Gordon  Taylor

Gordon Taylor

1657071180

Gaia: A Decentralized High-performance Storage System

Gaia: A decentralized high-performance storage system

Overview

Gaia works by hosting data in one or more existing storage systems of the user's choice. These storage systems are typically cloud storage systems. We currently have driver support for S3 and Azure Blob Storage, but the driver model allows for other backend support as well. The point is, the user gets to choose where their data lives, and Gaia enables applications to access it via a uniform API.

Blockstack applications use the Gaia storage system to store data on behalf of a user. When the user logs in to an application, the authentication process gives the application the URL of a Gaia hub, which performs writes on behalf of that user. The Gaia hub authenticates writes to a location by requiring a valid authentication token, generated by a private key authorized to write at that location.

User Control: How is Gaia Decentralized?

Gaia's approach to decentralization focuses on user-control of data and storage. If a user can choose which gaia hub and which backend provider to store data with, then that is all the decentralization required to enable user-controlled applications.

In Gaia, the control of user data lies in the way that user data is accessed. When an application fetches a file data.txt for a given user alice.id, the lookup will follow these steps:

  1. Fetch the zonefile for alice.id, and read her profile URL from that zonefile
  2. Fetch the Alice's profile and verify that it is signed by alice.id's key
  3. Read the application root URL (e.g. https://gaia.alice.org/) out of the profile
  4. Fetch file from https://gaia.alice.org/data.txt

Because alice.id controls her zonefile, she can change where her profile is stored, if the current storage of the profile is compromised. Similarly, if Alice wishes to change her gaia provider, or run her own gaia node, she can change the entry in her profile.

For applications writing directly on behalf of Alice, they do not need to perform this lookup. Instead, the stack.js authentication flow provides Alice's chosen application root URL to the application. This authentication flow is also within Alice's control, because the authentication response must be generated by Alice's browser.

While it is true that many Gaia hubs will use backend providers like AWS or Azure, allowing users to easily operate their own hubs, which may select different backend providers (and we'd like to implement more backend drivers), enables truly user-controlled data, while enabling high performance and high availability for data reads and writes.

Write-to and Read-from URL Guarantees

A performance and simplicity oriented guarantee of the Gaia specification is that when an application submits a write to a URL https://myhub.service.org/store/foo/bar, the application is guaranteed to be able to read from a URL https://myreads.com/foo/bar. While the prefix of the read-from URL may change between the two, the suffix must be the same as the write-to URL.

This allows an application to know exactly where a written file can be read from, given the read prefix. To obtain that read prefix, the Gaia service defines an endpoint:

GET /hub_info/

which returns a JSON object with a read_url_prefix.

For example, if my service returns:

{ ...,
  "read_url_prefix": "https://myservice.org/read/"
}

I know that if I submit a write request to:

https://myservice.org/store/1DHvWDj834zPAkwMhpXdYbCYh4PomwQfzz/0/profile.json

That I will be able to read that file from:

https://myservice.org/read/1DHvWDj834zPAkwMhpXdYbCYh4PomwQfzz/0/profile.json

Address-based Access-Control

Access control in a gaia storage hub is performed on a per-address basis. Writes to URLs /store/<address>/<file> are only allowed if the writer can demonstrate that they control that address. This is achieved via an authentication token, which is a message signed by the private-key associated with that address. The message itself is a challenge-text, returned via the /hub_info/ endpoint.

V1 Authentication Scheme

The V1 authentication scheme uses a JWT, prefixed with v1: as a bearer token in the HTTP authorization field. The expected JWT payload structure is:

{
 'type': 'object',
 'properties': {
   'iss': { 'type': 'string' },
   'exp': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
   'iat': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
   'gaiaChallenge': { 'type': 'string' },
   'associationToken': { 'type': 'string' },
   'salt': { 'type': 'string' }
 }
 'required': [ 'iss', 'gaiaChallenge' ]
}

In addition to iss, exp, and gaiaChallenge claims, clients may add other properties (e.g., a salt field) to the payload, and they will not affect the validity of the JWT. Rather, the validity of the JWT is checked by ensuring:

  1. That the JWT is signed correctly by verifying with the pubkey hex provided as iss
  2. That iss matches the address associated with the bucket.
  3. That gaiaChallenge is equal to the server's challenge text.
  4. That the epoch time exp is greater than the server's current epoch time.
  5. That the epoch time iat (issued-at date) is greater than the bucket's revocation date (only if such a date has been set by the bucket owner).

