Alisa jolly

Alisa jolly

1659932374

20+ Reputable Content Writing Services That Will Give You the Best Qua

Content has the power to capture the attention of your readers and compel them to take action. Content that is well-written, informative, and engaging will help you establish trust with your visitors or potential customers. A blog post with captivating content should prompt readers to come back for more and stay longer on your website. The best way to ensure you have quality content is to hire a professional writer from a content writing service. With so many writing services available online, it can be difficult finding the best ones that offer great service for an affordable price. Fortunately, we’ve done the research so you don’t have to. In this article, we’ll explore 20+ reliable content writing services that will give you high-quality work at a competitive price.

 

What You’ll Learn From This Article

We’ve created this article in order to help you learn more about different content writing services. We’ll discuss the pros and cons of each, and help you decide which one is best for you. We’ll also include a buyer’s guide that you can use to choose the right service for your business. In this article, we’ll cover what you can expect from the best content writing services, how to choose the right service for you, and how to use the services once you’ve decided which one to use. We’ll also include additional resources you can use to learn more.

 

How to Choose the Right Content Writing Service for You?

Before you can choose a service, you need to understand what you need your content to do. You might be looking for someone to create original content, copywrite your content, or provide SEO assistance. Next, you’ll want to understand how much content you can expect to receive per month. Some content writing services offer per post rates, while others offer per page rates. Also, be sure to understand how many revisions your writer can make on each piece of content.

 

We’ve Tested and Reviewed 20+ Top-Quality Content Writing Services

We’ve spent countless hours researching, testing, and using various content writing services. As a result, we’ve created this comprehensive guide to help you choose the best services for your needs. As we researched, we’ve created a list of criteria that we believe are important for the best content writing services. We’ve also included detailed reviews of all services, so you can get an overview of each one. To make things easier for you, we’ve also included a table that you can use to quickly compare all top-quality services. Whether you’re looking for a service to help with your blog post, website content, or social media posts, our table will help you choose the best content writing service for your needs.

 

Additional resources

We’ve also included a few additional resources that can help you learn more about writing content. You can use blogs and guides to help you develop your own blog post ideas, and you can use website content generators to help you create engaging copy. We’ve also included a list of books that you can use to learn more about topics like research, writing for the web, and writing for different platforms like your blog, e-mail newsletter, or social media accounts. There are also several blog posts and guides that you can use for inspiration on how to write for various topics, and you can use social media analytics tools to help you track your content’s performance.

 

Conclusion

With the popularity of content marketing, it’s important for businesses to have high-quality content on their websites. This can help companies establish trust with their customers, increase loyalty, and generate new leads. Unfortunately, creating content is hard work. It can be time-consuming, frustrating, and expensive. Luckily, there are services available that can help you create high-quality content. We’ve researched and tested 20+ top-quality content writing services. From these, we’ve found seven that provide excellent value. In addition, we’ve included a buyer’s guide to help you choose the right content writing service for your business.


 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

20+ Reputable Content Writing Services That Will Give You the Best Qua
bindu singh

bindu singh

1647351133

Procedure To Become An Air Hostess/Cabin Crew

Minimum educational required – 10+2 passed in any stream from a recognized board.

The age limit is 18 to 25 years. It may differ from one airline to another!

 

Physical and Medical standards –

  • Females must be 157 cm in height and males must be 170 cm in height (for males). This parameter may vary from one airline toward the next.
  • The candidate's body weight should be proportional to his or her height.
  • Candidates with blemish-free skin will have an advantage.
  • Physical fitness is required of the candidate.
  • Eyesight requirements: a minimum of 6/9 vision is required. Many airlines allow applicants to fix their vision to 20/20!
  • There should be no history of mental disease in the candidate's past.
  • The candidate should not have a significant cardiovascular condition.

You can become an air hostess if you meet certain criteria, such as a minimum educational level, an age limit, language ability, and physical characteristics.

As can be seen from the preceding information, a 10+2 pass is the minimal educational need for becoming an air hostess in India. So, if you have a 10+2 certificate from a recognized board, you are qualified to apply for an interview for air hostess positions!

You can still apply for this job if you have a higher qualification (such as a Bachelor's or Master's Degree).

So That I may recommend, joining Special Personality development courses, a learning gallery that offers aviation industry courses by AEROFLY INTERNATIONAL AVIATION ACADEMY in CHANDIGARH. They provide extra sessions included in the course and conduct the entire course in 6 months covering all topics at an affordable pricing structure. They pay particular attention to each and every aspirant and prepare them according to airline criteria. So be a part of it and give your aspirations So be a part of it and give your aspirations wings.

