How to convert types in Python

How to convert types in Python

Originally published by Vatsal Mistry&nbsp;at&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank"></a>&nbsp;on&nbsp;Apr 18

Foregone Solution
— A problem from Google Code Jam's Qualifier Round this year felt like so easy to code.

You can checkout the full problem description at this LINK.

Problem(Source : Google Code Jam 2019 Website)

Someone just won the Code Jam lottery, and we owe them N jamcoins! However, when we tried to print out an over sized check, we encountered a problem. The value of N, which is an integer, includes at least one digit that is a 4... and the 4 key on the keyboard of our over sized check printer is broken.

Fortunately, we have a workaround: we will send our winner two checks for positive integer amounts A and B, such that neither A nor B contains any digit that is a 4, and A + B = N. Please help us find any pair of values A and B that satisfy these conditions.


While reading out the problem description, I read the input constraints and range which were around 10¹⁰⁰. So it was a bad idea to think of a very straight loop-based solution, that would strike the time complexity showing the nightmarish message “ Time limit Exceeded ! ”.

So I thought of dealing this with the help of strings. Python saved me!

Assuming you’ve read the problem description through the link above, there is a number N which may contain the digit 4 with any number of occurrences. The task was to find out two numbers A and B such that A and B doesn’t contain any occurrence of the digit 4 and summation of A and B should equal N(A+B=N).

So I thought of creating a new number let’s assume A for now, that would be same in length as N(length means number of digits in the number). The idea is while constructing the number A, we would analyze the number N digit by digit. For each occurrence of digit 4 in number N, we would add digit 1 in the number A. For rest of the digits in N, add digit 0 in the A. Following this, I got a number A.

I obtained the other number B by subtracting newly constructed A from N. And you see, I got two numbers A and B that do not contain digit 4 and the summation is equal to N.

For implementing this logic, I could not think of anything, but Python. The easy type conversions from integer to string or string to list and viz made it so easy to achieve this working.



# __author__ = "Vatsal Mistry"
	# A solution for FOREGONE SOLUTION Problem from Qualifier Round of Google's CodeJam 2019.
	# Problem Description Link :


	# Importing regular expression module.
	import re


	# tc holds the number of testcases.
	tc = int(input())


	# A loop over tc i.e. number of testcases.
	for i in range(tc):
	    # N holds the input number.
	    N = int(input())
	    # Converting the integer N into string N_str.
	    N_str = str(N)
	    # Defining an empty list index_list.
	    index_list = list()
	    # Looping over N_str for finding the indices of positions where the digit "4" occurs.
	    # finditer method from re module is used. It returns the indices where match is found.
	    for match in re.finditer("4", N_str): 
	        # Adding the indices to the index_list defined above.
	    # Creating a new empty list new_number_list. 
	    new_number_list = list()
	    #The following block is the logic to create a new number with the rules that whereever there occurs a digit 4 in the original number there will be digit 1 in the new number, rest the digit will be 0.
	    # Loop to create new number, each digit in list.
	    for j in range(len(N_str)):
	        if j not in index_list:
	    # Converting the new number list into string.
	    new_number = int("".join(new_number_list))
	    # Defining and assigning as per given condition in problem.
	    A = new_number
	    B = N - new_number
	    # Printing result.
	    print("Case #" + str(i+1) + ":" + " " + str(A) + " " + str(B))

My View

This way it cracked all the test cases, no matter how large the input number was!

I believe the same logic can be implemented in various other languages, possibly the best in terms of time would be in C/C++, but Python just makes it super easy. You can switch from different data types with just few keywords and as you want.

I encourage any reader to try out this in some other language or in Python with less lines of code.

" The joy of coding Python should be in seeing short, concise, readable classes that express a lot of action in a small amount of clear code — not in reams of trivial code that bores the reader to death. "

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Python Tutorial for Beginners (2019) - Learn Python for Machine Learning and Web Development

Python Tutorial for Beginners (2019) - Learn Python for Machine Learning and Web Development