Association Tokens

The association token specification is considered private, as it is mostly used for internal Gaia use cases. This means that this specification can change or become deprecated in the future.

Often times, a single user will use many different keys to store data. These keys may be generated on-the-fly. Instead of requiring the user to explicitly whitelist each key, the v1 authentication scheme allows the user to bind a key to an already-whitelisted key via an association token.

An association token is a JWT signed by a whitelisted key that, in turn, contains the public key that signs the authentication JWT that contains it. Put another way, the Gaia hub will accept a v1 authentication JWT if it contains an associationToken JWT that (1) was sigend by a whitelisted address, and (2) identifies the signer of the authentication JWT.

The association token JWT has the following structure in its payload:

{
  'type': 'object',
  'properties': {
    'iss': { 'type': 'string' },
    'exp': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
    'iat': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
    'childToAssociate': { 'type': 'string' },
    'salt': { 'type': 'string' },
  },
  'required': [ 'iss', 'exp', 'childToAssociate' ]
}

Here, the iss field should be the public key of a whitelisted address. The childtoAssociate should be equal to the iss field of the authentication JWT. Note that the exp field is required in association tokens.

Legacy authentication scheme

In more detail, this signed message is:

BASE64({ "signature" : ECDSA_SIGN(SHA256(challenge-text)),
         "publickey" : PUBLICKEY_HEX })

Currently, challenge-text must match the known challenge-text on the gaia storage hub. However, as future work enables more extensible forms of authentication, we could extend this to allow the auth token to include the challenge-text as well, which the gaia storage hub would then need to also validate.

Data storage format

A gaia storage hub will store the written data exactly as given. This means that the storage hub does not provide many different kinds of guarantees about the data. It does not ensure that data is validly formatted, contains valid signatures, or is encrypted. Rather, the design philosophy is that these concerns are client-side concerns. Client libraries (such as stacks.js) are capable of providing these guarantees, and we use a liberal definition of the end-to-end principle to guide this design decision.

Operation of a Gaia Hub

Configuration files

A configuration JSON file should be stored either in the top-level directory of the hub server, or a file location may be specified in the environment variable CONFIG_PATH.

An example configuration file is provided in (./hub/config.sample.json) You can specify the logging level, the number of social proofs required for addresses to write to the system, the backend driver, the credentials for that backend driver, and the readURL for the storage provider.

Private hubs

A private hub services requests for a single user. This is controlled via whitelisting the addresses allowed to write files. In order to support application storage, because each application uses a different app- and user-specific address, each application you wish to use must be added to the whitelist separately.

Alternatively, the user's client must use the v1 authentication scheme and generate an association token for each app. The user should whitelist her address, and use her associated private key to sign each app's association token. This removes the need to whitelist each application, but with the caveat that the user needs to take care that her association tokens do not get misused.

Open-membership hubs

An open-membership hub will allow writes for any address top-level directory, each request will still be validated such that write requests must provide valid authentication tokens for that address. Operating in this mode is recommended for service and identity providers who wish to support many different users.

In order to limit the users that may interact with such a hub to users who provide social proofs of identity, we support an execution mode where the hub checks that a user's profile.json object contains social proofs in order to be able to write to other locations. This can be configured via the config.json.

Driver model

Gaia hub drivers are fairly simple. The biggest requirement is the ability to fulfill the write-to/read-from URL guarantee.

A driver can expect that two modification operations to the same path will be mutually exclusive. No writes, renames, or deletes to the same path will be concurrent.