Read More:   Safety and Emergency Procedures of Aviation || Operations of Travel and Hospitality Management || Intellectual Language and Interview Training || Premiere Coaching For Retail and Mass Communication |Introductory Cosmetology and Tress Styling  ||  Aircraft Ground Personnel Competent Course

For more information:

Visit us at:     https://aerofly.co.in

Phone         :     wa.me//+919988887551 

Address:     Aerofly International Aviation Academy, SCO 68, 4th Floor, Sector 17-D,                            Chandigarh, Pin 160017 

Email:     info@aerofly.co.in

 

#air hostess institute in Delhi, 

#air hostess institute in Chandigarh, 

#air hostess institute near me,

#best air hostess institute in India,
#air hostess institute,

#best air hostess institute in Delhi, 

#air hostess institute in India, 

#best air hostess institute in India,

#air hostess training institute fees, 

#top 10 air hostess training institute in India, 

#government air hostess training institute in India, 

#best air hostess training institute in the world,

#air hostess training institute fees, 

#cabin crew course fees, 

#cabin crew course duration and fees, 

#best cabin crew training institute in Delhi, 

#cabin crew courses after 12th,

#best cabin crew training institute in Delhi, 

#cabin crew training institute in Delhi, 

#cabin crew training institute in India,

#cabin crew training institute near me,

#best cabin crew training institute in India,

#best cabin crew training institute in Delhi, 

#best cabin crew training institute in the world, 

#government cabin crew training institute

Annie  Emard

Annie Emard

1653075360

HAML Lint: Tool For Writing Clean and Consistent HAML

HAML-Lint

haml-lint is a tool to help keep your HAML files clean and readable. In addition to HAML-specific style and lint checks, it integrates with RuboCop to bring its powerful static analysis tools to your HAML documents.

You can run haml-lint manually from the command line, or integrate it into your SCM hooks.

Requirements

  • Ruby 2.4+
  • HAML 4.0+

Installation

gem install haml_lint

If you'd rather install haml-lint using bundler, don't require it in your Gemfile:

gem 'haml_lint', require: false

Then you can still use haml-lint from the command line, but its source code won't be auto-loaded inside your application.

Usage

Run haml-lint from the command line by passing in a directory (or multiple directories) to recursively scan:

haml-lint app/views/

You can also specify a list of files explicitly:

haml-lint app/**/*.html.haml

haml-lint will output any problems with your HAML, including the offending filename and line number.

File Encoding

haml-lint assumes all files are encoded in UTF-8.

Command Line Flags

Command Line FlagDescription
--auto-gen-configGenerate a configuration file acting as a TODO list
--auto-gen-exclude-limitNumber of failures to allow in the TODO list before the entire rule is excluded
-c/--configSpecify which configuration file to use
-e/--excludeExclude one or more files from being linted
-i/--include-linterSpecify which linters you specifically want to run
-x/--exclude-linterSpecify which linters you don't want to run
-r/--reporterSpecify which reporter you want to use to generate the output
-p/--parallelRun linters in parallel using available CPUs
--fail-fastSpecify whether to fail after the first file with lint
--fail-levelSpecify the minimum severity (warning or error) for which the lint should fail
--[no-]colorWhether to output in color
--[no-]summaryWhether to output a summary in the default reporter
--show-lintersShow all registered linters
--show-reportersDisplay available reporters
-h/--helpShow command line flag documentation
-v/--versionShow haml-lint version
-V/--verbose-versionShow haml-lint, haml, and ruby version information

Configuration

haml-lint will automatically recognize and load any file with the name .haml-lint.yml as a configuration file. It loads the configuration based on the directory haml-lint is being run from, ascending until a configuration file is found. Any configuration loaded is automatically merged with the default configuration (see config/default.yml).

Here's an example configuration file:

linters:
  ImplicitDiv:
    enabled: false
    severity: error

  LineLength:
    max: 100

All linters have an enabled option which can be true or false, which controls whether the linter is run, along with linter-specific options. The defaults are defined in config/default.yml.

Linter Options

OptionDescription
enabledIf false, this linter will never be run. This takes precedence over any other option.
includeList of files or glob patterns to scope this linter to. This narrows down any files specified via the command line.
excludeList of files or glob patterns to exclude from this linter. This excludes any files specified via the command line or already filtered via the include option.
severityThe severity of the linter. External tools consuming haml-lint output can use this to determine whether to warn or error based on the lints reported.

Global File Exclusion

The exclude global configuration option allows you to specify a list of files or glob patterns to exclude from all linters. This is useful for ignoring third-party code that you don't maintain or care to lint. You can specify a single string or a list of strings for this option.

Skipping Frontmatter

Some static blog generators such as Jekyll include leading frontmatter to the template for their own tracking purposes. haml-lint allows you to ignore these headers by specifying the skip_frontmatter option in your .haml-lint.yml configuration:

skip_frontmatter: true

Inheriting from Other Configuration Files

The inherits_from global configuration option allows you to specify an inheritance chain for a configuration file. It accepts either a scalar value of a single file name or a vector of multiple files to inherit from. The inherited files are resolved in a first in, first out order and with "last one wins" precedence. For example:

inherits_from:
  - .shared_haml-lint.yml
  - .personal_haml-lint.yml

First, the default configuration is loaded. Then the .shared_haml-lint.yml configuration is loaded, followed by .personal_haml-lint.yml. Each of these overwrite each other in the event of a collision in configuration value. Once the inheritance chain is resolved, the base configuration is loaded and applies its rules to overwrite any in the intermediate configuration.

