Yvonne  Hickle

Yvonne Hickle

1670708040

How to Create Simple CRUD Application with Spring Boot and Vue.js

In this Vue.js tutorial we will learn about How to create a simple CRUD application with Spring Boot and Vue.js. You will use Vue and Spring Boot to build a todo list web application. The application will include CRUD abilities, meaning that you can create, read, update, and delete the todo items on the Spring Boot API via the client. The Vue frontend client will use the Quasar framework for the presentation. OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect (OIDC) will secure the Spring Boot API and the Vue client using Okta as the security provider.

This project has two major parts:

  • Spring Boot API
  • Vue client

The Spring Boot app will include an H2 in-memory database and will use Spring Data JPA to map our todo data model to a database table for persistence. As you’ll see, the server will leverage Spring Boot’s ability to quickly expose data via a REST API with minimal configuration.

The client will use Vue 3 and the Quasar framework. The Quasar framework provides components and layout tools to help build Vue applications quickly with a consistent, high-quality user interface.

Before you dig into the tutorial, I want to quickly introduce the technologies for those that might be unfamiliar. Feel free to skip down to the prerequisites section if you’re already familiar with Vue and Spring Boot.

What is Vue.js?

Vue is a JavaScript view library, like React and Angular. It’s designed to be incrementally adoptable, and the core library focuses solely on the view layer.

In my experience, Vue.js is a great alternative to React. I learned React first and came to use Vue later. Like React, Vue uses a virtual DOM, provides reactive and composable view components, and enforces a strict one-way parent-child relationship when defining properties and state. This means that it is performant and avoids many confusing state relationships that can occur without one-way data binding.

However, unlike React, Vue uses templates instead of JSX (a potentially welcome and more immediately accessible option). Vue gives you component-scoped CSS using style tags in single-file components. In practice, this difference is pretty significant because, in React, the JSX and CSS-like syntax are close enough to HTML and CSS to be confusing but not the same, which creates problems initially. (Ever gone from a language that doesn’t require semicolons back to one that does? It’s something like that.)

I find Vue to be a simpler, cleaner implementation. React requires a deep dive. You gotta take the red pill and go all the way. It’s a super powerful system, but you have to be all in. Vue is a little friendlier and a little easier to get started.

Introducing the Quasar Framework

The Quasar Framework builds on top of Vue to add a cross-platform component library and grid layout system. It also provides many tools for deploying Vue-based applications to basically any platform you can think of, from web single-page and progressive web apps to mobile apps and Electron-based desktop apps. In this tutorial, you’ll only be using the layout and component library features. Still, Quasar’s big push is to allow developers to write a single web application and deploy it to any platform with a consistent look with minimal changes.

About Spring Boot

The server technology you’re going to use is Spring Boot. Pure, unadulterated Spring (pre-Spring Boot) is a bit of a behemoth: super powerful but potentially time-sucking and frustrating. I’m pretty sure the whole computer conference phenomena came about so that people could learn and understand old-school Spring XML files. It certainly drove large sections of the computer publishing empires.

Spring Boot was Spring’s answer to this complexity (and to frameworks like Ruby on Rails and Grails). They did a great job of distilling down all the power of Spring into a simple, quick, easy-to-use web framework. You can have a fully functioning resource server with a ridiculously small number of lines of code and a few annotations.

Plus, when you’re ready, you have all the power of Spring under the hood, just waiting.

Prerequisites:

Before you start, please make sure you have the following prerequisites installed (or install them now).

  • Java 11: or use SDKMAN! to manage and install multiple versions
  • Okta CLI: the Okta command-line interface
  • HTTPie: a simple tool for making HTTP requests from a Bash shell
  • Node 16+
  • Vue CLI: you’ll use this to bootstrap the Vue client

You will need a free Okta Developer account if you don’t already have one. But you can wait until later in the tutorial and use the Okta CLI to log in or register for a new account.

Instead of building the project, you can also clone the repo and follow the instructions there to configure it.

Create an OpenID Connect app

Open a Bash shell. Create a parent directory for the project. Eventually, this will include both the resource server and client projects.

mkdir spring-boot-vue-crud
cd spring-boot-vue-crud

Before you begin, you’ll need a free Okta developer account. Install the Okta CLI and run okta register to sign up for a new account. If you already have an account, run okta login. Then, run okta apps create. Select the default app name, or change it as you see fit. Choose Single-Page App and press Enter.

Use http://localhost:8080/callback for the Redirect URI and accept the default Logout Redirect URI of http://localhost:8080.

What does the Okta CLI do?

The Okta CLI will create an OIDC Single-Page App in your Okta Org. It will add the redirect URIs you specified and grant access to the Everyone group. It will also add a trusted origin for http://localhost:8080. You will see output like the following when it’s finished:

Okta application configuration:
Issuer:    https://dev-133337.okta.com/oauth2/default
Client ID: 0oab8eb55Kb9jdMIr5d6

NOTE: You can also use the Okta Admin Console to create your app. See Create a Vue App for more information.Copy the client ID and issuer URI somewhere safe. You’ll need them for both the client and resource server applications.

Bootstrap a Spring Boot app using Spring Initializr

You’re going to use the Spring Initializr to create a starter project for the resource server. You can look at the project website if you want, but here you’ll use the REST API to download a pre-configured starter.

The following command will download the starter project and un-tar it to a new directory named resource-server.

curl https://start.spring.io/starter.tgz \
  -d bootVersion=2.7.3 \
  -d javaVersion=11 \
  -d dependencies=web,data-rest,lombok,data-jpa,h2,okta \
  -d type=gradle-project \
  -d baseDir=resource-server \
| tar -xzvf - && cd resource-server

The dependencies you’re including are:

  • web: Spring Web MVC, adds basic HTTP REST functionality
  • data-jpa: Spring Data JPA, makes it easy to create JPA-based repositories
  • data-rest: Spring Data REST, exposes Spring Data repositories as resource servers
  • h2: the H2 in-memory database used for demonstration purposes
  • lombok: Project Lombok, adds some helpful annotations that eliminate the need to write a lot of getters and setters
  • okta: Okta Spring Boot Starter that helps OAuth 2.0 and OIDC configuration

Project Lombok saves a lot of clutter and ceremony code. However, if you’re using an IDE, you’ll need to install a plugin for Lombok. See the project’s installation docs for more information.

Configure Spring Security

Open the application properties file and update it. You’re changing the server port so it doesn’t conflict with the default Vue local server (which also defaults 8080).

src/main/resources/application.properties

server.port=9000
okta.oauth2.issuer=<your-issuer-uri>
okta.oauth2.clientId=<your-client-id>

You need to replace the two bracketed values with the values you generated above for the OIDC app using the Okta CLI.

You can run the bootstrapped project right now and see if it starts. It should start but won’t do much.

./gradlew bootRun

Create a SecurityConfiguration class to configure Spring Security. The class below configures web security to allow all requests, effectively bypassing security. This is just so you can test the resource server initially. You’ll enable security shortly.

src/main/java/com/example/demo/SecurityConfiguration.java

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.security.config.annotation.web.builders.HttpSecurity;
import org.springframework.security.web.SecurityFilterChain;

@Configuration
public class SecurityConfiguration {

    @Bean
    public SecurityFilterChain filterChain(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.authorizeRequests()
            .anyRequest().permitAll();
        return http.build();
    }

}

Replace the DemoApplication.java file with the following.

src/main/java/com/example/demo/DemoApplication.java

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.boot.ApplicationRunner;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.core.Ordered;
import org.springframework.data.rest.core.config.RepositoryRestConfiguration;
import org.springframework.data.rest.webmvc.config.RepositoryRestConfigurer;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
import org.springframework.web.cors.CorsConfiguration;
import org.springframework.web.cors.UrlBasedCorsConfigurationSource;
import org.springframework.web.filter.CorsFilter;
import org.springframework.web.servlet.config.annotation.CorsRegistry;

import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.stream.Stream;

@SpringBootApplication
public class DemoApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(DemoApplication.class, args);
    }

    // Bootstrap some test data into the in-memory database
    @Bean
    ApplicationRunner init(TodoRepository repository) {
        return args -> {
            Random rd = new Random();
            Stream.of("Buy milk", "Eat pizza", "Update tutorial", "Study Vue", "Go kayaking").forEach(name -> {
                Todo todo = new Todo();
                todo.setTitle(name);
                todo.setCompleted(rd.nextBoolean());
                repository.save(todo);
            });
            repository.findAll().forEach(System.out::println);
        };
    }

