Madelyn  Frami

Madelyn Frami

1594291920

How to Install MySQL on Mac & Configure MySQL in Terminal

In this tutorial, we are going to learn how to install MySQL community server on Mac and setting up the MySQL in Terminal app.

Mac OS doesn’t come along with the pre-configured version of MySQL, but this step by step guide will make the task easy for you. By the end of this tutorial, you will be able to set up the MySQL server on your Mac system for local development purposes.

Download MySQL Server

Before we start installing MySQL server on mac, we first download the latest version of MySQL from its official site. Visit https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql and choose the MySQL version that you want to download.

On this page, you will see list of operating systems under the “Select Operating System” dropdown choose the macOS from the list. Then, click on the download button for the MySQL .dmg file. You can download the other MySQL instances as per your operating system requirement.

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#mysql

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How to Install MySQL on Mac & Configure MySQL in Terminal
Joe  Hoppe

Joe Hoppe

1595905879

Best MySQL DigitalOcean Performance – ScaleGrid vs. DigitalOcean Managed Databases

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MySQL is the all-time number one open source database in the world, and a staple in RDBMS space. DigitalOcean is quickly building its reputation as the developers cloud by providing an affordable, flexible and easy to use cloud platform for developers to work with. MySQL on DigitalOcean is a natural fit, but what’s the best way to deploy your cloud database? In this post, we are going to compare the top two providers, DigitalOcean Managed Databases for MySQL vs. ScaleGrid MySQL hosting on DigitalOcean.

At a glance – TLDR
ScaleGrid Blog - At a glance overview - 1st pointCompare Throughput
ScaleGrid averages almost 40% higher throughput over DigitalOcean for MySQL, with up to 46% higher throughput in write-intensive workloads. Read now

ScaleGrid Blog - At a glance overview - 2nd pointCompare Latency
On average, ScaleGrid achieves almost 30% lower latency over DigitalOcean for the same deployment configurations. Read now

ScaleGrid Blog - At a glance overview - 3rd pointCompare Pricing
ScaleGrid provides 30% more storage on average vs. DigitalOcean for MySQL at the same affordable price. Read now

MySQL DigitalOcean Performance Benchmark
In this benchmark, we compare equivalent plan sizes between ScaleGrid MySQL on DigitalOcean and DigitalOcean Managed Databases for MySQL. We are going to use a common, popular plan size using the below configurations for this performance benchmark:

Comparison Overview
ScaleGridDigitalOceanInstance TypeMedium: 4 vCPUsMedium: 4 vCPUsMySQL Version8.0.208.0.20RAM8GB8GBSSD140GB115GBDeployment TypeStandaloneStandaloneRegionSF03SF03SupportIncludedBusiness-level support included with account sizes over $500/monthMonthly Price$120$120

As you can see above, ScaleGrid and DigitalOcean offer the same plan configurations across this plan size, apart from SSD where ScaleGrid provides over 20% more storage for the same price.

To ensure the most accurate results in our performance tests, we run the benchmark four times for each comparison to find the average performance across throughput and latency over read-intensive workloads, balanced workloads, and write-intensive workloads.

Throughput
In this benchmark, we measure MySQL throughput in terms of queries per second (QPS) to measure our query efficiency. To quickly summarize the results, we display read-intensive, write-intensive and balanced workload averages below for 150 threads for ScaleGrid vs. DigitalOcean MySQL:

ScaleGrid MySQL vs DigitalOcean Managed Databases - Throughput Performance Graph

For the common 150 thread comparison, ScaleGrid averages almost 40% higher throughput over DigitalOcean for MySQL, with up to 46% higher throughput in write-intensive workloads.

#cloud #database #developer #digital ocean #mysql #performance #scalegrid #95th percentile latency #balanced workloads #developers cloud #digitalocean droplet #digitalocean managed databases #digitalocean performance #digitalocean pricing #higher throughput #latency benchmark #lower latency #mysql benchmark setup #mysql client threads #mysql configuration #mysql digitalocean #mysql latency #mysql on digitalocean #mysql throughput #performance benchmark #queries per second #read-intensive #scalegrid mysql #scalegrid vs. digitalocean #throughput benchmark #write-intensive

Devyn  Reilly

Devyn Reilly

1618900707

Setting MySQL Configuration Variables – MySQL 5.7 vs MySQL 8.0

MySQL configuration variables are a set of server system variables used to configure the operation and behavior of the server. In this blog post, we will explain the differences in managing the configuration variables between MySQL 5.7 and MySQL 8.0.