Lastly, in order to match your RuboCop configuration style, you can also use the inherit_from directive, which is an alias for inherits_from.

Linters

» Linters Documentation

haml-lint is an opinionated tool that helps you enforce a consistent style in your HAML files. As an opinionated tool, we've had to make calls about what we think are the "best" style conventions, even when there are often reasonable arguments for more than one possible style. While all of our choices have a rational basis, we think that the opinions themselves are less important than the fact that haml-lint provides us with an automated and low-cost means of enforcing consistency.

Custom Linters

Add the following to your configuration file:

require:
  - './relative/path/to/my_first_linter.rb'
  - 'absolute/path/to/my_second_linter.rb'

The files that are referenced by this config should have the following structure:

module HamlLint
  # MyFirstLinter is the name of the linter in this example, but it can be anything
  class Linter::MyFirstLinter < Linter
    include LinterRegistry

    def visit_tag
      return unless node.tag_name == 'div'
      record_lint(node, "You're not allowed divs!")
    end
  end
end

For more information on the different types on HAML node, please look through the HAML parser code: https://github.com/haml/haml/blob/master/lib/haml/parser.rb

Keep in mind that by default your linter will be disabled by default. So you will need to enable it in your configuration file to have it run.

Disabling Linters within Source Code

One or more individual linters can be disabled locally in a file by adding a directive comment. These comments look like the following:

-# haml-lint:disable AltText, LineLength
[...]
-# haml-lint:enable AltText, LineLength

You can disable all linters for a section with the following:

-# haml-lint:disable all

Directive Scope

A directive will disable the given linters for the scope of the block. This scope is inherited by child elements and sibling elements that come after the comment. For example:

-# haml-lint:disable AltText
#content
  %img#will-not-show-lint-1{ src: "will-not-show-lint-1.png" }
  -# haml-lint:enable AltText
  %img#will-show-lint-1{ src: "will-show-lint-1.png" }
  .sidebar
    %img#will-show-lint-2{ src: "will-show-lint-2.png" }
%img#will-not-show-lint-2{ src: "will-not-show-lint-2.png" }

The #will-not-show-lint-1 image on line 2 will not raise an AltText lint because of the directive on line 1. Since that directive is at the top level of the tree, it applies everywhere.

However, on line 4, the directive enables the AltText linter for the remainder of the #content element's content. This means that the #will-show-lint-1 image on line 5 will raise an AltText lint because it is a sibling of the enabling directive that appears later in the #content element. Likewise, the #will-show-lint-2 image on line 7 will raise an AltText lint because it is a child of a sibling of the enabling directive.

Lastly, the #will-not-show-lint-2 image on line 8 will not raise an AltText lint because the enabling directive on line 4 exists in a separate element and is not a sibling of the it.

Directive Precedence

If there are multiple directives for the same linter in an element, the last directive wins. For example:

-# haml-lint:enable AltText
%p Hello, world!
-# haml-lint:disable AltText
%img#will-not-show-lint{ src: "will-not-show-lint.png" }

There are two conflicting directives for the AltText linter. The first one enables it, but the second one disables it. Since the disable directive came later, the #will-not-show-lint element will not raise an AltText lint.

You can use this functionality to selectively enable directives within a file by first using the haml-lint:disable all directive to disable all linters in the file, then selectively using haml-lint:enable to enable linters one at a time.

Onboarding Onto a Preexisting Project

Adding a new linter into a project that wasn't previously using one can be a daunting task. To help ease the pain of starting to use Haml-Lint, you can generate a configuration file that will exclude all linters from reporting lint in files that currently have lint. This gives you something similar to a to-do list where the violations that you had when you started using Haml-Lint are listed for you to whittle away, but ensuring that any views you create going forward are properly linted.

To use this functionality, call Haml-Lint like:

haml-lint --auto-gen-config

This will generate a .haml-lint_todo.yml file that contains all existing lint as exclusions. You can then add inherits_from: .haml-lint_todo.yml to your .haml-lint.yml configuration file to ensure these exclusions are used whenever you call haml-lint.

By default, any rules with more than 15 violations will be disabled in the todo-file. You can increase this limit with the auto-gen-exclude-limit option:

haml-lint --auto-gen-config --auto-gen-exclude-limit 100

Editor Integration

Vim

If you use vim, you can have haml-lint automatically run against your HAML files after saving by using the Syntastic plugin. If you already have the plugin, just add let g:syntastic_haml_checkers = ['haml_lint'] to your .vimrc.

Vim 8 / Neovim

If you use vim 8+ or Neovim, you can have haml-lint automatically run against your HAML files as you type by using the Asynchronous Lint Engine (ALE) plugin. ALE will automatically lint your HAML files if it detects haml-lint in your PATH.