    // Fix the CORS errors
    @Bean
    public FilterRegistrationBean simpleCorsFilter() {
        UrlBasedCorsConfigurationSource source = new UrlBasedCorsConfigurationSource();
        CorsConfiguration config = new CorsConfiguration();
        config.setAllowCredentials(true);
        // *** URL below needs to match the Vue client URL and port ***
        config.setAllowedOrigins(Collections.singletonList("http://localhost:8080"));
        config.setAllowedMethods(Collections.singletonList("*"));
        config.setAllowedHeaders(Collections.singletonList("*"));
        source.registerCorsConfiguration("/**", config);
        FilterRegistrationBean bean = new FilterRegistrationBean<>(new CorsFilter(source));
        bean.setOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE);
        return bean;
    }

    // Expose IDs of Todo items
    @Component
    class RestRespositoryConfigurator implements RepositoryRestConfigurer {
        public void configureRepositoryRestConfiguration(RepositoryRestConfiguration config, CorsRegistry cors) {
            config.exposeIdsFor(Todo.class);
        }
    }
    
}

This demo application does three things that are helpful for demonstration purposes. First, it loads some test todo items into the repository.

Second, it configures the REST repository to expose IDs for the todo items.

Third, it defines a filter to allow cross-origin requests from http://localhost:8080. This is necessary so that the Vue application, which is loaded from http://localhost:9000 via the local test server, can load data from the Spring Boot resource server at http://localhost:8080.

For more info on CORS (cross-origin resource sharing), take a look at the Mozilla docs.

Now, create the data model for the todo items.

src/main/java/com/example/demo/Todo.java

package com.example.demo;

import lombok.*;

import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.Entity;

@Entity
@Data
@NoArgsConstructor
public class Todo {

    @Id 
    @GeneratedValue
    private Long id;

    @NonNull
    private String title;

    private Boolean completed = false;
    
}

Notice the use of the Lombok annotations (@Entity, @Data, and @NoArgsConstructor) to keep the code simple and clean.

The todo items have two fields: a title string and a completed boolean. The fields are annotated with Spring Data JPA annotations that allow the Java class to be mapped to a database table for persistence.

Create a repository to persist the data model.

src/main/java/com/example/demo/TodoRepository.java

package com.example.demo;

import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
import org.springframework.data.rest.core.annotation.RepositoryRestResource;

@RepositoryRestResource
interface TodoRepository extends JpaRepository<Todo, Long> {}

This is a Spring Data JpaRepository that can persist the data model you just defined. Because it is annotated with @RepositoryRestResource (and because the data-rest dependency was included), this repository will be automatically exposed as a web resource.

Test your Vue and Spring Boot app

Run the app using the following command from the resource-server subdirectory.

./gradlew bootRun

Open a new Bash shell and use HTTPie to test the resource server.

http :9000/todos

You should see a response like the following:

HTTP/1.1 200 
...

{
  "_embedded": {
    "todos": [
      {
        "_links": {
          "self": {
            "href": "http://localhost:9000/todos/1"
          },
          "todo": {
            "href": "http://localhost:9000/todos/1"
          }
        },
        "completed": false,
        "id": 1,
        "title": "Buy milk"
      },
      {
        "_links": {
          "self": {
            "href": "http://localhost:9000/todos/2"
          },
          "todo": {
            "href": "http://localhost:9000/todos/2"
          }
        },
        "completed": true,
        "id": 2,
        "title": "Eat pizza"
      },
      ...
    ]
  },
  ...
}

Stop the resource server using CTRL + C.

Secure your Spring Boot API

Edit the SecurityConfiguration.java file and change the filter chain’s bean definition to enable a resource server.

src/main/java/com/example/demo/OAuth2ResourceServerSecurityConfiguration.java

@Bean
public SecurityFilterChain filterChain(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
    http.authorizeRequests()
        .anyRequest().authenticated()
        .and()
        .oauth2ResourceServer().jwt();
    return http.build();
}

This configuration requires JWT auth on all requests.

Restart the server. Use CTRL + C to stop it if it’s running.

./gradlew bootRun

Use HTTPie again to try and request the todo items.

http :9000/todos

You will get an error.

HTTP/1.1 401 
...

401 Unauthorized

The resource server is finished. The next step is to create the Vue client.

Create a Vue JavaScript client

Use the Vue CLI to create a new application from the project’s root directory and navigate into the newly created client directory. Install the Vue CLI if you don’t have it installed with npm i -g @vue/cli.

vue create client
cd client

Pick Default ([Vue 3] babel, eslint) when prompted.

Wait for it to finish. Add the Quasar framework.

vue add quasar

You can just accept the defaults. For me, they were the following.

  • Allow Quasar to replace App.vue, About.vue, Home.vue and (if available) router.js? Yes
  • Pick your favorite CSS preprocessor: Sass with indented syntax
  • Choose Quasar Icon Set: Material Icons (recommended)
  • Default Quasar language pack: en-US
  • Use RTL support? No
  • Select features: Enter to select none

Add additional dependencies for HTTP requests, logging, routing, and authentication.

npm i axios@0.27.2 vuejs3-logger@1.0.0 vue-router@4.1.3 @okta/okta-vue@5.3.0
  • axios: an HTTP client request library
  • vuejs3-logger: a logging library
  • vue-router: the standard for routing between pages in Vue
  • okta/okta-vue: the Okta helper for Vue

To learn more about how Okta integrates with Vue, look at the GitHub page for the okta/okta-vue project. More resources and example applications are listed in the Okta docs for Vue.

Replace main.js with the following. Look at the OktaAuth configuration object. Notice the client ID and issuer URI are pulled from a .env file.

src/main.js

import { createApp } from 'vue'
import App from './App.vue'
import {Quasar} from 'quasar'
import quasarUserOptions from './quasar-user-options'
import VueLogger from 'vuejs3-logger'
import router from './router'
import createApi from './Api'

import {OktaAuth} from '@okta/okta-auth-js'
import OktaVue from '@okta/okta-vue'

if (process.env.VUE_APP_ISSUER_URI == null || process.env.VUE_APP_CLIENT_ID == null || process.env.VUE_APP_SERVER_URI == null) {
  throw "Please define VUE_APP_ISSUER_URI, VUE_APP_CLIENT_ID, and VUE_APP_SERVER_URI in .env file"
}

const oktaAuth = new OktaAuth({
  issuer: process.env.VUE_APP_ISSUER_URI,  // pulled from .env file
  clientId: process.env.VUE_APP_CLIENT_ID,  // pulled from .env file
  redirectUri: window.location.origin + '/callback',
  scopes: ['openid', 'profile', 'email']
})

const options = {
  isEnabled: true,
  logLevel: 'debug',
  stringifyArguments: false,
  showLogLevel: true,
  showMethodName: false,
  separator: '|',
  showConsoleColors: true
};

const app = createApp(App)
  .use(Quasar, quasarUserOptions)
  .use(VueLogger, options)
  .use(OktaVue, {oktaAuth})
  .use(router)

app.config.globalProperties.$api = createApi(app.config.globalProperties.$auth)

app.mount('#app')

Stated very briefly, the file above creates the main Vue app and configures it to use the dependencies you added: Quasar, VueLogger, OktaVue, and the router. It also creates the API class that handles the requests to the resource server and passes it the $auth object it needs to get the JWT.

Create a .env file in the client project root directory. The Client ID and Issuer URI are the values you used above in the Spring Boot application.properties file. The Server URI is the local URI for the Spring Boot API. You can leave this unless you made a change (this gets used in the Api.js file).

.env

VUE_APP_CLIENT_ID=<your-client-id>
VUE_APP_ISSUER_URI=<your-issuer-uri>
VUE_APP_SERVER_URI=http://localhost:9000

It’s important to note that putting values like this in a .env file in a client application does not make them secure. It helps by keeping them out of a repository. However, they are still public because they are necessarily visible in the JavaScript code sent to the browser. In this use case, it’s more of a configuration and organizational tool than a security tool.

If you want to keep the .env file out of the repository, you need to update the .gitignore file. There’s no particular need to do this for the Client ID as it will be publicly available anyway.

