Top 5 Java Test Frameworks for Automation in 2019

Top 5 Java Test Frameworks for Automation in 2019

In this article, you'll learn about the top 5 Java test frameworks for automation testing in 2019

Check out this post to learn more about the top Java test frameworks for automation testing.

For decades, Java has been the most preferred programming language for developing the server side layer of an application. Although JUnit has been there with the developers for helping them in automated unit testing, with time and the evolution of testing, when automation testing is currently on the rise, many open-source frameworks have been developed that are based on Java and varying a lot from JUnit in terms of validation and business logic. Here, I will be talking about the top five Java test frameworks of 2019 for performing test automation with Selenium WebDriver and Java. I will also highlight what is unique about these top Java test frameworks.

JUnit

Kent Beck and Erich Gamma developer JUnit, which is an instance of xUnit. The main purpose behind it was to enable Java developers for scripting and executing repeatable test cases. It is usually used to test small chunks of code. You can also perform automation testing of a website by integrating JUnit with Selenium WebDriver for Java test automation. Whenever any new piece of code is added, you will be required to re-execute the entire test cases and make sure that there is no breakage.

What Are the Prerequisites?

The framework is highly compatible with Selenium WebDriver for Java, with the reason being that JUnit is a framework based on Java. As some prerequisites, you will need to:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using JUnit?

There are several advantages to JUnit.

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

The only disadvantage of JUnit is:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Is JUnit the Top Java Test Framework for You?

Both JUnit, as well as TestNG, perform the same job. And their features are almost the same, except dependency tests are not performed using JUnit and the implementation procedure of parameterized test is different in both the frameworks. Also, since JUnit is being used for a long time, there is better community support and it has been defined as the standard for unit testing using Selenium WebDriver for Java-based applications. Although TestNG has few users, the community is pretty huge and growing every day. So, we can conclude that the selection between TestNG or JUnit for a Java test framework depends entirely upon the application’s nature and requirement.

If you wish to get started with JUnit as your Java test framework, here is a step-by-step process of performing automated testing with JUnit and Selenium for browser compatibility.

JBehave

We all know about Behavior Driven Development or BDD. It is the type of testing that describes acceptance testing in a transparent manner to the business users. JBehave is another Java test framework used for BDD testing, mostly used with Selenium WebDriver for Java. The primary objective behind the introduction of JBehave is to make it possible for newcomers to easily understand and get familiar with BDD. It is kind of a design philosophy that makes the testing phase of an application more based on its behavior.

What Are the Prerequisites?

The ideal way to use JBehave is by integrating with Eclipse. For that, apart from JDK1.7 and above and any Eclipse IDE above Indigo, you will need several jar files like:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Advantages and Disadvantages of JBehave

Like all other BDD testing frameworks, JBehave is also advantageous in many ways.

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Well, there is only one disadvantage of JBehave just like any other BDD testing tool.

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Is JBehave The Top Java Test Framework For You?

JBehave works the same way as Serenity. However, if you are aiming to make your automated acceptance tests more efficient, it is ideal to integrate Serenity along with JBehave for utilizing a better testing experience. This is because Serenity’s core concept is based on BDD development and it also enables the users to write a powerful and rich test report. We’ll discuss more on it in the following section.

Serenity

Serenity is an open-source library meant for behavior-driven testing. The framework helps you to write acceptance criteria, which are well-structured and more maintained. It extends the functionality of JUnit and WebDriver. Initially, it was known as Thucydides. The reason behind its name change was nothing but the difficulty in pronunciation. Still, the old name can be used while referring.

What Are the Prerequisites for Installing Serenity?

Since the framework is Java-based, you will obviously need knowledge and experience in Java or any other object-oriented programming language. Apart from that, in your workstation, you will need:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Serenity

Let’s take a look at the advantages of Serenity brought into the world of behavior driven development.

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

The only disadvantage of Serenity is just like JBehave. Constant communication between the project participants is required in order to utilize its complete feature of supporting a behavior driven development.

Is Serenity the Best Java Test Framework for You?

The tool is mainly used for reporting acceptance criteria. However, the reports written using Serenity are much informative and rich than JBehave or any other BDD framework. It also helps developers to write automation test case scenarios of better quality and also provides support for RestAssured and Selenium WebDriver, making it faster and simpler for the tester to write automation based acceptance test criteria.

