  ../build/$(platform}-${arch}-lzma/lzma/lzma encode boot.jar boot.jar.lzma
     && ../build/${platform}-${arch}-lzma/binaryToObject/binaryToObject \
       boot.jar.lzma boot-jar.o _binary_boot_jar_start _binary_boot_jar_end \
       ${platform} ${arch}

Note that you'll need to specify "-Xbootclasspath:[lzma.bootJar]" instead of "-Xbootclasspath:[bootJar]" in the next step if you've used LZMA to compress the jar.

4. Write a driver which starts the VM and runs the desired main method. Note the bootJar function, which will be called by the VM to get a handle to the embedded jar. We tell the VM about this jar by setting the boot classpath to "[bootJar]".

$ cat >embedded-jar-main.cpp <<EOF
#include "stdint.h"
#include "jni.h"
#include "stdlib.h"

#if (defined __MINGW32__) || (defined _MSC_VER)
#  define EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
#else
#  define EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default"))) \
  __attribute__ ((used))
#endif

#if (! defined __x86_64__) && ((defined __MINGW32__) || (defined _MSC_VER))
#  define SYMBOL(x) binary_boot_jar_##x
#else
#  define SYMBOL(x) _binary_boot_jar_##x
#endif

extern "C" {

  extern const uint8_t SYMBOL(start)[];
  extern const uint8_t SYMBOL(end)[];

  EXPORT const uint8_t*
  bootJar(size_t* size)
  {
    *size = SYMBOL(end) - SYMBOL(start);
    return SYMBOL(start);
  }

} // extern "C"

extern "C" void __cxa_pure_virtual(void) { abort(); }

int
main(int ac, const char** av)
{
  JavaVMInitArgs vmArgs;
  vmArgs.version = JNI_VERSION_1_2;
  vmArgs.nOptions = 1;
  vmArgs.ignoreUnrecognized = JNI_TRUE;

  JavaVMOption options[vmArgs.nOptions];
  vmArgs.options = options;

  options[0].optionString = const_cast<char*>("-Xbootclasspath:[bootJar]");

  JavaVM* vm;
  void* env;
  JNI_CreateJavaVM(&vm, &env, &vmArgs);
  JNIEnv* e = static_cast<JNIEnv*>(env);

  jclass c = e->FindClass("Hello");
  if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
    jmethodID m = e->GetStaticMethodID(c, "main", "([Ljava/lang/String;)V");
    if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
      jclass stringClass = e->FindClass("java/lang/String");
      if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
        jobjectArray a = e->NewObjectArray(ac-1, stringClass, 0);
        if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
          for (int i = 1; i < ac; ++i) {
            e->SetObjectArrayElement(a, i-1, e->NewStringUTF(av[i]));
          }

          e->CallStaticVoidMethod(c, m, a);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  int exitCode = 0;
  if (e->ExceptionCheck()) {
    exitCode = -1;
    e->ExceptionDescribe();
  }

  vm->DestroyJavaVM();

  return exitCode;
}
EOF

on Linux:

 $ g++ -I$JAVA_HOME/include -I$JAVA_HOME/include/linux \
     -D_JNI_IMPLEMENTATION_ -c embedded-jar-main.cpp -o main.o

on Mac OS X:

 $ g++ -I$JAVA_HOME/include -I$JAVA_HOME/include/darwin \
     -D_JNI_IMPLEMENTATION_ -c embedded-jar-main.cpp -o main.o

on Windows:

 $ g++ -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -I"$JAVA_HOME/include" -I"$JAVA_HOME/include/win32" \
     -D_JNI_IMPLEMENTATION_ -c embedded-jar-main.cpp -o main.o

5. Link the objects produced above to produce the final executable, and optionally strip its symbols.

on Linux:

$ g++ -rdynamic *.o -ldl -lpthread -lz -o hello
$ strip --strip-all hello

on Mac OS X:

$ g++ -rdynamic *.o -ldl -lpthread -lz -o hello -framework CoreFoundation
$ strip -S -x hello

on Windows:

$ dlltool -z hello.def *.o
$ dlltool -d hello.def -e hello.exp
$ gcc hello.exp *.o -L../../win32/lib -lmingwthrd -lm -lz -lws2_32 \
    -lIphlpapi -mwindows -mconsole -o hello.exe
$ strip --strip-all hello.exe

Embedding with ProGuard and a Boot Image

The following illustrates how to embed an application as above, except this time we preprocess the code using ProGuard and build a boot image from it for quicker startup. The pros and cons of using ProGuard are as follow:

Pros: ProGuard will eliminate unused code, optimize the rest, and obfuscate it as well for maximum space savings

Cons: increased build time, especially for large applications, and extra effort needed to configure it for applications which rely heavily on reflection and/or calls to Java from native code

For boot image builds:

Pros: the boot image build pre-parses all the classes and compiles all the methods, obviating the need for JIT compilation at runtime. This also makes garbage collection faster, since the pre-parsed classes are never visited.

Cons: the pre-parsed classes and AOT-compiled methods take up more space in the executable than the equivalent class files. In practice, this can make the executable 30-50% larger. Also, AOT compilation does not yet yield significantly faster or smaller code than JIT compilation. Finally, floating point code may be slower on 32-bit x86 since the compiler cannot assume SSE2 support will be available at runtime, and the x87 FPU is not supported except via out-of-line helper functions.

Note you can use ProGuard without using a boot image and vice-versa, as desired.

The following instructions assume we are building for Linux/x86_64. Please refer to the previous example for guidance on other platforms.