Replace App.vue with the following.

src/App.vue

<template>
  <q-layout view="hHh lpR fFf">

    <q-header elevated class="bg-primary text-white">
      <q-toolbar>
        <q-toolbar-title>
          <q-avatar>
            <q-icon name="kayaking" size="30px"></q-icon>
          </q-avatar>
          Todo App
        </q-toolbar-title>
        {{ this.claims && this.claims.email ? claims.email : '' }}
        <q-btn flat round dense icon="logout" v-if='authState && authState.isAuthenticated' @click="logout"/>
        <q-btn flat round dense icon="account_circle" v-else @click="login"/>
      </q-toolbar>
    </q-header>

    <q-page-container>
      <router-view></router-view>
    </q-page-container>

  </q-layout>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  name: 'LayoutDefault',
  data: function () {
    return {
      claims: null
    }
  },
  watch: {
    'authState.isAuthenticated'() {
      this.$log.debug(("watch triggered!"))
      this.updateClaims()
    }
  },
  created() {
    this.updateClaims()
  },
  methods: {
    async updateClaims() {
      if (this.authState && this.authState.isAuthenticated) {
        this.claims = await this.$auth.getUser()
      }
    },
    async login() {
      await this.$auth.signInWithRedirect({ originalUri: '/todos' })
    },
    async logout() {
      await this.$auth.signOut()
    }
  },
}
</script>

This top-level component defines the header bar and includes the router component. The header bar has a login or logout button and will show the authenticated user’s email address when logged in.

The app gets the authenticated user’s email address from the JWT claims. (A claim is a piece of information asserted about the subject by the authenticating authority.) This happens in the updateClaims() method, which is triggered when the component is created, and is also triggered by a watch method so that it is updated as the authenticated state changes.

Create a new file to encapsulate the resource server access logic.

src/Api.js

import axios from 'axios'

const instance = axios.create({
  baseURL: process.env.VUE_APP_SERVER_URI,
  timeout: 2000
});

const createApi = (auth) => {

  instance.interceptors.request.use(async function (config) {
    let accessToken = auth.getAccessToken()
    config.headers = {
      Authorization: `Bearer ${accessToken}`
    }
    return config;
  }, function (error) {
    return Promise.reject(error);
  });

  return {

    // (C)reate
    createNew(text, completed) {
      return instance.post('/todos', {title: text, completed: completed})
    },

    // (R)ead
    getAll() {
      return instance.get('/todos', {
        transformResponse: [function (data) {
          return data ? JSON.parse(data)._embedded.todos : data;
        }]
      })
    },

    // (U)pdate
    updateForId(id, text, completed) {
      return instance.put('todos/' + id, {title: text, completed: completed})
    },

    // (D)elete
    removeForId(id) {
      return instance.delete('todos/' + id)
    }
  }
}

export default createApi

All of the requests to the server go through this module. Take a look at how the access token is retrieved from the global auth object and injected into every request.

Create the router file.

src/router/index.js

import { createRouter, createWebHistory } from 'vue-router'
import { navigationGuard } from '@okta/okta-vue'
import Todos from "@/components/Todos";
import Home from "@/components/Home";
import { LoginCallback } from '@okta/okta-vue'

const routes = [
  {
    path: '/',
    component: Home
  },
  {
    path: '/todos',
    component: Todos,
    meta: {
      requiresAuth: true
    }
  },
  { path: '/callback', component: LoginCallback },
]

const router = createRouter({
  history: createWebHistory(process.env.BASE_URL),
  routes,
})

router.beforeEach(navigationGuard)

export default router

The router has three paths. The home path and the todos path are straightforward. The Okta Vue SDK provides the last path, /callback, to handle the login redirect from the Okta servers after authentication.

Create the Home component.

src/components/Home.vue

<template>
  <div class="column justify-center items-center" id="row-container">
    <q-card class="my-card">
      <q-card-section style="text-align: center">
        <div v-if='authState && authState.isAuthenticated'>
          <h6 v-if="claims && claims.email">You are logged in as {{ claims.email }}</h6>
          <h6 v-else>You are logged in</h6>
          <q-btn flat color="primary" @click="todo">Go to Todo app</q-btn>
          <q-btn flat @click="logout">Log out</q-btn>
        </div>
        <div v-else>
          <h6>Please <a href="#" @click.prevent="login">log in</a> to access Todo app</h6>
        </div>
      </q-card-section>
    </q-card>
  </div>
</template>

<script>
export default {
  name: "home-component",
  data: function () {
    return {
      claims: ''
    }
  },
  created() { 
    this.setup() 
  },
  methods: {
    async setup() {
      if (this.authState && this.authState.isAuthenticated) {
        this.claims = await this.$auth.getUser()
      }
    },
    todo() {
      this.$router.push("/todos")
    },
    async login() {
      await this.$auth.signInWithRedirect({ originalUri: '/todos' })
    },
    async logout() {
      await this.$auth.signOut()
    }
  }
}
</script>

Create the TodoItem component.

src/components/TodoItem.vue

<template>
  <q-item-section avatar class="check-icon" v-if="this.item.completed">
    <q-icon color="green" name="done" @click="handleClickSetCompleted(false)"/>
  </q-item-section>
  <q-item-section avatar class="check-icon" v-else>
    <q-icon color="gray" name="check_box_outline_blank" @click="handleClickSetCompleted(true)"/>
  </q-item-section>
  <q-item-section v-if="!editing">{{ this.item.title }}</q-item-section>
  <q-item-section v-else>
    <input
        class="list-item-input"
        type="text"
        name="textinput"
        ref="input"
        v-model="editingTitle"
        @change="handleDoneEditing"
        @blur="handleCancelEditing"
    />
  </q-item-section>
  <q-item-section avatar class="hide-icon" @click="handleClickEdit">
    <q-icon color="primary" name="edit"/>
  </q-item-section>
  <q-item-section avatar class="hide-icon close-icon" @click="handleClickDelete">
    <q-icon color="red" name="close"/>
  </q-item-section>
</template>
<script>

import { nextTick } from 'vue'

export default {
  name: "TodoItem",
  props: {
    item: Object,
    deleteMe: Function,
    showError: Function,
    setCompleted: Function,
    setTitle: Function
  },
  data: function () {
    return {
      editing: false,
      editingTitle: this.item.title,
    }
  },
  methods: {
    handleClickEdit() {
      this.editing = true
      this.editingTitle = this.item.title
      nextTick(function () {
        this.$refs.input.focus()
      }.bind(this))
    },
    handleCancelEditing() {
      this.editing = false
    },
    handleDoneEditing() {
      this.editing = false
      this.$api.updateForId(this.item.id, this.editingTitle, this.item.completed).then((response) => {
        this.setTitle(this.item.id, this.editingTitle)
        this.$log.info("Item updated:", response.data);
      }).catch((error) => {
        this.showError("Failed to update todo title")
        this.$log.debug(error)
      });
    },
    handleClickSetCompleted(value) {
      this.$api.updateForId(this.item.id, this.item.title, value).then((response) => {
        this.setCompleted(this.item.id, value)
        this.$log.info("Item updated:", response.data);
      }).catch((error) => {
        this.showError("Failed to update todo completed status")
        this.$log.debug(error)
      });
    },
    handleClickDelete() {
      this.deleteMe(this.item.id)
    }
  }
}
</script>

<style scoped>
.todo-item .close-icon {
  min-width: 0px;
  padding-left: 5px !important;
}

.todo-item .hide-icon {
  opacity: 0.1;
}

.todo-item:hover .hide-icon {
  opacity: 0.8;
}

.check-icon {
  min-width: 0px;
  padding-right: 5px !important;
}

input.list-item-input {
  border: none;
}
</style>

This component encapsulates a single todo item. It has logic for editing the title, setting the completed status, and deleting items. If you look closely at the code, you’ll notice that it sends changes to the server and updates the local copy stored in the todos array in the parent component.