TestNG

Cedric Beust created TestNG, which is an open-source, Java-based automation testing framework inspired by JUnit. However, it is much more powerful. The NG means Next Generation in TestNG. The framework is designed to perform in a better manner during integration. The framework helps developers with features like sequencing, grouping, and parameterizing, thereby making the new test cases more flexible and eliminating the drawbacks of frameworks used earlier.

Prerequisites for Installing TestNG

For installing TestNG, you will need:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Advantages and Disadvantages of TestNG

Apart from overcoming the drawbacks of older frameworks, there are several advantages of TestNG.

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

The only disadvantage is:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Is TestNG the Best Java Test Framework for You?

Although JUnit performs all the same functionalities as TestNG, it has certainly has its limitations. JUnit is perfect when testing is done in isolation. But when there are dependencies; you will not have any control over which test is executed first. TestNG helps you by allowing you to run the test cases in any order you want. Besides, it also helps in parameterized testing. Although this feature is already present in JUnit 4.5, TestNG is much more effective. If your project is complicated and you may need more than a hundred test cases, it is ideal to take some time and set up TestNG instead of depending on JUnit.

If you are new to TestNG, then here is a complete guide for running your first TestNG automation script for performing automated cross-browser testing using Selenium WebDriver with Java.

Selenide

Powered by Selenium, Selenide is a popular tool for writing stable, precise, and expressive UI test cases for a Java application. Testing of modern web technologies like Ajax has certain complications like a timeout. WebDriver is the popular tool for UI tests, yet it lacked the feature to deal with a timeout. Selenide deals with all these problems in a simple manner. Also, it’s easier to grab and learn. You don’t need any requirement for Google and search for tutorials. All you need to do is focus on the business logic, and in just a few simple lines of codes, your job will be done.

What Are the Prerequisites for Using Selenide?

Installation of Selenide is as simple as it can be. If you are using Maven, you will need to add the following lines in your pom.xml file.

<dependency>     
<groupId>com.codeborne</groupId>     
<artifactId>selenide</artifactId>     
<version>5.1.0</version>     
<scope>test</scope> 
</dependency>

If you are using Ivy in the ivy.xml file, you will need to add:

<ivy-module>   
<dependencies>     
<dependency org="com.codeborne" name="selenide" rev="5.1.0"/>   
</dependencies> 
</ivy-module>

And just like that, the framework is ready for you to start testing.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Selenide?

In the front-end layer of an application, where Java is used on the server side, the most common problem faced by a tester is timeouts. The test cases which you wrote may work fine at present, but after a few days, maybe some Ajax request will take up some more time than it does now or some JavaScript will run slower. Also, your system may run another process at the same time, resulting in the failure of your test case. What’s more unfortunate, you may spend days finding out the source of those problems. Selenide helps you by:

  • Have the latest version of JDK installed in your workstation.
  • Download the latest version of JUnit and set up the environment.
  • Have a good knowledge of application development in an object-oriented programming language, especially Java.

Until now, we have not found any notable disadvantage of using Selenide. Let us know if you have found any limitations that may impact your work.

Is Selenide the Best Java Test Framework for You?

For UI testing, there is no better Java-based framework apart from Selenium WebDriver, the parent framework of Selenide. Obviously, WebDriver cannot solve problems caused by Ajax Timeout or slow running JavaScript or any Dynamic Content that takes time to load. To overcome problems, we previously used “ wait_until” or “ sleep” methods in our test cases. With Selenide, we don’t need to think about those problems anymore. Just focus on the business logic and the test cases will work fine in serving their purpose.

If you plan to opt Selenide as your Java test framework for automation testing, then here is a guide to help you run Selenium automation tests using Selenide, IntelliJ, and Maven.

In the current Agile age, developers are also required to get involved in testing. Knowledge and knowing the importance of testing is what separates professional Java developers from amateurs. It is not necessary that you should be an expert, but at least you should have the basic knowledge to write test cases that can automatically validate your code. In this article, we have gone through five tools which are preferred by developers worldwide for UI testing, unit testing, and BDD testing of an application. Based on the comparison, we can conclude that if you are sincere in your job and want to become an expert developer as well as a tester, the tools mentioned above are something on which you will find useful in your daily assignments.

Test a REST API with Java

Test a REST API with Java

This tutorial focuses on the basic principles and mechanics of testing a REST API with live Integration Tests (with a JSON payload).

This tutorial focuses on the basic principles and mechanics of testing a REST API with live Integration Tests (with a JSON payload).