Sublime Text 3

If you use SublimeLinter 3 with Sublime Text 3 you can install the SublimeLinter-haml-lint plugin using Package Control.

Atom

If you use atom, you can install the linter-haml plugin.

TextMate 2

If you use TextMate 2, you can install the Haml-Lint.tmbundle bundle.

Visual Studio Code

If you use Visual Studio Code, you can install the Haml Lint extension

Git Integration

If you'd like to integrate haml-lint into your Git workflow, check out our Git hook manager, overcommit.

Rake Integration

To execute haml-lint via a Rake task, make sure you have rake included in your gem path (e.g. via Gemfile) add the following to your Rakefile:

require 'haml_lint/rake_task'

HamlLint::RakeTask.new

By default, when you execute rake haml_lint, the above configuration is equivalent to running haml-lint ., which will lint all .haml files in the current directory and its descendants.

You can customize your task by writing:

require 'haml_lint/rake_task'

HamlLint::RakeTask.new do |t|
  t.config = 'custom/config.yml'
  t.files = ['app/views', 'custom/*.haml']
  t.quiet = true # Don't display output from haml-lint to STDOUT
end

You can also use this custom configuration with a set of files specified via the command line:

# Single quotes prevent shell glob expansion
rake 'haml_lint[app/views, custom/*.haml]'

Files specified in this manner take precedence over the task's files attribute.

Documentation

Code documentation is generated with YARD and hosted by RubyDoc.info.

Contributing

We love getting feedback with or without pull requests. If you do add a new feature, please add tests so that we can avoid breaking it in the future.

Speaking of tests, we use Appraisal to test against both HAML 4 and 5. We use rspec to write our tests. To run the test suite, execute the following from the root directory of the repository:

appraisal bundle install
appraisal bundle exec rspec

Community

All major discussion surrounding HAML-Lint happens on the GitHub issues page.

Changelog

If you're interested in seeing the changes and bug fixes between each version of haml-lint, read the HAML-Lint Changelog.

Author: sds
Source Code: https://github.com/sds/haml-lint
License: MIT license

#haml #lint 

How to Create Arrays in Python

In this tutorial, you'll know the basics of how to create arrays in Python using the array module. Learn how to use Python arrays. You'll see how to define them and the different methods commonly used for performing operations on them.

This tutorialvideo on 'Arrays in Python' will help you establish a strong hold on all the fundamentals in python programming language. Below are the topics covered in this video:  
1:15 What is an array?
2:53 Is python list same as an array?
3:48  How to create arrays in python?
7:19 Accessing array elements
9:59 Basic array operations
        - 10:33  Finding the length of an array
        - 11:44  Adding Elements
        - 15:06  Removing elements
        - 18:32  Array concatenation
       - 20:59  Slicing
       - 23:26  Looping  


Python Array Tutorial – Define, Index, Methods

In this article, you'll learn how to use Python arrays. You'll see how to define them and the different methods commonly used for performing operations on them.

The artcile covers arrays that you create by importing the array module. We won't cover NumPy arrays here.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Arrays
    1. The differences between Lists and Arrays
    2. When to use arrays
  2. How to use arrays
    1. Define arrays
    2. Find the length of arrays
    3. Array indexing
    4. Search through arrays
    5. Loop through arrays
    6. Slice an array
  3. Array methods for performing operations
    1. Change an existing value
    2. Add a new value
    3. Remove a value
  4. Conclusion

Let's get started!

What are Python Arrays?

Arrays are a fundamental data structure, and an important part of most programming languages. In Python, they are containers which are able to store more than one item at the same time.

Specifically, they are an ordered collection of elements with every value being of the same data type. That is the most important thing to remember about Python arrays - the fact that they can only hold a sequence of multiple items that are of the same type.

What's the Difference between Python Lists and Python Arrays?

Lists are one of the most common data structures in Python, and a core part of the language.

Lists and arrays behave similarly.

Just like arrays, lists are an ordered sequence of elements.

They are also mutable and not fixed in size, which means they can grow and shrink throughout the life of the program. Items can be added and removed, making them very flexible to work with.

However, lists and arrays are not the same thing.

Lists store items that are of various data types. This means that a list can contain integers, floating point numbers, strings, or any other Python data type, at the same time. That is not the case with arrays.

As mentioned in the section above, arrays store only items that are of the same single data type. There are arrays that contain only integers, or only floating point numbers, or only any other Python data type you want to use.

When to Use Python Arrays

Lists are built into the Python programming language, whereas arrays aren't. Arrays are not a built-in data structure, and therefore need to be imported via the array module in order to be used.

Arrays of the array module are a thin wrapper over C arrays, and are useful when you want to work with homogeneous data.

They are also more compact and take up less memory and space which makes them more size efficient compared to lists.