As currently implemented a gaia hub driver must implement the following functions:

interface DriverModel {

  /**
   * Return the prefix for reading files from.
   *  a write to the path `foo` should be readable from
   *  `${getReadURLPrefix()}foo`
   * @returns the read url prefix.
   */
  getReadURLPrefix(): string;

  /**
   * Performs the actual write of a file to `path`
   *   the file must be readable at `${getReadURLPrefix()}/${storageToplevel}/${path}`
   *
   * @param options.path - path of the file.
   * @param options.storageToplevel - the top level directory to store the file in
   * @param options.contentType - the HTTP content-type of the file
   * @param options.stream - the data to be stored at `path`
   * @param options.contentLength - the bytes of content in the stream
   * @param options.ifMatch - optional etag value to be used for optimistic concurrency control
   * @param options.ifNoneMatch - used with the `*` value to save a file not known to exist,
   * guaranteeing that another upload didn't happen before, losing the data of the previous
   * @returns Promise that resolves to an object containing a public-readable URL of the stored content and the objects etag value
   */
  performWrite(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
    stream: Readable;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    ifMatch?: string;
    ifNoneMatch?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    publicURL: string,
    etag: string
  }>;

  /**
   * Deletes a file. Throws a `DoesNotExist` if the file does not exist. 
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   * @param  options.contentType - the HTTP content-type of the file
   */
  performDelete(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<void>;

  /**
   * Renames a file given a path. Some implementations do not support
   * a first class move operation and this can be implemented as a copy and delete. 
   * @param options.path - path of the original file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory for the original file
   * @param options.newPath - new path for the file
   */
  performRename(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
    newPath: string;
  }): Promise<void>;

  /**
   * Retrieves metadata for a given file.
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   */
  performStat(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<{
    exists: boolean;
    lastModifiedDate: number;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    etag: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Returns an object with a NodeJS stream.Readable for the file content
   * and metadata about the file.
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   */
  performRead(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<{
    data: Readable;
    lastModifiedDate: number;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    etag: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Return a list of files beginning with the given prefix,
   * as well as a driver-specific page identifier for requesting
   * the next page of entries.  The return structure should
   * take the form { "entries": [string], "page"?: string }
   * @returns {Promise} the list of files and a possible page identifier.
   */
  listFiles(options: {
    pathPrefix: string;
    page?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    entries: string[];
    page?: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Return a list of files beginning with the given prefix,
   * as well as file metadata, and a driver-specific page identifier
   * for requesting the next page of entries.
   */
  listFilesStat(options: {
    pathPrefix: string;
    page?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    entries: {
        name: string;
        lastModifiedDate: number;
        contentLength: number;
        etag: string;
    }[];
    page?: string;
  }>;
  
}

HTTP API

The Gaia storage API defines the following endpoints:


GET ${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}

This returns the data stored by the gaia hub at ${path}. The response headers include Content-Type and ETag, along with the required CORS headers Access-Control-Allow-Origin and Access-Control-Allow-Methods.


HEAD ${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}

Returns the same headers as the corresponding GET request. HEAD requests do not return a response body.


POST ${hubUrl}/store/${address}/${path}

This performs a write to the gaia hub at ${path}.

On success, it returns a 202 status, and a JSON object:

{
 "publicURL": "${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}",
 "etag": "version-identifier"
}

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.

Additionally, file ETags and conditional request headers are used as a concurrency control mechanism. All requests to this endpoint should contain either an If-Match header or an If-None-Match header. The three request types are as follows:

Update existing file: this request must specify an If-Match header containing the most up to date ETag. If the file has been updated elsewhere and the ETag supplied in the If-Match header doesn't match that of the file in gaia, a 412 Precondition Failed error will be returned.

Create a new file: this request must specify the If-None-Match: * header. If the already exists at the given path, a 412 Precondition Failed error will be returned.

Overwrite a file: this request must specify the If-Match: * header. Note that this bypasses concurrency control and should be used with caution. Improper use can cause bugs such as unintended data loss.

The file ETag is returned in the response body of the store POST request, the response headers of GET and HEAD requests, and in the returned entries in list-files request.

Additionally, a request to a file path that already has a previous ongoing request still processing for the same file path will return with a 409 Conflict error. This can be handled with a retry.


DELETE ${hubUrl}/delete/${address}/${path}

This performs a deletion of a file in the gaia hub at ${path}.

On success, it returns a 202 status. Returns a 404 if the path does not exist. Returns 400 if the path is invalid.

The DELETE must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


GET ${hubUrl}/hub_info/

Returns a JSON object:

{
 "challenge_text": "text-which-must-be-signed-to-validate-requests",
 "read_url_prefix": "${read-url-prefix}"
 "latest_auth_version": "v1"
}

The latest auth version allows the client to figure out which auth versions the gaia hub supports.