Create the Todos component.

src/components/Todos.vue

<template>
  <div class="column justify-center items-center" id="row-container">
    <q-card class="my-card">
      <q-card-section>
        <div class="text-h4">Todos</div>
        <q-list padding>
          <q-item
              v-for="item in filteredTodos" :key="item.id"
              clickable
              v-ripple
              rounded
              class="todo-item"
          >
            <TodoItem
                :item="item"
                :deleteMe="handleClickDelete"
                :showError="handleShowError"
                :setCompleted="handleSetCompleted"
                :setTitle="handleSetTitle"
                v-if="filter === 'all' || (filter === 'incomplete' && !item.completed) || (filter === 'complete' && item.completed)"
            ></TodoItem>
          </q-item>
        </q-list>
      </q-card-section>
      <q-card-section>
        <q-item>
          <q-item-section avatar class="add-item-icon">
            <q-icon color="green" name="add_circle_outline"/>
          </q-item-section>
          <q-item-section>
            <input
                type="text"
                ref="newTodoInput"
                v-model="newTodoTitle"
                @change="handleDoneEditingNewTodo"
                @blur="handleCancelEditingNewTodo"
            />
          </q-item-section>
        </q-item>
      </q-card-section>
      <q-card-section style="text-align: center">
        <q-btn color="amber" text-color="black" label="Remove Completed" style="margin-right: 10px" 
               @click="handleDeleteCompleted"></q-btn>
        <q-btn-group>
          <q-btn glossy :color="filter === 'all' ? 'primary' : 'white'" text-color="black" label="All" 
                 @click="handleSetFilter('all')"/>
          <q-btn glossy :color="filter === 'complete' ? 'primary' : 'white'" text-color="black" label="Completed" 
                 @click="handleSetFilter('complete')"/>
          <q-btn glossy :color="filter === 'incomplete' ? 'primary' : 'white'" text-color="black" label="Incomplete" 
                 @click="handleSetFilter('incomplete')"/>
          <q-tooltip>
            Filter the todos
          </q-tooltip>
        </q-btn-group>
      </q-card-section>
    </q-card>
    <div v-if="error" class="error">
      <q-banner inline-actions class="text-white bg-red" @click="handleErrorClick">
        ERROR: {{ this.error }}
      </q-banner>
    </div>
  </div>
</template>

<script>

import TodoItem from "@/components/TodoItem";
import { ref } from 'vue'

export default {
  name: 'LayoutDefault',

  components: {
    TodoItem
  },

  data: function() {
    return {
      todos: [],
      newTodoTitle: '',
      visibility: 'all',
      loading: true,
      error: "",
      filter: "all"
    }
  },

  setup() {
    return {
      alert: ref(false),
    }
  },
  mounted() {
    this.$api.getAll()
        .then(response => {
          this.$log.debug("Data loaded: ", response.data)
          this.todos = response.data
        })
        .catch(error => {
          this.$log.debug(error)
          this.error = "Failed to load todos"
        })
        .finally(() => this.loading = false)
  },

  computed: {
    filteredTodos() {
      if (this.filter === 'all') return this.todos
      else if (this.filter === 'complete') return this.todos.filter(todo => todo.completed)
      else if (this.filter === 'incomplete') return this.todos.filter(todo => !todo.completed)
      else return []
    }
  },

  methods: {

    handleSetFilter(value) {
      this.filter = value
    },

    handleClickDelete(id) {
      const todoToRemove = this.todos.find(todo => todo.id === id)
      this.$api.removeForId(id).then(() => {
        this.$log.debug("Item removed:", todoToRemove);
        this.todos.splice(this.todos.indexOf(todoToRemove), 1)
      }).catch((error) => {
        this.$log.debug(error);
        this.error = "Failed to remove todo"
      });
    },

    handleDeleteCompleted() {
      const completed = this.todos.filter(todo => todo.completed)
      Promise.all(completed.map(todoToRemove => {
        return this.$api.removeForId(todoToRemove.id).then(() => {
          this.$log.debug("Item removed:", todoToRemove);
          this.todos.splice(this.todos.indexOf(todoToRemove), 1)
        }).catch((error) => {
          this.$log.debug(error);
          this.error = "Failed to remove todo"
          return error
        })
      }))
    },

    handleDoneEditingNewTodo() {
      const value = this.newTodoTitle && this.newTodoTitle.trim()
      if (!value) {
        return
      }
      this.$api.createNew(value, false).then((response) => {
        this.$log.debug("New item created:", response)
        this.newTodoTitle = ""
        this.todos.push({
          id: response.data.id,
          title: value,
          completed: false
        })
        this.$refs.newTodoInput.blur()
      }).catch((error) => {
        this.$log.debug(error);
        this.error = "Failed to add todo"
      });
    },
    handleCancelEditingNewTodo() {
      this.newTodoTitle = ""
    },

    handleSetCompleted(id, value) {
      let todo = this.todos.find(todo => id === todo.id)
      todo.completed = value
    },

    handleSetTitle(id, value) {
      let todo = this.todos.find(todo => id === todo.id)
      todo.title = value
    },

    handleShowError(message) {
      this.error = message
    },

    handleErrorClick() {
      this.error = null;
    },

  },

}
</script>

<style>
#row-container {
  margin-top: 100px;
}

.my-card {
  min-width: 600px;
}

.error {
  color: red;
  text-align: center;
  min-width: 600px;
  margin-top: 10px;
}
</style>

This component encapsulates the card that holds all of the todos and the todo-associated interface elements. It also handles the rest of the functions related to updating todos on the server and in the local cache.

You’re welcome to delete the HelloWorld.vue component if you want. Or you can leave it. It’s not needed.

Confirm your Spring Boot and Vue todo app works

Make sure the Spring Boot API is still running. In a separate Bash shell, from the resource server directory, run the following command (if it is not already still running).

./gradlew bootRun

Start the Vue app using the embedded development server. From the client directory:

npm run serve

Open a browser and navigate to http://localhost:8080. You’ll see the “please log in” page.

Please log in

Log into the app using Okta’s sign-in interface.

Okta SSO login

That will redirect you to the Todo app’s main screen.

Todo app main screen

You should be able to delete items, add new items, rename, and filter items. All data is stored on the Spring Boot resource server and is presented by the Vue + Quasar frontend.

Do more with Spring Boot, Vue, and Okta

You built a Spring Boot resource server backend and a Vue frontend in this tutorial. The Vue client used the latest Vue 3 version with the Quasar framework. The app included full CRUD (create, read, update, and delete) capabilities. It was all secured using Okta.


Original article sourced at: https://developer.okta.com

#vue #spring-boot 

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How to Create Simple CRUD Application with Spring Boot and Vue.js

Enhance Amazon Aurora Read/Write Capability with ShardingSphere-JDBC

1. Introduction

Amazon Aurora is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by AWS(Amazon Web Services). Aurora gives you the performance and availability of commercial-grade databases with full MySQL and PostgreSQL compatibility. In terms of high performance, Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL have shown an increase in throughput of up to 5X over stock MySQL and 3X over stock PostgreSQL respectively on similar hardware. In terms of scalability, Aurora achieves enhancements and innovations in storage and computing, horizontal and vertical functions.

Aurora supports up to 128TB of storage capacity and supports dynamic scaling of storage layer in units of 10GB. In terms of computing, Aurora supports scalable configurations for multiple read replicas. Each region can have an additional 15 Aurora replicas. In addition, Aurora provides multi-primary architecture to support four read/write nodes. Its Serverless architecture allows vertical scaling and reduces typical latency to under a second, while the Global Database enables a single database cluster to span multiple AWS Regions in low latency.

Aurora already provides great scalability with the growth of user data volume. Can it handle more data and support more concurrent access? You may consider using sharding to support the configuration of multiple underlying Aurora clusters. To this end, a series of blogs, including this one, provides you with a reference in choosing between Proxy and JDBC for sharding.

1.1 Why sharding is needed

AWS Aurora offers a single relational database. Primary-secondary, multi-primary, and global database, and other forms of hosting architecture can satisfy various architectural scenarios above. However, Aurora doesn’t provide direct support for sharding scenarios, and sharding has a variety of forms, such as vertical and horizontal forms. If we want to further increase data capacity, some problems have to be solved, such as cross-node database Join, associated query, distributed transactions, SQL sorting, page turning, function calculation, database global primary key, capacity planning, and secondary capacity expansion after sharding.

1.2 Sharding methods

It is generally accepted that when the capacity of a MySQL table is less than 10 million, the time spent on queries is optimal because at this time the height of its BTREE index is between 3 and 5. Data sharding can reduce the amount of data in a single table and distribute the read and write loads to different data nodes at the same time. Data sharding can be divided into vertical sharding and horizontal sharding.