If you want to perform mathematical calculations, then you should use NumPy arrays by importing the NumPy package. Besides that, you should just use Python arrays when you really need to, as lists work in a similar way and are more flexible to work with.

How to Use Arrays in Python

In order to create Python arrays, you'll first have to import the array module which contains all the necassary functions.

There are three ways you can import the array module:

  • By using import array at the top of the file. This includes the module array. You would then go on to create an array using array.array().
import array

#how you would create an array
array.array()
  • Instead of having to type array.array() all the time, you could use import array as arr at the top of the file, instead of import array alone. You would then create an array by typing arr.array(). The arr acts as an alias name, with the array constructor then immediately following it.
import array as arr

#how you would create an array
arr.array()
  • Lastly, you could also use from array import *, with * importing all the functionalities available. You would then create an array by writing the array() constructor alone.
from array import *

#how you would create an array
array()

How to Define Arrays in Python

Once you've imported the array module, you can then go on to define a Python array.

The general syntax for creating an array looks like this:

variable_name = array(typecode,[elements])

Let's break it down:

  • variable_name would be the name of the array.
  • The typecode specifies what kind of elements would be stored in the array. Whether it would be an array of integers, an array of floats or an array of any other Python data type. Remember that all elements should be of the same data type.
  • Inside square brackets you mention the elements that would be stored in the array, with each element being separated by a comma. You can also create an empty array by just writing variable_name = array(typecode) alone, without any elements.

Below is a typecode table, with the different typecodes that can be used with the different data types when defining Python arrays:

TYPECODEC TYPEPYTHON TYPESIZE
'b'signed charint1
'B'unsigned charint1
'u'wchar_tUnicode character2
'h'signed shortint2
'H'unsigned shortint2
'i'signed intint2
'I'unsigned intint2
'l'signed longint4
'L'unsigned longint4
'q'signed long longint8
'Q'unsigned long longint8
'f'floatfloat4
'd'doublefloat8

Tying everything together, here is an example of how you would define an array in Python:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

Let's break it down:

  • First we included the array module, in this case with import array as arr .
  • Then, we created a numbers array.
  • We used arr.array() because of import array as arr .
  • Inside the array() constructor, we first included i, for signed integer. Signed integer means that the array can include positive and negative values. Unsigned integer, with H for example, would mean that no negative values are allowed.
  • Lastly, we included the values to be stored in the array in square brackets.

Keep in mind that if you tried to include values that were not of i typecode, meaning they were not integer values, you would get an error:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
# File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 14, in <module>
#   numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

In the example above, I tried to include a floating point number in the array. I got an error because this is meant to be an integer array only.

Another way to create an array is the following:

from array import *

#an array of floating point values
numbers = array('d',[10.0,20.0,30.0])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('d', [10.0, 20.0, 30.0])

The example above imported the array module via from array import * and created an array numbers of float data type. This means that it holds only floating point numbers, which is specified with the 'd' typecode.

How to Find the Length of an Array in Python

To find out the exact number of elements contained in an array, use the built-in len() method.

It will return the integer number that is equal to the total number of elements in the array you specify.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(len(numbers))

#output
# 3

In the example above, the array contained three elements – 10, 20, 30 – so the length of numbers is 3.

Array Indexing and How to Access Individual Items in an Array in Python

Each item in an array has a specific address. Individual items are accessed by referencing their index number.

Indexing in Python, and in all programming languages and computing in general, starts at 0. It is important to remember that counting starts at 0 and not at 1.

To access an element, you first write the name of the array followed by square brackets. Inside the square brackets you include the item's index number.

The general syntax would look something like this:

array_name[index_value_of_item]

Here is how you would access each individual element in an array:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[0]) # gets the 1st element
print(numbers[1]) # gets the 2nd element
print(numbers[2]) # gets the 3rd element

#output

#10
#20
#30

Remember that the index value of the last element of an array is always one less than the length of the array. Where n is the length of the array, n - 1 will be the index value of the last item.

Note that you can also access each individual element using negative indexing.

With negative indexing, the last element would have an index of -1, the second to last element would have an index of -2, and so on.

Here is how you would get each item in an array using that method:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[-1]) #gets last item
print(numbers[-2]) #gets second to last item
print(numbers[-3]) #gets first item
 
#output

#30
#20
#10

How to Search Through an Array in Python

You can find out an element's index number by using the index() method.

You pass the value of the element being searched as the argument to the method, and the element's index number is returned.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

If there is more than one element with the same value, the index of the first instance of the value will be returned:

import array as arr 


numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
#will return the index number of the first instance of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

How to Loop through an Array in Python

You've seen how to access each individual element in an array and print it out on its own.

You've also seen how to print the array, using the print() method. That method gives the following result:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

What if you want to print each value one by one?

This is where a loop comes in handy. You can loop through the array and print out each value, one-by-one, with each loop iteration.