POST ${hubUrl}/revoke-all/${address}

The post body must be a JSON object with the following field:

{ "oldestValidTimestamp": "${timestamp}" }

Where the timestamp is an epoch time in seconds. The timestamp is written to a bucket-specific file (/${address}-auth). This becomes the oldest valid iat timestamp for authentication tokens that write to the /${address}/ bucket.

On success, it returns a 202 status, and a JSON object:

{ "status": "success" }

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


POST ${hubUrl}/list-files/${address}

The post body can contain a page field with the pagination identifier from a previous request:

{ "page": "${lastListFilesResult.page}" }

If the post body contains a stat: true field then the returned JSON includes file metadata:

{
  "entries": [
    { "name": "string", "lastModifiedDate": "number", "contentLength": "number", "etag": "string" },
    { "name": "string", "lastModifiedDate": "number", "contentLength": "number", "etag": "string" },
    // ...
  ],
  "page": "string" // possible pagination marker
}

If the post body does not contain a stat: true field then the returned JSON entries will only be file name strings:

{
  "entries": [
    "fileNameExample1",
    "fileNameExample2",
    // ...
  ],
  "page": "string" // possible pagination marker
}

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


Future Design Goals

Dependency on DNS

The gaia specification requires that a gaia hub return a URL that a user's client will be able to fetch. In practice, most gaia hubs will use URLs with DNS entries for hostnames (though URLs with IP addresses would work as well). However, even though the spec uses URLs, that doesn't necessarily make an opinionated claim on underlying mechanisms for that URL. If a browser supported new URL schemes which enabled lookups without traditional DNS (for example, with the Blockstack Name System instead), then gaia hubs could return URLs implementing that scheme. As the Blockstack ecosystem develops and supports these kinds of features, we expect users would deploy gaia hubs that would take advantage.

Extensibly limiting membership sets

Some service providers may wish to provide hub services to a limited set of different users, with a provider-specific method of authenticating that a user or address is within that set. In order to provide that functionality, our hub implementation would need to be extensible enough to allow plugging in different authentication models.

A .storage Namespace

Gaia nodes can request data from other Gaia nodes, and can store data to other Gaia nodes. In effect, Gaia nodes can be "chained together" in arbitrarily complex ways. This creates an opportunity to create a decentralized storage marketplace.

Example

For example, Alice can make her Gaia node public and program it to store data to her Amazon S3 bucket and her Dropbox account. Bob can then POST data to Alice's node, causing her node to replicate data to both providers. Later, Charlie can read Bob's data from Alice's node, causing Alice's node to fetch and serve back the data from her cloud storage. Neither Bob nor Charlie have to set up accounts on Amazon S3 and Dropbox this way, since Alice's node serves as an intermediary between them and the storage providers.

Since Alice is on the read/write path between Bob and Charlie and cloud storage, she has the opportunity to make optimizations. First, she can program her Gaia node to synchronously write data to local disk and asynchronously back it up to S3 and Dropbox. This would speed up Bob's writes, but at the cost of durability (i.e. Alice's node could crash before replicating to the cloud).

In addition, Alice can program her Gaia node to service all reads from disk. This would speed up Charlie's reads, since he'll get the latest data without having to hit back-end cloud storage providers.

Service Description

Since Alice is providing a service to Bob and Charlie, she will want compensation. This can be achieved by having both of them send her money via the underlying blockchain.

To do so, she would register her node's IP address in a .storage namespace in Blockstack, and post her rates per gigabyte in her node's profile and her payment address. Once Bob and Charlie sent her payment, her node would begin accepting reads and writes from them up to the capacity purchased. They would continue sending payments as long as Alice provides them with service.

Other experienced Gaia node operators would register their nodes in .storage, and compete for users by offerring better durability, availability, performance, extra storage features, and so on.

Notes on our deployed service

Our deployed service places some modest limitations on file uploads and rate limits. Currently, the service will only allow up to 20 write requests per second and a maximum file size of 5MB. However, these limitations are only for our service, if you deploy your own Gaia hub, these limitations are not necessary.

Project Comparison

Here's how Gaia stacks up against other decentralized storage systems. Features that are common to all storage systems are omitted for brevity.