1. Advantages of vertical sharding

  • Address the coupling of business system and make clearer.
  • Implement hierarchical management, maintenance, monitoring, and expansion to data of different businesses, like micro-service governance.
  • In high concurrency scenarios, vertical sharding removes the bottleneck of IO, database connections, and hardware resources on a single machine to some extent.

2. Disadvantages of vertical sharding

  • After splitting the library, Join can only be implemented by interface aggregation, which will increase the complexity of development.
  • After splitting the library, it is complex to process distributed transactions.
  • There is a large amount of data on a single table and horizontal sharding is required.

3. Advantages of horizontal sharding

  • There is no such performance bottleneck as a large amount of data on a single database and high concurrency, and it increases system stability and load capacity.
  • The business modules do not need to be split due to minor modification on the application client.

4. Disadvantages of horizontal sharding

  • Transaction consistency across shards is hard to be guaranteed;
  • The performance of associated query in cross-library Join is poor.
  • It’s difficult to scale the data many times and maintenance is a big workload.

Based on the analysis above, and the available studis on popular sharding middleware, we selected ShardingSphere, an open source product, combined with Amazon Aurora to introduce how the combination of these two products meets various forms of sharding and how to solve the problems brought by sharding.

ShardingSphere is an open source ecosystem including a set of distributed database middleware solutions, including 3 independent products, Sharding-JDBC, Sharding-Proxy & Sharding-Sidecar.

2. ShardingSphere introduction:

The characteristics of Sharding-JDBC are:

  1. With the client end connecting directly to the database, it provides service in the form of jar and requires no extra deployment and dependence.
  2. It can be considered as an enhanced JDBC driver, which is fully compatible with JDBC and all kinds of ORM frameworks.
  3. Applicable in any ORM framework based on JDBC, such as JPA, Hibernate, Mybatis, Spring JDBC Template or direct use of JDBC.
  4. Support any third-party database connection pool, such as DBCP, C3P0, BoneCP, Druid, HikariCP;
  5. Support any kind of JDBC standard database: MySQL, Oracle, SQLServer, PostgreSQL and any databases accessible to JDBC.
  6. Sharding-JDBC adopts decentralized architecture, applicable to high-performance light-weight OLTP application developed with Java

Hybrid Structure Integrating Sharding-JDBC and Applications

Sharding-JDBC’s core concepts

Data node: The smallest unit of a data slice, consisting of a data source name and a data table, such as ds_0.product_order_0.

Actual table: The physical table that really exists in the horizontal sharding database, such as product order tables: product_order_0, product_order_1, and product_order_2.

Logic table: The logical name of the horizontal sharding databases (tables) with the same schema. For instance, the logic table of the order product_order_0, product_order_1, and product_order_2 is product_order.

Binding table: It refers to the primary table and the joiner table with the same sharding rules. For example, product_order table and product_order_item are sharded by order_id, so they are binding tables with each other. Cartesian product correlation will not appear in the multi-tables correlating query, so the query efficiency will increase greatly.

Broadcast table: It refers to tables that exist in all sharding database sources. The schema and data must consist in each database. It can be applied to the small data volume that needs to correlate with big data tables to query, dictionary table and configuration table for example.

3. Testing ShardingSphere-JDBC

3.1 Example project

Download the example project code locally. In order to ensure the stability of the test code, we choose shardingsphere-example-4.0.0 version.

git clone https://github.com/apache/shardingsphere-example.git

Project description:

shardingsphere-example
  ├── example-core
  │   ├── config-utility
  │   ├── example-api
  │   ├── example-raw-jdbc
  │   ├── example-spring-jpa #spring+jpa integration-based entity,repository
  │   └── example-spring-mybatis
  ├── sharding-jdbc-example
  │   ├── sharding-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-raw-jdbc-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example #integration-based sharding-jdbc functions
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-boot-mybatis-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-namespace-jpa-example
  │   │   └── sharding-spring-namespace-mybatis-example
  │   ├── orchestration-example
  │   │   ├── orchestration-raw-jdbc-example
  │   │   ├── orchestration-spring-boot-example #integration-based sharding-jdbc governance function
  │   │   └── orchestration-spring-namespace-example
  │   ├── transaction-example
  │   │   ├── transaction-2pc-xa-example #sharding-jdbc sample of two-phase commit for a distributed transaction
  │   │   └──transaction-base-seata-example #sharding-jdbc distributed transaction seata sample
  │   ├── other-feature-example
  │   │   ├── hint-example
  │   │   └── encrypt-example
  ├── sharding-proxy-example
  │   └── sharding-proxy-boot-mybatis-example
  └── src/resources
        └── manual_schema.sql  

Configuration file description:

application-master-slave.properties #read/write splitting profile
application-sharding-databases-tables.properties #sharding profile
application-sharding-databases.properties       #library split profile only
application-sharding-master-slave.properties    #sharding and read/write splitting profile
application-sharding-tables.properties          #table split profile
application.properties                         #spring boot profile

Code logic description:

The following is the entry class of the Spring Boot application below. Execute it to run the project.

The execution logic of demo is as follows:

3.2 Verifying read/write splitting

As business grows, the write and read requests can be split to different database nodes to effectively promote the processing capability of the entire database cluster. Aurora uses a reader/writer endpoint to meet users' requirements to write and read with strong consistency, and a read-only endpoint to meet the requirements to read without strong consistency. Aurora's read and write latency is within single-digit milliseconds, much lower than MySQL's binlog-based logical replication, so there's a lot of loads that can be directed to a read-only endpoint.

Through the one primary and multiple secondary configuration, query requests can be evenly distributed to multiple data replicas, which further improves the processing capability of the system. Read/write splitting can improve the throughput and availability of system, but it can also lead to data inconsistency. Aurora provides a primary/secondary architecture in a fully managed form, but applications on the upper-layer still need to manage multiple data sources when interacting with Aurora, routing SQL requests to different nodes based on the read/write type of SQL statements and certain routing policies.

ShardingSphere-JDBC provides read/write splitting features and it is integrated with application programs so that the complex configuration between application programs and database clusters can be separated from application programs. Developers can manage the Shard through configuration files and combine it with ORM frameworks such as Spring JPA and Mybatis to completely separate the duplicated logic from the code, which greatly improves the ability to maintain code and reduces the coupling between code and database.

3.2.1 Setting up the database environment

Create a set of Aurora MySQL read/write splitting clusters. The model is db.r5.2xlarge. Each set of clusters has one write node and two read nodes.

3.2.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot Master profile description:

You need to replace the green ones with your own environment configuration.

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create-drop
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#Activate master-slave configuration item so that sharding-jdbc can use master-slave profile
spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-master-slave.properties sharding-jdbc profile description:

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_master,ds_slave_0,ds_slave_1
# data souce-master
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.password=Your master DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.jdbc-url=Your primary DB data sourceurl spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.username=Your primary DB username
# data source-slave
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.password= Your slave DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.jdbc-url=Your slave DB data source url
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.username= Your slave DB username
# data source-slave
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.password= Your slave DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.jdbc-url= Your slave DB data source url
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.username= Your slave DB username
# Routing Policy Configuration
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.load-balance-algorithm-type=round_robin
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.name=ds_ms
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.master-data-source-name=ds_master
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.slave-data-source-names=ds_slave_0,ds_slave_1
# sharding-jdbc configures the information storage mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log,and you can see the conversion from logical SQL to actual SQL from the print
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.2.3 Test and verification process description

  • Test environment data initialization: Spring JPA initialization automatically creates tables for testing.

  • Write data to the master instance

As shown in the ShardingSphere-SQL log figure below, the write SQL is executed on the ds_master data source.

  • Data query operations are performed on the slave library.

As shown in the ShardingSphere-SQL log figure below, the read SQL is executed on the ds_slave data source in the form of polling.