For this you can use a simple for loop:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

for number in numbers:
    print(number)
    
#output
#10
#20
#30

You could also use the range() function, and pass the len() method as its parameter. This would give the same result as above:

import array as arr  

values = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#prints each individual value in the array
for value in range(len(values)):
    print(values[value])

#output

#10
#20
#30

How to Slice an Array in Python

To access a specific range of values inside the array, use the slicing operator, which is a colon :.

When using the slicing operator and you only include one value, the counting starts from 0 by default. It gets the first item, and goes up to but not including the index number you specify.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#get the values 10 and 20 only
print(numbers[:2])  #first to second position

#output

#array('i', [10, 20])

When you pass two numbers as arguments, you specify a range of numbers. In this case, the counting starts at the position of the first number in the range, and up to but not including the second one:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


#get the values 20 and 30 only
print(numbers[1:3]) #second to third position

#output

#rray('i', [20, 30])

Methods For Performing Operations on Arrays in Python

Arrays are mutable, which means they are changeable. You can change the value of the different items, add new ones, or remove any you don't want in your program anymore.

Let's see some of the most commonly used methods which are used for performing operations on arrays.

How to Change the Value of an Item in an Array

You can change the value of a specific element by speficying its position and assigning it a new value:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#change the first element
#change it from having a value of 10 to having a value of 40
numbers[0] = 40

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 20, 30])

How to Add a New Value to an Array

To add one single value at the end of an array, use the append() method:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40])

Be aware that the new item you add needs to be the same data type as the rest of the items in the array.

Look what happens when I try to add a float to an array of integers:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40.0)

print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
#  File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 19, in <module>
#   numbers.append(40.0)
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

But what if you want to add more than one value to the end an array?

Use the extend() method, which takes an iterable (such as a list of items) as an argument. Again, make sure that the new items are all the same data type.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integers 40,50,60 to the end of numbers
#The numbers need to be enclosed in square brackets

numbers.extend([40,50,60])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60])

And what if you don't want to add an item to the end of an array? Use the insert() method, to add an item at a specific position.

The insert() function takes two arguments: the index number of the position the new element will be inserted, and the value of the new element.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 in the first position
#remember indexing starts at 0

numbers.insert(0,40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 10, 20, 30])

How to Remove a Value from an Array

To remove an element from an array, use the remove() method and include the value as an argument to the method.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30])

With remove(), only the first instance of the value you pass as an argument will be removed.

See what happens when there are more than one identical values:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Only the first occurence of 10 is removed.

You can also use the pop() method, and specify the position of the element to be removed:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

#remove the first instance of 10
numbers.pop(0)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Conclusion

And there you have it - you now know the basics of how to create arrays in Python using the array module. Hopefully you found this guide helpful.

Thanks for reading and happy coding!

#python #programming 

Connor Mills

Connor Mills

1670560264

Understanding Arrays in Python

Learn how to use Python arrays. Create arrays in Python using the array module. You'll see how to define them and the different methods commonly used for performing operations on them.
 

The artcile covers arrays that you create by importing the array module. We won't cover NumPy arrays here.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Arrays
    1. The differences between Lists and Arrays
    2. When to use arrays
  2. How to use arrays
    1. Define arrays
    2. Find the length of arrays
    3. Array indexing
    4. Search through arrays
    5. Loop through arrays
    6. Slice an array
  3. Array methods for performing operations
    1. Change an existing value
    2. Add a new value
    3. Remove a value
  4. Conclusion

Let's get started!


What are Python Arrays?

Arrays are a fundamental data structure, and an important part of most programming languages. In Python, they are containers which are able to store more than one item at the same time.

Specifically, they are an ordered collection of elements with every value being of the same data type. That is the most important thing to remember about Python arrays - the fact that they can only hold a sequence of multiple items that are of the same type.

What's the Difference between Python Lists and Python Arrays?

Lists are one of the most common data structures in Python, and a core part of the language.

Lists and arrays behave similarly.

Just like arrays, lists are an ordered sequence of elements.

They are also mutable and not fixed in size, which means they can grow and shrink throughout the life of the program. Items can be added and removed, making them very flexible to work with.

However, lists and arrays are not the same thing.

Lists store items that are of various data types. This means that a list can contain integers, floating point numbers, strings, or any other Python data type, at the same time. That is not the case with arrays.

As mentioned in the section above, arrays store only items that are of the same single data type. There are arrays that contain only integers, or only floating point numbers, or only any other Python data type you want to use.

When to Use Python Arrays

Lists are built into the Python programming language, whereas arrays aren't. Arrays are not a built-in data structure, and therefore need to be imported via the array module in order to be used.

Arrays of the array module are a thin wrapper over C arrays, and are useful when you want to work with homogeneous data.

They are also more compact and take up less memory and space which makes them more size efficient compared to lists.

If you want to perform mathematical calculations, then you should use NumPy arrays by importing the NumPy package. Besides that, you should just use Python arrays when you really need to, as lists work in a similar way and are more flexible to work with.

How to Use Arrays in Python

In order to create Python arrays, you'll first have to import the array module which contains all the necassary functions.