FeaturesGaiaSiaStorjIPFSDATSSB
User controls where data is hostedX     
Data can be viewed in a normal Web browserX  X  
Data is read/writeX   XX
Data can be deletedX   XX
Data can be listedXXX XX
Deleted data space is reclaimedXXXX  
Data lookups have predictable performanceX X   
Writes permission can be delegatedX     
Listing permission can be delegatedX     
Supports multiple backends nativelyX X   
Data is globally addressableXXXXX 
Needs a cryptocurrency to work XX   
Data is content-addressed XXXXX

This document describes the high-level design and implementation of the Gaia storage system, also briefly explained in the docs.stacks.co. It includes specifications for backend storage drivers and interactions between developer APIs and the Gaia service.

Developers who wish to use the Gaia storage system should see the stacks.js documentation here and in particular the storage package here.

Instructions on setting up, configuring and testing a Gaia Hub can be found here and here.


Author: Stacks-network
Source Code: https://github.com/stacks-network/gaia 
License: MIT license

#javascript #typescript #decentralized 

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Gaia: A Decentralized High-performance Storage System
Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya

1620633584

System Databases in SQL Server

Introduction

In SSMS, we many of may noticed System Databases under the Database Folder. But how many of us knows its purpose?. In this article lets discuss about the System Databases in SQL Server.

System Database

Fig. 1 System Databases

There are five system databases, these databases are created while installing SQL Server.

  • Master
  • Model
  • MSDB
  • Tempdb
  • Resource
Master
  • This database contains all the System level Information in SQL Server. The Information in form of Meta data.
  • Because of this master database, we are able to access the SQL Server (On premise SQL Server)
Model
  • This database is used as a template for new databases.
  • Whenever a new database is created, initially a copy of model database is what created as new database.
MSDB
  • This database is where a service called SQL Server Agent stores its data.
  • SQL server Agent is in charge of automation, which includes entities such as jobs, schedules, and alerts.
TempDB
  • The Tempdb is where SQL Server stores temporary data such as work tables, sort space, row versioning information and etc.
  • User can create their own version of temporary tables and those are stored in Tempdb.
  • But this database is destroyed and recreated every time when we restart the instance of SQL Server.
Resource
  • The resource database is a hidden, read only database that holds the definitions of all system objects.
  • When we query system object in a database, they appear to reside in the sys schema of the local database, but in actually their definitions reside in the resource db.

#sql server #master system database #model system database #msdb system database #sql server system databases #ssms #system database #system databases in sql server #tempdb system database

Gordon  Taylor

Gordon Taylor

1657071180

Gaia: A Decentralized High-performance Storage System

Gaia: A decentralized high-performance storage system

Overview

Gaia works by hosting data in one or more existing storage systems of the user's choice. These storage systems are typically cloud storage systems. We currently have driver support for S3 and Azure Blob Storage, but the driver model allows for other backend support as well. The point is, the user gets to choose where their data lives, and Gaia enables applications to access it via a uniform API.

Blockstack applications use the Gaia storage system to store data on behalf of a user. When the user logs in to an application, the authentication process gives the application the URL of a Gaia hub, which performs writes on behalf of that user. The Gaia hub authenticates writes to a location by requiring a valid authentication token, generated by a private key authorized to write at that location.

User Control: How is Gaia Decentralized?

Gaia's approach to decentralization focuses on user-control of data and storage. If a user can choose which gaia hub and which backend provider to store data with, then that is all the decentralization required to enable user-controlled applications.

In Gaia, the control of user data lies in the way that user data is accessed. When an application fetches a file data.txt for a given user alice.id, the lookup will follow these steps:

  1. Fetch the zonefile for alice.id, and read her profile URL from that zonefile
  2. Fetch the Alice's profile and verify that it is signed by alice.id's key
  3. Read the application root URL (e.g. https://gaia.alice.org/) out of the profile
  4. Fetch file from https://gaia.alice.org/data.txt

Because alice.id controls her zonefile, she can change where her profile is stored, if the current storage of the profile is compromised. Similarly, if Alice wishes to change her gaia provider, or run her own gaia node, she can change the entry in her profile.

For applications writing directly on behalf of Alice, they do not need to perform this lookup. Instead, the stack.js authentication flow provides Alice's chosen application root URL to the application. This authentication flow is also within Alice's control, because the authentication response must be generated by Alice's browser.