[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:39,376 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] Rule Type: master-slave 
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:39,376 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] SQL: select orderentit0_.order_id as order_id1_1_, orderentit0_.address_id as address_2_1_, 
orderentit0_.status as status3_1_, orderentit0_.user_id as user_id4_1_ from t_order orderentit0_ ::: DataSources: ds_slave_0 
---------------------------- Print OrderItem Data -------------------
Hibernate: select orderiteme1_.order_item_id as order_it1_2_, orderiteme1_.order_id as order_id2_2_, orderiteme1_.status as status3_2_, orderiteme1_.user_id 
as user_id4_2_ from t_order orderentit0_ cross join t_order_item orderiteme1_ where orderentit0_.order_id=orderiteme1_.order_id
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:40,898 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] Rule Type: master-slave 
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:40,898 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] SQL: select orderiteme1_.order_item_id as order_it1_2_, orderiteme1_.order_id as order_id2_2_, orderiteme1_.status as status3_2_, 
orderiteme1_.user_id as user_id4_2_ from t_order orderentit0_ cross join t_order_item orderiteme1_ where orderentit0_.order_id=orderiteme1_.order_id ::: DataSources: ds_slave_1 

Note: As shown in the figure below, if there are both reads and writes in a transaction, Sharding-JDBC routes both read and write operations to the master library. If the read/write requests are not in the same transaction, the corresponding read requests are distributed to different read nodes according to the routing policy.

@Override
@Transactional // When a transaction is started, both read and write in the transaction go through the master library. When closed, read goes through the slave library and write goes through the master library
public void processSuccess() throws SQLException {
    System.out.println("-------------- Process Success Begin ---------------");
    List<Long> orderIds = insertData();
    printData();
    deleteData(orderIds);
    printData();
    System.out.println("-------------- Process Success Finish --------------");
}

3.2.4 Verifying Aurora failover scenario

The Aurora database environment adopts the configuration described in Section 2.2.1.

3.2.4.1 Verification process description

  1. Start the Spring-Boot project

2. Perform a failover on Aurora’s console

3. Execute the Rest API request

4. Repeatedly execute POST (http://localhost:8088/save-user) until the call to the API failed to write to Aurora and eventually recovered successfully.

5. The following figure shows the process of executing code failover. It takes about 37 seconds from the time when the latest SQL write is successfully performed to the time when the next SQL write is successfully performed. That is, the application can be automatically recovered from Aurora failover, and the recovery time is about 37 seconds.

3.3 Testing table sharding-only function

3.3.1 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create-drop
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#Activate sharding-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
# spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-tables.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

## configure primary-key policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# configure the binding relation of t_order and t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables[0]=t_order,t_order_item
# configure broadcast tables
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.3.2 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC automatically creates corresponding tables according to the table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, create a t_address because there is only one master instance. Two physical tables t_order_0 and t_order_1 will be created when creating t_order.

2. Write operation

As shown in the figure below, Logic SQL inserts a record into t_order. When Sharding-JDBC is executed, data will be distributed to t_order_0 and t_order_1 according to the table splitting rules.

When t_order and t_order_item are bound, the records associated with order_item and order are placed on the same physical table.

3. Read operation

As shown in the figure below, perform the join query operations to order and order_item under the binding table, and the physical shard is precisely located based on the binding relationship.

The join query operations on order and order_item under the unbound table will traverse all shards.

3.4 Testing database sharding-only function

3.4.1 Setting up the database environment

Create two instances on Aurora: ds_0 and ds_1

When the sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example project is started, tables t_order, t_order_itemt_address will be created on two Aurora instances.

3.4.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties springboot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

# Activate sharding-databases configuration items
spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-databases.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_0,ds_1
# ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.password=
# ds_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_0

spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.4.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s library splitting and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, physical tables will be created on ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the slave library are written on the table in the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

Query order is routed to the corresponding Aurora instance according to the routing rules of the slave library .

Query Address. Since address is a broadcast table, an instance of address will be randomly selected and queried from the nodes used.

As shown in the figure below, perform the join query operations to order and order_item under the binding table, and the physical shard is precisely located based on the binding relationship.

3.5 Verifying sharding function

3.5.1 Setting up the database environment

As shown in the figure below, create two instances on Aurora: ds_0 and ds_1

When the sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example project is started, physical tables t_order_01, t_order_02, t_order_item_01,and t_order_item_02 and global table t_address will be created on two Aurora instances.

3.5.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties springboot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true
# Activate sharding-databases-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-databases.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_0,ds_1
# ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.jdbc-url= 306/dev?useSSL=false&characterEncoding=utf-8
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.max-active=16
# ds_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.max-active=16
# default library splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
# Tables that do not meet the library splitting policy are placed on ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_0
# t_order table splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# t_order_item table splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# sharding-jdbc mdoe
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.5.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s sharding and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, t_address will be created on both ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the sub-library are written to the table on the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

The read operation is similar to the library split function verification described in section2.4.3.

3.6 Testing database sharding, table sharding and read/write splitting function

3.6.1 Setting up the database environment

The following figure shows the physical table of the created database instance.

3.6.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

# activate sharding-databases-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-master-slave.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

The url, name and password of the database need to be changed to your own database parameters.

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_master_0,ds_master_1,ds_master_0_slave_0,ds_master_0_slave_1,ds_master_1_slave_0,ds_master_1_slave_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.jdbc-url=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.username=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.username=admin
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_master_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# master/slave data source and slave data source configuration
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_0.master-data-source-name=ds_master_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_0.slave-data-source-names=ds_master_0_slave_0, ds_master_0_slave_1
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_1.master-data-source-name=ds_master_1
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_1.slave-data-source-names=ds_master_1_slave_0, ds_master_1_slave_1
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.6.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s library splitting and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, t_address will be created on both ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the slave library are written to the table on the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

The join query operations on order and order_item under the binding table are shown below.

3. Conclusion

As an open source product focusing on database enhancement, ShardingSphere is pretty good in terms of its community activitiy, product maturity and documentation richness.

Among its products, ShardingSphere-JDBC is a sharding solution based on the client-side, which supports all sharding scenarios. And there’s no need to introduce an intermediate layer like Proxy, so the complexity of operation and maintenance is reduced. Its latency is theoretically lower than Proxy due to the lack of intermediate layer. In addition, ShardingSphere-JDBC can support a variety of relational databases based on SQL standards such as MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQL Server, etc.

However, due to the integration of Sharding-JDBC with the application program, it only supports Java language for now, and is strongly dependent on the application programs. Nevertheless, Sharding-JDBC separates all sharding configuration from the application program, which brings relatively small changes when switching to other middleware.

In conclusion, Sharding-JDBC is a good choice if you use a Java-based system and have to to interconnect with different relational databases — and don’t want to bother with introducing an intermediate layer.

Author

Sun Jinhua

A senior solution architect at AWS, Sun is responsible for the design and consult on cloud architecture. for providing customers with cloud-related design and consulting services. Before joining AWS, he ran his own business, specializing in building e-commerce platforms and designing the overall architecture for e-commerce platforms of automotive companies. He worked in a global leading communication equipment company as a senior engineer, responsible for the development and architecture design of multiple subsystems of LTE equipment system. He has rich experience in architecture design with high concurrency and high availability system, microservice architecture design, database, middleware, IOT etc.

Easter  Deckow

Easter Deckow

1655630160

PyTumblr: A Python Tumblr API v2 Client

PyTumblr

Installation

Install via pip:

$ pip install pytumblr

Install from source:

$ git clone https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr.git
$ cd pytumblr
$ python setup.py install

Usage

Create a client

A pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:

client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient(
    '<consumer_key>',
    '<consumer_secret>',
    '<oauth_token>',
    '<oauth_secret>',
)

client.info() # Grabs the current user information

Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:

  1. The built-in interactive_console.py tool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
  2. The Tumblr API console at https://api.tumblr.com/console
  3. Get sample login code at https://api.tumblr.com/console/calls/user/info

Supported Methods

User Methods

client.info() # get information about the authenticating user
client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user
client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user
client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user

client.follow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # follow a blog
client.unfollow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # unfollow a blog

client.like(id, reblogkey) # like a post
client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post

Blog Methods

client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog
client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog
client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog
client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog
client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog
client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows
client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog
client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog

Post Methods

Creating posts

PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.

The default supported types are described below.

  • state - a string, the state of the post. Supported types are published, draft, queue, private
  • tags - a list, a list of strings that you want tagged on the post. eg: ["testing", "magic", "1"]
  • tweet - a string, the string of the customized tweet you want. eg: "Man I love my mega awesome post!"
  • date - a string, the customized GMT that you want
  • format - a string, the format that your post is in. Support types are html or markdown
  • slug - a string, the slug for the url of the post you want

We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.