1. Build Avian, create a new directory, and populate it with the VM object files.

$ make bootimage=true
$ mkdir hello
$ cd hello
$ ar x ../build/linux-x86_64-bootimage/libavian.a

2. Create a stage1 directory and extract the contents of the class library jar into it.

$ mkdir stage1
$ (cd stage1 && jar xf ../../build/linux-x86_64-bootimage/classpath.jar)

3. Build the Java code and add it to stage1.

 $ cat >Hello.java <<EOF
public class Hello {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    System.out.println("hello, world!");
  }
}
EOF
 $ javac -bootclasspath stage1 -d stage1 Hello.java

4. Create a ProGuard configuration file specifying Hello.main as the entry point.

 $ cat >hello.pro <<EOF
-keep class Hello {
   public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
 }
EOF

5. Run ProGuard with stage1 as input and stage2 as output.

 $ java -jar ../../proguard4.6/lib/proguard.jar \
     -dontusemixedcaseclassnames -injars stage1 -outjars stage2 \
     @../vm.pro @hello.pro

(note: The -dontusemixedcaseclassnames option is only needed when building on systems with case-insensitive filesystems such as Windows and OS X. Also, you'll need to add -ignorewarnings if you use the OpenJDK class library since the openjdk-src build does not include all the JARs from OpenJDK, and thus ProGuard will not be able to resolve all referenced classes. If you actually plan to use such classes at runtime, you'll need to add them to stage1 before running ProGuard. Finally, you'll need to add @../openjdk.pro to the above command when using the OpenJDK library.)

6. Build the boot and code images.

 $ ../build/linux-x86_64-bootimage/bootimage-generator \
    -cp stage2 \
    -bootimage bootimage-bin.o \
    -codeimage codeimage-bin.o \
    -hostvm ../build/linux-x86_64-interpret/libjvm.so

Note that you can override the default names for the start and end symbols in the boot/code image by also passing:

-bootimage-symbols my_bootimage_start:my_bootimage_end \
-codeimage-symbols my_codeimage_start:my_codeimage_end

7. Write a driver which starts the VM and runs the desired main method. Note the bootimageBin function, which will be called by the VM to get a handle to the embedded boot image. We tell the VM about this function via the "avian.bootimage" property.

Note also that this example includes no resources besides class files. If our application loaded resources such as images and properties files via the classloader, we would also need to embed the jar file containing them. See the previous example for instructions.

$ cat >bootimage-main.cpp <<EOF
#include "stdint.h"
#include "jni.h"

#if (defined __MINGW32__) || (defined _MSC_VER)
#  define EXPORT __declspec(dllexport)
#else
#  define EXPORT __attribute__ ((visibility("default")))
#endif

#if (! defined __x86_64__) && ((defined __MINGW32__) || (defined _MSC_VER))
#  define BOOTIMAGE_BIN(x) binary_bootimage_bin_##x
#  define CODEIMAGE_BIN(x) binary_codeimage_bin_##x
#else
#  define BOOTIMAGE_BIN(x) _binary_bootimage_bin_##x
#  define CODEIMAGE_BIN(x) _binary_codeimage_bin_##x
#endif

extern "C" {

  extern const uint8_t BOOTIMAGE_BIN(start)[];
  extern const uint8_t BOOTIMAGE_BIN(end)[];

  EXPORT const uint8_t*
  bootimageBin(size_t* size)
  {
    *size = BOOTIMAGE_BIN(end) - BOOTIMAGE_BIN(start);
    return BOOTIMAGE_BIN(start);
  }

  extern const uint8_t CODEIMAGE_BIN(start)[];
  extern const uint8_t CODEIMAGE_BIN(end)[];

  EXPORT const uint8_t*
  codeimageBin(size_t* size)
  {
    *size = CODEIMAGE_BIN(end) - CODEIMAGE_BIN(start);
    return CODEIMAGE_BIN(start);
  }

} // extern "C"

int
main(int ac, const char** av)
{
  JavaVMInitArgs vmArgs;
  vmArgs.version = JNI_VERSION_1_2;
  vmArgs.nOptions = 2;
  vmArgs.ignoreUnrecognized = JNI_TRUE;

  JavaVMOption options[vmArgs.nOptions];
  vmArgs.options = options;

  options[0].optionString
    = const_cast<char*>("-Davian.bootimage=bootimageBin");

  options[1].optionString
    = const_cast<char*>("-Davian.codeimage=codeimageBin");

  JavaVM* vm;
  void* env;
  JNI_CreateJavaVM(&vm, &env, &vmArgs);
  JNIEnv* e = static_cast<JNIEnv*>(env);

  jclass c = e->FindClass("Hello");
  if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
    jmethodID m = e->GetStaticMethodID(c, "main", "([Ljava/lang/String;)V");
    if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
      jclass stringClass = e->FindClass("java/lang/String");
      if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
        jobjectArray a = e->NewObjectArray(ac-1, stringClass, 0);
        if (not e->ExceptionCheck()) {
          for (int i = 1; i < ac; ++i) {
            e->SetObjectArrayElement(a, i-1, e->NewStringUTF(av[i]));
          }

          e->CallStaticVoidMethod(c, m, a);
        }
      }
    }
  }

  int exitCode = 0;
  if (e->ExceptionCheck()) {
    exitCode = -1;
    e->ExceptionDescribe();
  }

  vm->DestroyJavaVM();

  return exitCode;
}
EOF

 $ g++ -I$JAVA_HOME/include -I$JAVA_HOME/include/linux \
     -D_JNI_IMPLEMENTATION_ -c bootimage-main.cpp -o main.o

8. Link the objects produced above to produce the final executable, and optionally strip its symbols.

$ g++ -rdynamic *.o -ldl -lpthread -lz -o hello
$ strip --strip-all hello

Trademarks

Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

The Avian project is not affiliated with Oracle.

Download Details:
Author: ReadyTalk
Source Code: https://github.com/ReadyTalk/avian
License: View license

#java #JVM #jdk

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