While it is true that many Gaia hubs will use backend providers like AWS or Azure, allowing users to easily operate their own hubs, which may select different backend providers (and we'd like to implement more backend drivers), enables truly user-controlled data, while enabling high performance and high availability for data reads and writes.

Write-to and Read-from URL Guarantees

A performance and simplicity oriented guarantee of the Gaia specification is that when an application submits a write to a URL https://myhub.service.org/store/foo/bar, the application is guaranteed to be able to read from a URL https://myreads.com/foo/bar. While the prefix of the read-from URL may change between the two, the suffix must be the same as the write-to URL.

This allows an application to know exactly where a written file can be read from, given the read prefix. To obtain that read prefix, the Gaia service defines an endpoint:

GET /hub_info/

which returns a JSON object with a read_url_prefix.

For example, if my service returns:

{ ...,
  "read_url_prefix": "https://myservice.org/read/"
}

I know that if I submit a write request to:

https://myservice.org/store/1DHvWDj834zPAkwMhpXdYbCYh4PomwQfzz/0/profile.json

That I will be able to read that file from:

https://myservice.org/read/1DHvWDj834zPAkwMhpXdYbCYh4PomwQfzz/0/profile.json

Address-based Access-Control

Access control in a gaia storage hub is performed on a per-address basis. Writes to URLs /store/<address>/<file> are only allowed if the writer can demonstrate that they control that address. This is achieved via an authentication token, which is a message signed by the private-key associated with that address. The message itself is a challenge-text, returned via the /hub_info/ endpoint.

V1 Authentication Scheme

The V1 authentication scheme uses a JWT, prefixed with v1: as a bearer token in the HTTP authorization field. The expected JWT payload structure is:

{
 'type': 'object',
 'properties': {
   'iss': { 'type': 'string' },
   'exp': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
   'iat': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
   'gaiaChallenge': { 'type': 'string' },
   'associationToken': { 'type': 'string' },
   'salt': { 'type': 'string' }
 }
 'required': [ 'iss', 'gaiaChallenge' ]
}

In addition to iss, exp, and gaiaChallenge claims, clients may add other properties (e.g., a salt field) to the payload, and they will not affect the validity of the JWT. Rather, the validity of the JWT is checked by ensuring:

  1. That the JWT is signed correctly by verifying with the pubkey hex provided as iss
  2. That iss matches the address associated with the bucket.
  3. That gaiaChallenge is equal to the server's challenge text.
  4. That the epoch time exp is greater than the server's current epoch time.
  5. That the epoch time iat (issued-at date) is greater than the bucket's revocation date (only if such a date has been set by the bucket owner).

Association Tokens

The association token specification is considered private, as it is mostly used for internal Gaia use cases. This means that this specification can change or become deprecated in the future.

Often times, a single user will use many different keys to store data. These keys may be generated on-the-fly. Instead of requiring the user to explicitly whitelist each key, the v1 authentication scheme allows the user to bind a key to an already-whitelisted key via an association token.

An association token is a JWT signed by a whitelisted key that, in turn, contains the public key that signs the authentication JWT that contains it. Put another way, the Gaia hub will accept a v1 authentication JWT if it contains an associationToken JWT that (1) was sigend by a whitelisted address, and (2) identifies the signer of the authentication JWT.

The association token JWT has the following structure in its payload:

{
  'type': 'object',
  'properties': {
    'iss': { 'type': 'string' },
    'exp': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
    'iat': { 'type': 'IntDate' },
    'childToAssociate': { 'type': 'string' },
    'salt': { 'type': 'string' },
  },
  'required': [ 'iss', 'exp', 'childToAssociate' ]
}

Here, the iss field should be the public key of a whitelisted address. The childtoAssociate should be equal to the iss field of the authentication JWT. Note that the exp field is required in association tokens.

Legacy authentication scheme

In more detail, this signed message is:

BASE64({ "signature" : ECDSA_SIGN(SHA256(challenge-text)),
         "publickey" : PUBLICKEY_HEX })

Currently, challenge-text must match the known challenge-text on the gaia storage hub. However, as future work enables more extensible forms of authentication, we could extend this to allow the auth token to include the challenge-text as well, which the gaia storage hub would then need to also validate.