We will explain three different ways for setting the configuration variables based on your use-case. Configuration variables that can be set at run time are called Dynamic variables and those that need a MySQL server restart to take effect are called Non-Dynamic variables.

Setting MySQL Configuration Variables

#mysql #mysql 5.7 #mysql 8.0 #mysql server

Whitney  Durgan

Whitney Durgan

1618911221

Setting MySQL Configuration Variables - MySQL 5.7 vs MySQL 8.0

In this article, we will explain the differences in managing the configuration variables between MySQL 5.7 and MySQL 8.0.

MySQL configuration variables are a set of server system variables used to configure the operation and behavior of the server. In this blog post, we will explain the differences in managing the configuration variables between MySQL 5.7 and MySQL 8.0.

We will explain three different ways for setting the configuration variables based on your use-case. Configuration variables that can be set at run-time are called Dynamic variables and those that need a MySQL server restart to take effect are called Non-Dynamic variables.

#mysql #mysql 5.7 #mysql server #mysql 8.0

Loma  Baumbach

Loma Baumbach

1595781840

Exploring MySQL Binlog Server - Ripple

MySQL does not limit the number of slaves that you can connect to the master server in a replication topology. However, as the number of slaves increases, they will have a toll on the master resources because the binary logs will need to be served to different slaves working at different speeds. If the data churn on the master is high, the serving of binary logs alone could saturate the network interface of the master.

A classic solution for this problem is to deploy a binlog server – an intermediate proxy server that sits between the master and its slaves. The binlog server is set up as a slave to the master, and in turn, acts as a master to the original set of slaves. It receives binary log events from the master, does not apply these events, but serves them to all the other slaves. This way, the load on the master is tremendously reduced, and at the same time, the binlog server serves the binlogs more efficiently to slaves since it does not have to do any other database server processing.

MySQL Binlog Server Deployment Diagram - ScaleGrid Blog

Ripple is an open source binlog server developed by Pavel Ivanov. A blog post from Percona, titled MySQL Ripple: The First Impression of a MySQL Binlog Server, gives a very good introduction to deploying and using Ripple. I had an opportunity to explore Ripple in some more detail and wanted to share my observations through this post.

1. Support for GTID based replication

Ripple supports only GTID mode, and not file and position-based replication. If your master is running in non-GTID mode, you will get this error from Ripple:

Failed to read packet: Got error reading packet from server: The replication sender thread cannot start in AUTO_POSITION mode: this server has GTID_MODE = OFF instead of ON.

You can specify Server_id and UUID for the ripple server using the cmd line options: -ripple_server_id and -ripple_server_uuid

Both are optional parameters, and if not specified, Ripple will use the default server_id=112211 and uuid will be auto generated.

2. Connecting to the master using replication user and password

While connecting to the master, you can specify the replication user and password using the command line options:

-ripple_master_user and -ripple_master_password

3. Connection endpoint for the Ripple server

You can use the command line options -ripple_server_ports and -ripple_server_address to specify the connection end points for the Ripple server. Ensure to specify the network accessible hostname or IP address of your Ripple server as the -rippple_server_address. Otherwise, by default, Ripple will bind to localhost and hence you will not be able to connect to it remotely.

4. Setting up slaves to the Ripple server

You can use the CHANGE MASTER TO command to connect your slaves to replicate from the Ripple server.