00:00:00 Introduction

00:01:49 Installing Python

00:06:10 Your First Python Program

00:08:11 How Python Code Gets Executed

00:11:24 How Long It Takes To Learn Python

00:13:03 Variables

00:18:21 Receiving Input

00:22:16 Python Cheat Sheet

00:22:46 Type Conversion

00:29:31 Strings

00:37:36 Formatted Strings

00:40:50 String Methods

00:48:33 Arithmetic Operations

00:51:33 Operator Precedence

00:55:04 Math Functions

00:58:17 If Statements

01:06:32 Logical Operators

01:11:25 Comparison Operators

01:16:17 Weight Converter Program

01:20:43 While Loops

01:24:07 Building a Guessing Game

01:30:51 Building the Car Game

01:41:48 For Loops

01:47:46 Nested Loops

01:55:50 Lists

02:01:45 2D Lists

02:05:11 My Complete Python Course

02:06:00 List Methods

02:13:25 Tuples

02:15:34 Unpacking

02:18:21 Dictionaries

02:26:21 Emoji Converter

02:30:31 Functions

02:35:21 Parameters

02:39:24 Keyword Arguments

02:44:45 Return Statement

02:48:55 Creating a Reusable Function

02:53:42 Exceptions

02:59:14 Comments

03:01:46 Classes

03:07:46 Constructors

03:14:41 Inheritance

03:19:33 Modules

03:30:12 Packages

03:36:22 Generating Random Values

03:44:37 Working with Directories

03:50:47 Pypi and Pip

03:55:34 Project 1: Automation with Python

04:10:22 Project 2: Machine Learning with Python

04:58:37 Project 3: Building a Website with Django

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Further reading

Complete Python Bootcamp: Go from zero to hero in Python 3

Machine Learning A-Z™: Hands-On Python & R In Data Science

Python and Django Full Stack Web Developer Bootcamp

Complete Python Masterclass

Python Programming Tutorial | Full Python Course for Beginners 2019 👍

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Top 10 Python Frameworks for Web Development In 2019

Top 10 Python Frameworks for Web Development In 2019

In this article, we are going to share our list of the top 10 Python frameworks for web development which we believe will help you to develop awesome applications and your technical abilities.

In this article, we are going to share our list of the top 10 Python frameworks for web development which we believe will help you to develop awesome applications and your technical abilities.

Given how dynamic web development has become, the popularity of Python frameworks seems to be only increasing. This object-oriented, powerfully composed, interpreted, and interactive programming language is easy to **learn **and effectively lessens the development time with its easy-to-read syntax and simple compilation feature. That’s reason enough why it is continuously gaining popularity.

Also, it has a vast number of Python libraries that support data analysis, visualization, and manipulation. Consequently, it has advanced as the most favored programming language and is now considered the “Next Big Thing” for professionals.

Since **Python **does not accompany the built-in features required to accelerate custom web application development, many developers choose Python’s robust collection of frameworks to deal with the subtleties of execution.

**Python **gives a wide scope of frameworks to developers. There are two types of Python frameworks – **Full Stack Framework **and Non-Full Stack Framework. The full-stack frameworks give full support to Python developers including basic components like form generators, form validation, and template layouts.

There is a cluster of full stack options when we talk of Python frameworks. Listed below are the top 10 full-stack web frameworks for **Python **that you should be using in 2019 valuable for enhancing your technical abilities.


Django is a free and open-source Python framework that enables developers to develop complex code and applications effectively and quickly. This high-level framework streamlines web application development by giving different vigorous features. It has a colossal assortment of libraries and underscores effectiveness, less need for coding, and reusability of components.

A few of the key features of Django, such as authentication mechanism, URL routing, template engine, and database schema migration implements ORM (Object Relational Mapper) for mapping its objects to database tables. The framework underpins numerous **databases **including PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle, and SQLite, which implies that a similar coding works with various databases.

Django’s cutting-edge features help developers in achieving basic web development tasks like user authentication, RSS feeds, content services, and sitemap. Due to its incredible features, Django framework is extensively used in several high-traffic sites, which include Pinterest, Instagram, Bitbucket, Mozilla, Disqus, and The Washington Times.


**CherryPy **is an open source Python web development framework that implants its very own multi-strung server. It can keep running on any working framework that supports Python. **CherryPy **features incorporate thread-pooled web server, setup framework, and module framework.

A moderate web framework enables you to utilize any sort of technology for data access, templating, etc. Yet, it can do everything that a web framework can, for instance, handling sessions, static, file uploads, cookies, and so on.

Regardless of the accessible features and advantages like running on multiple platforms, built-in support for profiling, reporting, and testing, some developers may imagine that there is a requirement for easy and enhanced documentation. It doesn’t constrain you to use a specific template engine, ORM, so that you can use anything you wish to use.


**Pyramid **is a Python framework that underpins validation and directing. It is incredible for growing huge web applications, as CMSs, and it is valuable for prototyping an idea and for developers chipping away at API projects. Pyramid is adaptable and can be utilized for both easy as well as difficult projects.