Data storage format

A gaia storage hub will store the written data exactly as given. This means that the storage hub does not provide many different kinds of guarantees about the data. It does not ensure that data is validly formatted, contains valid signatures, or is encrypted. Rather, the design philosophy is that these concerns are client-side concerns. Client libraries (such as stacks.js) are capable of providing these guarantees, and we use a liberal definition of the end-to-end principle to guide this design decision.

Operation of a Gaia Hub

Configuration files

A configuration JSON file should be stored either in the top-level directory of the hub server, or a file location may be specified in the environment variable CONFIG_PATH.

An example configuration file is provided in (./hub/config.sample.json) You can specify the logging level, the number of social proofs required for addresses to write to the system, the backend driver, the credentials for that backend driver, and the readURL for the storage provider.

Private hubs

A private hub services requests for a single user. This is controlled via whitelisting the addresses allowed to write files. In order to support application storage, because each application uses a different app- and user-specific address, each application you wish to use must be added to the whitelist separately.

Alternatively, the user's client must use the v1 authentication scheme and generate an association token for each app. The user should whitelist her address, and use her associated private key to sign each app's association token. This removes the need to whitelist each application, but with the caveat that the user needs to take care that her association tokens do not get misused.

Open-membership hubs

An open-membership hub will allow writes for any address top-level directory, each request will still be validated such that write requests must provide valid authentication tokens for that address. Operating in this mode is recommended for service and identity providers who wish to support many different users.

In order to limit the users that may interact with such a hub to users who provide social proofs of identity, we support an execution mode where the hub checks that a user's profile.json object contains social proofs in order to be able to write to other locations. This can be configured via the config.json.

Driver model

Gaia hub drivers are fairly simple. The biggest requirement is the ability to fulfill the write-to/read-from URL guarantee.

A driver can expect that two modification operations to the same path will be mutually exclusive. No writes, renames, or deletes to the same path will be concurrent.

As currently implemented a gaia hub driver must implement the following functions:

interface DriverModel {

  /**
   * Return the prefix for reading files from.
   *  a write to the path `foo` should be readable from
   *  `${getReadURLPrefix()}foo`
   * @returns the read url prefix.
   */
  getReadURLPrefix(): string;

  /**
   * Performs the actual write of a file to `path`
   *   the file must be readable at `${getReadURLPrefix()}/${storageToplevel}/${path}`
   *
   * @param options.path - path of the file.
   * @param options.storageToplevel - the top level directory to store the file in
   * @param options.contentType - the HTTP content-type of the file
   * @param options.stream - the data to be stored at `path`
   * @param options.contentLength - the bytes of content in the stream
   * @param options.ifMatch - optional etag value to be used for optimistic concurrency control
   * @param options.ifNoneMatch - used with the `*` value to save a file not known to exist,
   * guaranteeing that another upload didn't happen before, losing the data of the previous
   * @returns Promise that resolves to an object containing a public-readable URL of the stored content and the objects etag value
   */
  performWrite(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
    stream: Readable;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    ifMatch?: string;
    ifNoneMatch?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    publicURL: string,
    etag: string
  }>;

  /**
   * Deletes a file. Throws a `DoesNotExist` if the file does not exist. 
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   * @param  options.contentType - the HTTP content-type of the file
   */
  performDelete(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<void>;

  /**
   * Renames a file given a path. Some implementations do not support
   * a first class move operation and this can be implemented as a copy and delete. 
   * @param options.path - path of the original file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory for the original file
   * @param options.newPath - new path for the file
   */
  performRename(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
    newPath: string;
  }): Promise<void>;

  /**
   * Retrieves metadata for a given file.
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   */
  performStat(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<{
    exists: boolean;
    lastModifiedDate: number;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    etag: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Returns an object with a NodeJS stream.Readable for the file content
   * and metadata about the file.
   * @param options.path - path of the file
   * @param options.storageTopLevel - the top level directory
   */
  performRead(options: {
    path: string;
    storageTopLevel: string;
  }): Promise<{
    data: Readable;
    lastModifiedDate: number;
    contentLength: number;
    contentType: string;
    etag: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Return a list of files beginning with the given prefix,
   * as well as a driver-specific page identifier for requesting
   * the next page of entries.  The return structure should
   * take the form { "entries": [string], "page"?: string }
   * @returns {Promise} the list of files and a possible page identifier.
   */
  listFiles(options: {
    pathPrefix: string;
    page?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    entries: string[];
    page?: string;
  }>;