Creating a photo post

Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload

#Creates a photo post using a source URL
client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    source="https://68.media.tumblr.com/b965fbb2e501610a29d80ffb6fb3e1ad/tumblr_n55vdeTse11rn1906o1_500.jpg")

#Creates a photo post using a local filepath
client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]",
                    data="/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg")

#Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths
client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown",
                    data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"],
                    caption="## Mega sweet kittens")

Creating a text post

Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html

#Creating a text post
client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")

Creating a quote post

Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported

#Creating a quote post
client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")

Creating a link post

  • title - a string, the title of post that you want. Supports HTML entities.
  • url - a string, the url that you want to create a link post for.
  • description - a string, the desciption of the link that you have
#Create a link post
client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="https://duckduckgo.com",
                   description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")

Creating a chat post

Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)

#Create a chat post
chat = """John: Testing can be fun!
Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you.
John: Aw.
"""
client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])

Creating an audio post

Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr

#Creating an audio file
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3")

#lets use soundcloud!
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="https://soundcloud.com/skrillex/sets/recess")

Creating a video post

Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload

#Creating an upload from YouTube
client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.",
                    embed="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40pUYLacrj4")

#Creating a video post from local file
client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/blah.mov")

Editing a post

Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.

client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated")
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")

Reblogging a Post

Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.

client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")

Deleting a post

Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id

client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(

A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):

client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)

Getting notes for a post

In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')

The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])

Tagged Methods

# get posts with a given tag
client.tagged(tag, **params)

Using the interactive console

This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).

You'll need pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:

$ python interactive-console.py

and away you go! Tokens are stored in ~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.

Running tests

The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:

python setup.py test

Author: tumblr
Source Code: https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr
License: Apache-2.0 license

#python #api 

Sigrid  Farrell

Sigrid Farrell

1624096385

Spring Boot CRUD Operations

In the video in this article, we take a closer look at the Spring Boot CRUD Operations Example alongside Exception Handling!

In the video below, we take a closer look at the Spring Boot CRUD Operations example with exception handling. Let’s get started!

#spring boot #spring boot tutorial for beginners #crud #crud #crud #spring boot crud operations

Aria Barnes

Aria Barnes

1625232484

Why is Vue JS the most Preferred Choice for Responsive Web Application Development?

For more than two decades, JavaScript has facilitated businesses to develop responsive web applications for their customers. Used both client and server-side, JavaScript enables you to bring dynamics to pages through expanded functionality and real-time modifications.

Did you know!

According to a web development survey 2020, JavaScript is the most used language for the 8th year, with 67.7% of people choosing it. With this came up several javascript frameworks for frontend, backend development, or even testing.

And one such framework is Vue.Js. It is used to build simple projects and can also be advanced to create sophisticated apps using state-of-the-art tools. Beyond that, some other solid reasons give Vuejs a thumbs up for responsive web application development.

Want to know them? Then follow this blog until the end. Through this article, I will describe all the reasons and benefits of Vue js development. So, stay tuned.

Vue.Js - A Brief Introduction

Released in the year 2014 for public use, Vue.Js is an open-source JavaScript framework used to create UIs and single-page applications. It has over 77.4 million likes on Github for creating intuitive web interfaces.

The recent version is Vue.js 2.6, and is the second most preferred framework according to Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019.

Every Vue.js development company is widely using the framework across the world for responsive web application development. It is centered around the view layer, provides a lot of functionality for the view layer, and builds single-page web applications.

Some most astonishing stats about Vue.Js:

• Vue was ranked #2 in the Front End JavaScript Framework rankings in the State of JS 2019 survey by developers.

• Approximately 427k to 693k sites are built with Vue js, according to Wappalyzer and BuiltWith statistics of June 2020.

• According to the State of JS 2019 survey, 40.5% of JavaScript developers are currently using Vue, while 34.5% have shown keen interest in using it in the future.

• In Stack Overflow's Developer Survey 2020, Vue was ranked the 3rd most popular front-end JavaScript framework.

Why is Vue.Js so popular?

• High-speed run-time performance
• Vue.Js uses a virtual DOM.
• The main focus is on the core library, while the collaborating libraries handle other features such as global state management and routing.
• Vue.JS provides responsive visual components.

Top 7 Reasons to Choose Vue JS for Web Application Development

Vue js development has certain benefits, which will encourage you to use it in your projects. For example, Vue.js is similar to Angular and React in many aspects, and it continues to enjoy increasing popularity compared to other frameworks.

The framework is only 20 kilobytes in size, making it easy for you to download files instantly. Vue.js easily beats other frameworks when it comes to loading times and usage.

Take a look at the compelling advantages of using Vue.Js for web app development.

#1 Simple Integration

Vue.Js is popular because it allows you to integrate Vue.js into other frameworks such as React, enabling you to customize the project as per your needs and requirements.

It helps you build apps with Vue.js from scratch and introduce Vue.js elements into their existing apps. Due to its ease of integration, Vue.js is becoming a popular choice for web development as it can be used with various existing web applications.

You can feel free to include Vue.js CDN and start using it. Most third-party Vue components and libraries are additionally accessible and supported with the Vue.js CDN.

You don't need to set up node and npm to start using Vue.js. This implies that it helps develop new web applications, just like modifying previous applications.

The diversity of components allows you to create different types of web applications and replace existing frameworks. In addition, you can also choose to hire Vue js developers to use the technology to experiment with many other JavaScript applications.

#2 Easy to Understand

One of the main reasons for the growing popularity of Vue.Js is that the framework is straightforward to understand for individuals. This means that you can easily add Vue.Js to your web projects.

Also, Vue.Js has a well-defined architecture for storing your data with life-cycle and custom methods. Vue.Js also provides additional features such as watchers, directives, and computed properties, making it extremely easy to build modern apps and web applications with ease.

Another significant advantage of using the Vue.Js framework is that it makes it easy to build small and large-scale web applications in the shortest amount of time.

#3 Well-defined Ecosystem

The VueJS ecosystem is vibrant and well-defined, allowing Vue.Js development company to switch users to VueJS over other frameworks for web app development.

Without spending hours, you can easily find solutions to your problems. Furthermore, VueJs lets you choose only the building blocks you need.

Although the main focus of Vue is the view layer, with the help of Vue Router, Vue Test Utils, Vuex, and Vue CLI, you can find solutions and recommendations for frequently occurring problems.

The problems fall into these categories, and hence it becomes easy for programmers to get started with coding right away and not waste time figuring out how to use these tools.

The Vue ecosystem is easy to customize and scales between a library and a framework. Compared to other frameworks, its development speed is excellent, and it can also integrate different projects. This is the reason why most website development companies also prefer the Vue.Js ecosystem over others.

#4 Flexibility

Another benefit of going with Vue.Js for web app development needs is flexibility. Vue.Js provides an excellent level of flexibility. And makes it easier for web app development companies to write their templates in HTML, JavaScript, or pure JavaScript using virtual nodes.

Another significant benefit of using Vue.Js is that it makes it easier for developers to work with tools like templating engines, CSS preprocessors, and type checking tools like TypeScript.

#5 Two-Way Communication

Vue.Js is an excellent option for you because it encourages two-way communication. This has become possible with the MVVM architecture to handle HTML blocks. In this way, Vue.Js is very similar to Angular.Js, making it easier to handle HTML blocks as well.

With Vue.Js, two-way data binding is straightforward. This means that any changes made by the developer to the UI are passed to the data, and the changes made to the data are reflected in the UI.

This is also one reason why Vue.Js is also known as reactive because it can react to changes made to the data. This sets it apart from other libraries such as React.Js, which are designed to support only one-way communication.

#6 Detailed Documentation

One essential thing is well-defined documentation that helps you understand the required mechanism and build your application with ease. It shows all the options offered by the framework and related best practice examples.

Vue has excellent docs, and its API references are one of the best in the industry. They are well written, clear, and accessible in dealing with everything you need to know to build a Vue application.

Besides, the documentation at Vue.js is constantly improved and updated. It also includes a simple introductory guide and an excellent overview of the API. Perhaps, this is one of the most detailed documentation available for this type of language.

#7 Large Community Support

Support for the platform is impressive. In 2018, support continued to impress as every question was answered diligently. Over 6,200 problems were solved with an average resolution time of just six hours.

To support the community, there are frequent release cycles of updated information. Furthermore, the community continues to grow and develop with backend support from developers.