There are three ways you can import the array module:

  1. By using import array at the top of the file. This includes the module array. You would then go on to create an array using array.array().
import array

#how you would create an array
array.array()
  1. Instead of having to type array.array() all the time, you could use import array as arr at the top of the file, instead of import array alone. You would then create an array by typing arr.array(). The arr acts as an alias name, with the array constructor then immediately following it.
import array as arr

#how you would create an array
arr.array()
  1. Lastly, you could also use from array import *, with * importing all the functionalities available. You would then create an array by writing the array() constructor alone.
from array import *

#how you would create an array
array()

How to Define Arrays in Python

Once you've imported the array module, you can then go on to define a Python array.

The general syntax for creating an array looks like this:

variable_name = array(typecode,[elements])

Let's break it down:

  • variable_name would be the name of the array.
  • The typecode specifies what kind of elements would be stored in the array. Whether it would be an array of integers, an array of floats or an array of any other Python data type. Remember that all elements should be of the same data type.
  • Inside square brackets you mention the elements that would be stored in the array, with each element being separated by a comma. You can also create an empty array by just writing variable_name = array(typecode) alone, without any elements.

Below is a typecode table, with the different typecodes that can be used with the different data types when defining Python arrays:

TYPECODEC TYPEPYTHON TYPESIZE
'b'signed charint1
'B'unsigned charint1
'u'wchar_tUnicode character2
'h'signed shortint2
'H'unsigned shortint2
'i'signed intint2
'I'unsigned intint2
'l'signed longint4
'L'unsigned longint4
'q'signed long longint8
'Q'unsigned long longint8
'f'floatfloat4
'd'doublefloat8

Tying everything together, here is an example of how you would define an array in Python:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

Let's break it down:

  • First we included the array module, in this case with import array as arr .
  • Then, we created a numbers array.
  • We used arr.array() because of import array as arr .
  • Inside the array() constructor, we first included i, for signed integer. Signed integer means that the array can include positive and negative values. Unsigned integer, with H for example, would mean that no negative values are allowed.
  • Lastly, we included the values to be stored in the array in square brackets.

Keep in mind that if you tried to include values that were not of i typecode, meaning they were not integer values, you would get an error:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
# File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 14, in <module>
#   numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

In the example above, I tried to include a floating point number in the array. I got an error because this is meant to be an integer array only.

Another way to create an array is the following:

from array import *

#an array of floating point values
numbers = array('d',[10.0,20.0,30.0])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('d', [10.0, 20.0, 30.0])

The example above imported the array module via from array import * and created an array numbers of float data type. This means that it holds only floating point numbers, which is specified with the 'd' typecode.

How to Find the Length of an Array in Python

To find out the exact number of elements contained in an array, use the built-in len() method.

It will return the integer number that is equal to the total number of elements in the array you specify.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(len(numbers))

#output
# 3

In the example above, the array contained three elements – 10, 20, 30 – so the length of numbers is 3.

Array Indexing and How to Access Individual Items in an Array in Python

Each item in an array has a specific address. Individual items are accessed by referencing their index number.

Indexing in Python, and in all programming languages and computing in general, starts at 0. It is important to remember that counting starts at 0 and not at 1.

To access an element, you first write the name of the array followed by square brackets. Inside the square brackets you include the item's index number.

The general syntax would look something like this:

array_name[index_value_of_item]

Here is how you would access each individual element in an array:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[0]) # gets the 1st element
print(numbers[1]) # gets the 2nd element
print(numbers[2]) # gets the 3rd element

#output

#10
#20
#30

Remember that the index value of the last element of an array is always one less than the length of the array. Where n is the length of the array, n - 1 will be the index value of the last item.

Note that you can also access each individual element using negative indexing.

With negative indexing, the last element would have an index of -1, the second to last element would have an index of -2, and so on.

Here is how you would get each item in an array using that method:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[-1]) #gets last item
print(numbers[-2]) #gets second to last item
print(numbers[-3]) #gets first item
 
#output

#30
#20
#10

How to Search Through an Array in Python

You can find out an element's index number by using the index() method.

You pass the value of the element being searched as the argument to the method, and the element's index number is returned.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

If there is more than one element with the same value, the index of the first instance of the value will be returned:

import array as arr 


numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
#will return the index number of the first instance of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

How to Loop through an Array in Python

You've seen how to access each individual element in an array and print it out on its own.

You've also seen how to print the array, using the print() method. That method gives the following result:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

What if you want to print each value one by one?

This is where a loop comes in handy. You can loop through the array and print out each value, one-by-one, with each loop iteration.

For this you can use a simple for loop:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

for number in numbers:
    print(number)
    
#output
#10
#20
#30

You could also use the range() function, and pass the len() method as its parameter. This would give the same result as above:

import array as arr  

values = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#prints each individual value in the array
for value in range(len(values)):
    print(values[value])

#output

#10
#20
#30

How to Slice an Array in Python

To access a specific range of values inside the array, use the slicing operator, which is a colon :.

