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# Analysis of Learning Rate in Gradient Descent Algorithm Using Python

## What you‘ll learn

1. What is Linear regression?
3. Comparison between different values of learning rate (alpha).
4. Implementation in Python programming language

## Introduction

I guess you probably have heard about the learning rate in gradient descent from the Coursera machine learning course of Andrew ng. One of the best courses for beginners to build a foundation for machine learning.

So it’s been more than a month I started learning ML and believe me there is so much you can learn in topics like **Linear, Logistic Regression, Neural Network **… and to get a better understanding of those topics you need to learn by doing.

My goal is to implement and demonstrate concepts of machine learning algorithms which every beginners should know.

So let’s start the journey of learning by doing ML!

First, let me tell you briefly about Linear regression and Gradient descent, then we will quickly jump into the analysis of the learning rate.

## Buddha Community  1619518440

## top 30 Python Tips and Tricks for Beginners

Welcome to my Blog , In this article, you are going to learn the top 10 python tips and tricks.

### 8) Check The Memory Usage Of An Object.

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## ML Optimization pt.1 - Gradient Descent with Python

So far in our journey through the Machine Learning universe, we covered several big topics. We investigated some regression algorithms, classification algorithms and algorithms that can be used for both types of problems (SVM**, **Decision Trees and Random Forest). Apart from that, we dipped our toes in unsupervised learning, saw how we can use this type of learning for clustering and learned about several clustering techniques.

We also talked about how to quantify machine learning model performance and how to improve it with regularization. In all these articles, we used Python for “from the scratch” implementations and libraries like TensorFlowPytorch and SciKit Learn. The word optimization popped out more than once in these articles, so in this and next article, we focus on optimization techniques which are an important part of the machine learning process.

In general, every machine learning algorithm is composed of three integral parts:

1. loss function.
2. Optimization criteria based on the loss function, like a cost function.
3. Optimization technique – this process leverages training data to find a solution for optimization criteria (cost function).

As you were able to see in previous articles, some algorithms were created intuitively and didn’t have optimization criteria in mind. In fact, mathematical explanations of why and how these algorithms work were done later. Some of these algorithms are Decision Trees and kNN. Other algorithms, which were developed later had this thing in mind beforehand. SVMis one example.

During the training, we change the parameters of our machine learning model to try and minimize the loss function. However, the question of how do you change those parameters arises. Also, by how much should we change them during training and when. To answer all these questions we use optimizers. They put all different parts of the machine learning algorithm together. So far we mentioned Gradient Decent as an optimization technique, but we haven’t explored it in more detail. In this article, we focus on that and we cover the grandfather of all optimization techniques and its variation. Note that these techniques are not machine learning algorithms. They are solvers of minimization problems in which the function to minimize has a gradient in most points of its domain.

### Dataset & Prerequisites

Data that we use in this article is the famous Boston Housing Dataset . This dataset is composed 14 features and contains information collected by the U.S Census Service concerning housing in the area of Boston Mass. It is a small dataset  with only 506 samples. For the purpose of this article, make sure that you have installed the following _Python _libraries:

• **NumPy **– Follow this guide if you need help with installation.
• **SciKit Learn **– Follow this guide if you need help with installation.
• Pandas – Follow this guide if you need help with installation.

Once installed make sure that you have imported all the necessary modules that are used in this tutorial.

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.linear_model import SGDRegressor
``````

Apart from that, it would be good to be at least familiar with the basics of linear algebracalculus and probability.

### Why do we use Optimizers?

Note that we also use simple Linear Regression in all examples. Due to the fact that we explore optimizationtechniques, we picked the easiest machine learning algorithm. You can see more details about Linear regression here. As a quick reminder the formula for linear regression goes like this: where w and b are parameters of the machine learning algorithm. The entire point of the training process is to set the correct values to the w and b, so we get the desired output from the machine learning model. This means that we are trying to make the value of our error vector as small as possible, i.e. to find a global minimum of the cost function.

One way of solving this problem is to use calculus. We could compute derivatives and then use them to find places where is an extrema of the cost function. However, the cost function is not a function of one or a few variables; it is a function of all parameters of a machine learning algorithm, so these calculations will quickly grow into a monster. That is why we use these optimizers.

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## Python Packages in SQL Server – Get Started with SQL Server Machine Learning Services

##### Introduction

When installing Machine Learning Services in SQL Server by default few Python Packages are installed. In this article, we will have a look on how to get those installed python package information.

##### Python Packages

When we choose Python as Machine Learning Service during installation, the following packages are installed in SQL Server,

• revoscalepy – This Microsoft Python package is used for remote compute contexts, streaming, parallel execution of rx functions for data import and transformation, modeling, visualization, and analysis.
• microsoftml – This is another Microsoft Python package which adds machine learning algorithms in Python.
• Anaconda 4.2 – Anaconda is an opensource Python package

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## Understanding Gradient Descent with Python

So far in our journey through the Machine Learning universe, we covered several big topics. We investigated some regression algorithms, classification algorithms and algorithms that can be used for both types of problems (SVM, Decision Trees and Random Forest). Apart from that, we dipped our toes in unsupervised learning, saw how we can use this type of learning for clustering and learned about several clustering techniques.

We also talked about how to quantify machine learning model performance and how to improve it with regularization. In all these articles, we used Python for “from the scratch” implementations and libraries like TensorFlowPytorch and SciKit Learn. The word optimization popped out more than once in these articles, so in this article, we focus on optimization techniques which are an important part of the machine learning process.

#ai #machine learning #python #artificaial inteligance #artificial intelligence #batch gradient descent #data science #datascience #deep learning #from scratch #gradient descent #machine learning optimizers #ml optimization #optimizers #scikit learn #software #software craft #software craftsmanship #software development 1619510796

## Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

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