To ensure that Ripple can authenticate the password that you use to connect to it, you need to start Ripple by specifying the option -ripple_server_password_hash

For example, if you start the ripple server with the command:

rippled -ripple_datadir=./binlog_server -ripple_master_address= <master ip> -ripple_master_port=3306 -ripple_master_user=repl -ripple_master_password='password' -ripple_server_ports=15000 -ripple_server_address='172.31.23.201' -ripple_server_password_hash='EF8C75CB6E99A0732D2DE207DAEF65D555BDFB8E'

you can use the following CHANGE MASTER TO command to connect from the slave:

CHANGE MASTER TO master_host='172.31.23.201', master_port=15000, master_password=’XpKWeZRNH5#satCI’, master_user=’rep’

Note that the password hash specified for the Ripple server corresponds to the text password used in the CHANGE MASTER TO command. Currently, Ripple does not authenticate based on the usernames and accepts any non-empty username as long as the password matches.

Exploring MySQL Binlog Server - Ripple

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5. Ripple server management

It’s possible to monitor and manage the Ripple server using the MySQL protocol from any standard MySQL client. There are a limited set of commands that are supported which you can see directly in the source code on the mysql-ripple GitHub page.

Some of the useful commands are:

  • SELECT @@global.gtid_executed; – To see the GTID SET of the Ripple server based on its downloaded binary logs.
  • STOP SLAVE; – To disconnect the Ripple server from the master.
  • START SLAVE; – To connect the Ripple server to the master.

#cloud #database #developer #high availability #mysql #performance #binary logs #gtid replication #mysql binlog #mysql protocol #mysql ripple #mysql server #parallel threads #proxy server #replication topology #ripple server

Alisha  Larkin

Alisha Larkin

1624724700

Configure PMM2 For Azure MySQL Database With SSL

Registering AzureDB without SSL in PMM

If you are registering a normal MySQL database you will run the below command & it will be registered.

server=db-server.mysql.database.azure.com
monitoruser=monitor_mysql@db-server
monitorpwd=xxxxxxxx
server_name=MyProdDB1pmm-admin add mysql --username=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --service-name=$server_name --query-source=perfschema

SQLCopy

DB connectivity with SSL

As per the link provided below you can download the generic certificate to connect to the Azure database. Using that you can connect to MySQL even with verify_ca mode too.

Successful connection with SSL
mysql --user=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$serverUnsuccessful connection with verify ca SSLmysql --user=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --ssl-mode=VERIFY_CA
ERROR 2026 (HY000): SSL connection error: CA certificate is required if ssl-mode is VERIFY_CA or VERIFY_IDENTITYSuccessful connection with verify ca SSL
mysql --user=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --ssl-mode=VERIFY_CA --ssl-ca=azure-ca.crt

SQLCopy

Error Registering SSL DB

For SSL you need to supply the parameter -tls, however, that also throws an error.

Error trying to connect without SSL
pmm-admin add mysql --username=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --service-name=$server_name --query-source=perfschemaConnection check failed: Error 9002: SSL connection is required. Please specify SSL options and retry..Error trying to connect with SSL
pmm-admin add mysql --username=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --service-name=$server_name --query-source=perfschema -tlsTLS is on. You must also define tls-ca, tls-cert and tls-key flags.Error trying to connect with SSL & azure provided certificate
pmm-admin add mysql --username=$monitoruser --password=$monitorpwd --host=$server --service-name=$server_name --query-source=perfschema -tls --tls-ca=azure-ca.crtTLS is on. You must also define tls-ca, tls-cert and tls-key flags.

SQLCopy

Generate new SSL

Based on the bug raised, I found that we need SSL client key & client certificate generated separately. I used the below command to generate new files. I have highlighted the one I used later.

mysql_ssl_rsa_setup --datadir ssl/
ls ssl/
-rw------- 1 nirav nirav 1679 Jun 17 14:52 ca-key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 nirav nirav 1107 Jun 17 14:52 ca.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 nirav nirav 1107 Jun 17 14:52 client-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 nirav nirav 1679 Jun 17 14:52 client-key.pem
-rw------- 1 nirav nirav 1675 Jun 17 14:52 private_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 nirav nirav  451 Jun 17 14:52 public_key.pem
-rw-r--r-- 1 nirav nirav 1107 Jun 17 14:52 server-cert.pem
-rw------- 1 nirav nirav 1679 Jun 17 14:52 server-key.pem

#azure mysql #ssl #azure #mysql #configure #azure mysql database with ssl