1. Overview

The main goal is to provide an introduction to testing the basic correctness of the API – and we’re going to be using the latest version of the GitHub REST API for the examples.

For an internal application, this kind of testing will usually run as a late step in a Continuous Integration process, consuming the REST API after it has already been deployed.

When testing a REST resource, there are usually a few orthogonal responsibilities the tests should focus on:

  • the HTTP response code
  • other HTTP headers in the response
  • the payload (JSON, XML)

Each test should only focus on a single responsibility and include a single assertion. Focusing on a clear separation always has benefits, but when doing this kind of black box testing is even more important, as the general tendency is to write complex test scenarios in the very beginning.

Another important aspect of the integration tests is adherence to the Single Level of Abstraction Principle – the logic within a test should be written at a high level. Details such as creating the request, sending the HTTP request to the server, dealing with IO, etc should not be done inline but via utility methods.

2. Testing the Status Code
@Test
public void givenUserDoesNotExists_whenUserInfoIsRetrieved_then404IsReceived()
  throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
  
    // Given
    String name = RandomStringUtils.randomAlphabetic( 8 );
    HttpUriRequest request = new HttpGet( "https://api.github.com/users/" + name );
 
    // When
    HttpResponse httpResponse = HttpClientBuilder.create().build().execute( request );
 
    // Then
    assertThat(
      httpResponse.getStatusLine().getStatusCode(),
      equalTo(HttpStatus.SC_NOT_FOUND));
}

This is a rather simple test – it verifies that a basic happy path is working, without adding too much complexity to the test suite.

If for whatever reason, it fails, then there is no need to look at any other test for this URL until this is fixed.

3. Testing the Media Type
@Test
public void
givenRequestWithNoAcceptHeader_whenRequestIsExecuted_thenDefaultResponseContentTypeIsJson()
  throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
  
   // Given
   String jsonMimeType = "application/json";
   HttpUriRequest request = new HttpGet( "https://api.github.com/users/eugenp" );
 
   // When
   HttpResponse response = HttpClientBuilder.create().build().execute( request );
 
   // Then
   String mimeType = ContentType.getOrDefault(response.getEntity()).getMimeType();
   assertEquals( jsonMimeType, mimeType );
}

This ensures that the Response actually contains JSON data.

As you might have noticed, we’re following a logical progression of tests – first the Response Status Code (to ensure that the request was OK), then the Media Type of the Response, and only in the next test will we look at the actual JSON payload.

4. Testing the JSON Payload
@Test
public void
  givenUserExists_whenUserInformationIsRetrieved_thenRetrievedResourceIsCorrect()
  throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
  
    // Given
    HttpUriRequest request = new HttpGet( "https://api.github.com/users/eugenp" );
 
    // When
    HttpResponse response = HttpClientBuilder.create().build().execute( request );
 
    // Then
    GitHubUser resource = RetrieveUtil.retrieveResourceFromResponse(
      response, GitHubUser.class);
    assertThat( "eugenp", Matchers.is( resource.getLogin() ) );
}

In this case, I know the default representation of GitHub resources is JSON, but usually, the Content-Type header of the response should be tested alongside the Accept header of the request – the client asks for a particular type of representation via Accept, which the server should honor.

5. Utilities for Testing

We’re going to use Jackson 2 to unmarshall the raw JSON String into a type-safe Java Entity:

public class GitHubUser {
 
    private String login;
 
    // standard getters and setters
}

We’re only using a simple utility to keep the tests clean, readable and at a high level of abstraction:

public static <T> T retrieveResourceFromResponse(HttpResponse response, Class<T> clazz)
  throws IOException {
  
    String jsonFromResponse = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity());
    ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper()
      .configure(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES, false);
    return mapper.readValue(jsonFromResponse, clazz);
}

Notice that Jackson is ignoring unknown properties that the GitHub API is sending our way – that’s simply because the Representation of a User Resource on GitHub gets pretty complex – and we don’t need any of that information here.

6. Dependencies

The utilities and tests make use of the following libraries, all available in Maven central:

7. Conclusion

This is only one part of what the complete integration testing suite should be. The tests focus on ensuring basic correctness for the REST API, without going into more complex scenarios,

For example, the following are not covered: Discoverability of the API, consumption of different representations for the same Resource, etc.

The implementation of all these examples and code snippets can be found over on Github – this is a Maven-based project, so it should be easy to import and run as it is.

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Java Fundamentals: Learn Java for absolute beginners |Simpliv

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