Pyramid is enhanced with features without driving a specific method for completing things, lightweight without abandoning you all alone as your app develops. It is a most valued web framework among experienced Python developers by virtue of its transparency and measured quality. It has been used by a moderate team and tech giants like Mozilla, Yelp, Dropbox, and SurveyMonkey.

The pyramid is reliably known for its security arrangements, which makes it easy to set up and check access control records. Another inventive functionality worth uncovering is Pyramid’s Traversal framework for mapping URLs to code, which makes it simple to develop RESTful APIs.


**TurboGears **is an open-source, free, and data-driven full-stack web application Python framework. It is designed to overcome the inadequacies of various extensively used web development frameworks. It empowers software engineers to begin developing web applications with an insignificant setup.

**TurboGears **enables web developers to streamline web application development utilizing diverse JavaScript development tools. You can develop web applications with the help of elements such as SQLAlchemy, Repoze, WebOb, and Genshi, much faster than other existing frameworks. It supports different **databases **and web servers like Pylons.

The framework pursues an MVC (Model-View-Controller) design and incorporates vigorous formats, an incredible Object Relational Mapper (ORM) and Ajax for the server and program. Organizations using TurboGears incorporate Bisque, ShowMeDo, and SourceForge.


**Web2py **is a free, open source Python framework for web application development. The framework accompanies a debugger, code editor as well as a deployment tool to enable you to build and debug the code, as well as test and keep up web applications.

It’s a cross platform framework that underpins Windows, Unix/Linux, Mac, Google App Engine, and different other platforms. It pursues the MVC (Model-View-Controller) design. The framework streamlines web application development procedure via a web server, SQL database, and an online interface. It enables clients to build, revise, deploy, and manage web applications via web browsers.

The key component of Web2py is a ticketing framework, which issues a ticket when a mistake occurs. This encourages the client to follow the mistake and its status. Also, it has in-built components to manage HTTP requests, reactions, sessions, and cookies.


Another interesting Python web framework is Bottle, which falls under the class of small-scale frameworks. Originally, it was developed for building web APIs. Also, Bottle tries to execute everything in a single document, which should give you a short perspective on how small it is designed to be.

The out-of-the-box functionalities include templating, utilities, directing, and some fundamental abstraction over the WSGI standard. Like Flask, you will be coding significantly closer to the metal than with a full-stack framework. Regardless of their, Bottle has been used by Netflix to create web interfaces.


Tornado is a Python web framework and offbeat framework library. It utilizes a non-blocking framework I/O and unravels the C10k issue (which means that, whenever configured properly, it can deal with 10,000+ simultaneous connections).

Tornado’s main features comprise of built-in support for user confirmation, superior quality, real-time services, non-blocking HTTP customer, Python-based web templating language, and support for interpretation and localization.

This makes it an extraordinary tool for building applications that require superior and a huge number of simultaneous clients.


Flask is a Python framework accessible under the BSD license, which is inspired by the Sinatra Ruby framework. Flask relies upon the Werkzeug WSGI toolbox and Jinja2 template. The main purpose is to help develop a strong web application base.

**Developers **can **develop backend frameworks **any way they need, however, it was designed for applications that are open-ended. Flask has been used by big companies, which include LinkedIn and Pinterest. As compared to Django, Flask is best suited for small and easy projects. Thus, you can expect a web server development, **support **for Google App Engine as well as in-built unit testing.


**Grok framework **has been created, depending on Zope toolbox for giving an agile development experience to developers by concentrating on convention over configuration and DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself). It is an open-source framework, developed to speed up the application development process.

Developers can choose from a wide scope of network and independent libraries as indicated by the task needs. Grok’s UI (user interface) is like other full-stack frameworks such as **Pylons **and TurboGears.

The Grok component architecture helps developers lessen the unpredictability of development by availing views, content objects, and controller. Grok, likewise, provides the building blocks and other essential assets required to develop custom web applications for business needs.


**BlueBream **is also an open source web application framework, server, and library for website developers. It has been developed by the Zope team which was formerly known as Zope 3.

This framework is best suited for both medium and substantial activities apportioned into various re-usable and well-suited segments.

**BlueBream **relies upon Zoop Toolkit (ZTK). It holds extensive periods of experience ensuring that it meets the main essential for enduring, relentless, and adaptable programming.


Though there are many python web development frameworks that will be popular and in-demand in the coming years, especially in 2019, every framework has its own pros and cons. Every developer has different coding styles and preferences. They will assess every framework as per the requirements of an individual task. In this way, the choice of python web development framework will change from one developer onto the next.

The above-listed are some of the Python frameworks that are widely used as a full-stack backend web application development. Which one are you picking for your next project? Do let us know in the comments section given below.