When using the slicing operator and you only include one value, the counting starts from 0 by default. It gets the first item, and goes up to but not including the index number you specify.


import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#get the values 10 and 20 only
print(numbers[:2])  #first to second position

#output

#array('i', [10, 20])

When you pass two numbers as arguments, you specify a range of numbers. In this case, the counting starts at the position of the first number in the range, and up to but not including the second one:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


#get the values 20 and 30 only
print(numbers[1:3]) #second to third position

#output

#rray('i', [20, 30])

Methods For Performing Operations on Arrays in Python

Arrays are mutable, which means they are changeable. You can change the value of the different items, add new ones, or remove any you don't want in your program anymore.

Let's see some of the most commonly used methods which are used for performing operations on arrays.

How to Change the Value of an Item in an Array

You can change the value of a specific element by speficying its position and assigning it a new value:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#change the first element
#change it from having a value of 10 to having a value of 40
numbers[0] = 40

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 20, 30])

How to Add a New Value to an Array

To add one single value at the end of an array, use the append() method:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40])

Be aware that the new item you add needs to be the same data type as the rest of the items in the array.

Look what happens when I try to add a float to an array of integers:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40.0)

print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
#  File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 19, in <module>
#   numbers.append(40.0)
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

But what if you want to add more than one value to the end an array?

Use the extend() method, which takes an iterable (such as a list of items) as an argument. Again, make sure that the new items are all the same data type.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integers 40,50,60 to the end of numbers
#The numbers need to be enclosed in square brackets

numbers.extend([40,50,60])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60])

And what if you don't want to add an item to the end of an array? Use the insert() method, to add an item at a specific position.

The insert() function takes two arguments: the index number of the position the new element will be inserted, and the value of the new element.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 in the first position
#remember indexing starts at 0

numbers.insert(0,40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 10, 20, 30])

How to Remove a Value from an Array

To remove an element from an array, use the remove() method and include the value as an argument to the method.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30])

With remove(), only the first instance of the value you pass as an argument will be removed.

See what happens when there are more than one identical values:


import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Only the first occurence of 10 is removed.

You can also use the pop() method, and specify the position of the element to be removed:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

#remove the first instance of 10
numbers.pop(0)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Conclusion

And there you have it - you now know the basics of how to create arrays in Python using the array module. Hopefully you found this guide helpful.

You'll start from the basics and learn in an interacitve and beginner-friendly way. You'll also build five projects at the end to put into practice and help reinforce what you learned.

Thanks for reading and happy coding!

Original article source at https://www.freecodecamp.org

#python 

Adele Hansley

Adele Hansley

1622787575

Primary Benefits of CDR Writing Services

Aspirants who need to pursue their engineering profession in Australia, they often seek assistance with CDR document from CDR writers. There are copious benefits to rent CDR writers Australia for CDR Writing Services.

Principal Advantages to Lease CDR Writing Services

Hard Facts
The online CDR helpers create unique documents according to the set together with the right facts. The CDR service helpers mention the maximum critical statistics in a minimalistic manner.

Minimalistic Presentation
An advantage of hiring CDR offerings is the right presentation of CDR document. Writing a report concisely is an important factor of CDR file writing that is achieved with the assistance of CDR writers.

Strong Referencing
Acquire the great records you may comprise its reference properly in CDR file. The CDR writers are experienced and prepare a well-referenced record that reinforces its chance of reputation.

Special CDR Statistics
One of the crucial pieces of information writing CDR record is to fill it with exceptional statistics. With CDR engineering assist you may get to write a one-of-a-kind record with 100% facts.

Pointers to Put Together a Powerful CDR Report
Its importance and the benefits of hiring CDR document writing offerings from cdr writing help in Australia.
Now, in case you additionally want to recognize the secret recipe that CDR writers Australia uses to create a powerful CDR file, then you need to examine essential recommendations for CDR report writing.

Subsequent Tips will Make Sure you Qualify all EA Parameters:

Cause of Record
The simple element to consider earlier than you write your CDR record is to apprehend its motive. Information of the motive allows you to write your document effectively in step with your required position. All you need to follow are the document shaping suggestions stated by the EA government.

Be Straightforward
CDR evaluation must consist of the best statistics. The EA government has a foolproof crosschecking method. If they find something fake, it can lead to the disqualification of your CDR report.

Appropriate Topic
Aspirants often avoid this factor while writing their files. You should choose the topic that would ease your voyage of CDR report writing. Refer to the skills that EA tests and you can also check the report sample, penned down by CDR writers Australia.

Right Tone and Phrases
Phrases and tones of the CDR document are the most important elements that you need to attend to. Keep the tone formal and use the phrases that in shape with standards set by Engineers Australia. Assignment help provider can help you in finishing your CDR report timely and accurately.

#cdr writing services #cdr writing services in australia #assignment writing services #assignment help provider