Wrapping Up

VueJS is an incredible choice for responsive web app development. Since it is lightweight and user-friendly, it builds a fast and integrated web application. The capabilities and potential of VueJS for web app development are extensive.

While Vuejs is simple to get started with, using it to build scalable web apps requires professionalism. Hence, you can approach a top Vue js development company in India to develop high-performing web apps.

Equipped with all the above features, it doesn't matter whether you want to build a small concept app or a full-fledged web app; Vue.Js is the most performant you can rely on.

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NBB: Ad-hoc CLJS Scripting on Node.js

Nbb

Not babashka. Node.js babashka!?

Ad-hoc CLJS scripting on Node.js.

Status

Experimental. Please report issues here.

Goals and features

Nbb's main goal is to make it easy to get started with ad hoc CLJS scripting on Node.js.

Additional goals and features are:

  • Fast startup without relying on a custom version of Node.js.
  • Small artifact (current size is around 1.2MB).
  • First class macros.
  • Support building small TUI apps using Reagent.
  • Complement babashka with libraries from the Node.js ecosystem.

Requirements

Nbb requires Node.js v12 or newer.

How does this tool work?

CLJS code is evaluated through SCI, the same interpreter that powers babashka. Because SCI works with advanced compilation, the bundle size, especially when combined with other dependencies, is smaller than what you get with self-hosted CLJS. That makes startup faster. The trade-off is that execution is less performant and that only a subset of CLJS is available (e.g. no deftype, yet).

Usage

Install nbb from NPM:

$ npm install nbb -g

Omit -g for a local install.

Try out an expression:

$ nbb -e '(+ 1 2 3)'
6

And then install some other NPM libraries to use in the script. E.g.:

$ npm install csv-parse shelljs zx

Create a script which uses the NPM libraries:

(ns script
  (:require ["csv-parse/lib/sync$default" :as csv-parse]
            ["fs" :as fs]
            ["path" :as path]
            ["shelljs$default" :as sh]
            ["term-size$default" :as term-size]
            ["zx$default" :as zx]
            ["zx$fs" :as zxfs]
            [nbb.core :refer [*file*]]))

(prn (path/resolve "."))

(prn (term-size))

(println (count (str (fs/readFileSync *file*))))

(prn (sh/ls "."))

(prn (csv-parse "foo,bar"))

(prn (zxfs/existsSync *file*))

(zx/$ #js ["ls"])

Call the script:

$ nbb script.cljs
"/private/tmp/test-script"
#js {:columns 216, :rows 47}
510
#js ["node_modules" "package-lock.json" "package.json" "script.cljs"]
#js [#js ["foo" "bar"]]
true
$ ls
node_modules
package-lock.json
package.json
script.cljs

Macros

Nbb has first class support for macros: you can define them right inside your .cljs file, like you are used to from JVM Clojure. Consider the plet macro to make working with promises more palatable:

(defmacro plet
  [bindings & body]
  (let [binding-pairs (reverse (partition 2 bindings))
        body (cons 'do body)]
    (reduce (fn [body [sym expr]]
              (let [expr (list '.resolve 'js/Promise expr)]
                (list '.then expr (list 'clojure.core/fn (vector sym)
                                        body))))
            body
            binding-pairs)))

Using this macro we can look async code more like sync code. Consider this puppeteer example:

(-> (.launch puppeteer)
      (.then (fn [browser]
               (-> (.newPage browser)
                   (.then (fn [page]
                            (-> (.goto page "https://clojure.org")
                                (.then #(.screenshot page #js{:path "screenshot.png"}))
                                (.catch #(js/console.log %))
                                (.then #(.close browser)))))))))

Using plet this becomes:

(plet [browser (.launch puppeteer)
       page (.newPage browser)
       _ (.goto page "https://clojure.org")
       _ (-> (.screenshot page #js{:path "screenshot.png"})
             (.catch #(js/console.log %)))]
      (.close browser))

See the puppeteer example for the full code.

Since v0.0.36, nbb includes promesa which is a library to deal with promises. The above plet macro is similar to promesa.core/let.

Startup time

$ time nbb -e '(+ 1 2 3)'
6
nbb -e '(+ 1 2 3)'   0.17s  user 0.02s system 109% cpu 0.168 total

The baseline startup time for a script is about 170ms seconds on my laptop. When invoked via npx this adds another 300ms or so, so for faster startup, either use a globally installed nbb or use $(npm bin)/nbb script.cljs to bypass npx.

Dependencies

NPM dependencies

Nbb does not depend on any NPM dependencies. All NPM libraries loaded by a script are resolved relative to that script. When using the Reagent module, React is resolved in the same way as any other NPM library.

Classpath

To load .cljs files from local paths or dependencies, you can use the --classpath argument. The current dir is added to the classpath automatically. So if there is a file foo/bar.cljs relative to your current dir, then you can load it via (:require [foo.bar :as fb]). Note that nbb uses the same naming conventions for namespaces and directories as other Clojure tools: foo-bar in the namespace name becomes foo_bar in the directory name.

To load dependencies from the Clojure ecosystem, you can use the Clojure CLI or babashka to download them and produce a classpath:

$ classpath="$(clojure -A:nbb -Spath -Sdeps '{:aliases {:nbb {:replace-deps {com.github.seancorfield/honeysql {:git/tag "v2.0.0-rc5" :git/sha "01c3a55"}}}}}')"

and then feed it to the --classpath argument:

$ nbb --classpath "$classpath" -e "(require '[honey.sql :as sql]) (sql/format {:select :foo :from :bar :where [:= :baz 2]})"
["SELECT foo FROM bar WHERE baz = ?" 2]

Currently nbb only reads from directories, not jar files, so you are encouraged to use git libs. Support for .jar files will be added later.

Current file

The name of the file that is currently being executed is available via nbb.core/*file* or on the metadata of vars:

(ns foo
  (:require [nbb.core :refer [*file*]]))

(prn *file*) ;; "/private/tmp/foo.cljs"

(defn f [])
(prn (:file (meta #'f))) ;; "/private/tmp/foo.cljs"

Reagent

Nbb includes reagent.core which will be lazily loaded when required. You can use this together with ink to create a TUI application:

$ npm install ink

ink-demo.cljs:

(ns ink-demo
  (:require ["ink" :refer [render Text]]
            [reagent.core :as r]))

(defonce state (r/atom 0))

(doseq [n (range 1 11)]
  (js/setTimeout #(swap! state inc) (* n 500)))

(defn hello []
  [:> Text {:color "green"} "Hello, world! " @state])

(render (r/as-element [hello]))

Promesa

Working with callbacks and promises can become tedious. Since nbb v0.0.36 the promesa.core namespace is included with the let and do! macros. An example:

(ns prom
  (:require [promesa.core :as p]))

(defn sleep [ms]
  (js/Promise.
   (fn [resolve _]
     (js/setTimeout resolve ms))))

(defn do-stuff
  []
  (p/do!
   (println "Doing stuff which takes a while")
   (sleep 1000)
   1))

(p/let [a (do-stuff)
        b (inc a)
        c (do-stuff)
        d (+ b c)]
  (prn d))
$ nbb prom.cljs
Doing stuff which takes a while
Doing stuff which takes a while
3

Also see API docs.

Js-interop

Since nbb v0.0.75 applied-science/js-interop is available:

(ns example
  (:require [applied-science.js-interop :as j]))

(def o (j/lit {:a 1 :b 2 :c {:d 1}}))

(prn (j/select-keys o [:a :b])) ;; #js {:a 1, :b 2}
(prn (j/get-in o [:c :d])) ;; 1

Most of this library is supported in nbb, except the following:

  • destructuring using :syms
  • property access using .-x notation. In nbb, you must use keywords.

See the example of what is currently supported.

Examples

See the examples directory for small examples.

Also check out these projects built with nbb:

API

See API documentation.

Migrating to shadow-cljs

See this gist on how to convert an nbb script or project to shadow-cljs.

Build

Prequisites:

  • babashka >= 0.4.0
  • Clojure CLI >= 1.10.3.933
  • Node.js 16.5.0 (lower version may work, but this is the one I used to build)

To build:

  • Clone and cd into this repo
  • bb release

Run bb tasks for more project-related tasks.

Download Details:
Author: borkdude
Download Link: Download The Source Code
Official Website: https://github.com/borkdude/nbb 
License: EPL-1.0

#node #javascript