  /**
   * Return a list of files beginning with the given prefix,
   * as well as file metadata, and a driver-specific page identifier
   * for requesting the next page of entries.
   */
  listFilesStat(options: {
    pathPrefix: string;
    page?: string;
  }): Promise<{
    entries: {
        name: string;
        lastModifiedDate: number;
        contentLength: number;
        etag: string;
    }[];
    page?: string;
  }>;
  
}

HTTP API

The Gaia storage API defines the following endpoints:


GET ${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}

This returns the data stored by the gaia hub at ${path}. The response headers include Content-Type and ETag, along with the required CORS headers Access-Control-Allow-Origin and Access-Control-Allow-Methods.


HEAD ${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}

Returns the same headers as the corresponding GET request. HEAD requests do not return a response body.


POST ${hubUrl}/store/${address}/${path}

This performs a write to the gaia hub at ${path}.

On success, it returns a 202 status, and a JSON object:

{
 "publicURL": "${read-url-prefix}/${address}/${path}",
 "etag": "version-identifier"
}

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.

Additionally, file ETags and conditional request headers are used as a concurrency control mechanism. All requests to this endpoint should contain either an If-Match header or an If-None-Match header. The three request types are as follows:

Update existing file: this request must specify an If-Match header containing the most up to date ETag. If the file has been updated elsewhere and the ETag supplied in the If-Match header doesn't match that of the file in gaia, a 412 Precondition Failed error will be returned.

Create a new file: this request must specify the If-None-Match: * header. If the already exists at the given path, a 412 Precondition Failed error will be returned.

Overwrite a file: this request must specify the If-Match: * header. Note that this bypasses concurrency control and should be used with caution. Improper use can cause bugs such as unintended data loss.

The file ETag is returned in the response body of the store POST request, the response headers of GET and HEAD requests, and in the returned entries in list-files request.

Additionally, a request to a file path that already has a previous ongoing request still processing for the same file path will return with a 409 Conflict error. This can be handled with a retry.


DELETE ${hubUrl}/delete/${address}/${path}

This performs a deletion of a file in the gaia hub at ${path}.

On success, it returns a 202 status. Returns a 404 if the path does not exist. Returns 400 if the path is invalid.

The DELETE must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


GET ${hubUrl}/hub_info/

Returns a JSON object:

{
 "challenge_text": "text-which-must-be-signed-to-validate-requests",
 "read_url_prefix": "${read-url-prefix}"
 "latest_auth_version": "v1"
}

The latest auth version allows the client to figure out which auth versions the gaia hub supports.


POST ${hubUrl}/revoke-all/${address}

The post body must be a JSON object with the following field:

{ "oldestValidTimestamp": "${timestamp}" }

Where the timestamp is an epoch time in seconds. The timestamp is written to a bucket-specific file (/${address}-auth). This becomes the oldest valid iat timestamp for authentication tokens that write to the /${address}/ bucket.

On success, it returns a 202 status, and a JSON object:

{ "status": "success" }

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


POST ${hubUrl}/list-files/${address}

The post body can contain a page field with the pagination identifier from a previous request:

{ "page": "${lastListFilesResult.page}" }

If the post body contains a stat: true field then the returned JSON includes file metadata:

{
  "entries": [
    { "name": "string", "lastModifiedDate": "number", "contentLength": "number", "etag": "string" },
    { "name": "string", "lastModifiedDate": "number", "contentLength": "number", "etag": "string" },
    // ...
  ],
  "page": "string" // possible pagination marker
}

If the post body does not contain a stat: true field then the returned JSON entries will only be file name strings:

{
  "entries": [
    "fileNameExample1",
    "fileNameExample2",
    // ...
  ],
  "page": "string" // possible pagination marker
}

The POST must contain an authentication header with a bearer token. The bearer token's content and generation is described in the access control section of this document.


Future Design Goals

Dependency on DNS

The gaia specification requires that a gaia hub return a URL that a user's client will be able to fetch. In practice, most gaia hubs will use URLs with DNS entries for hostnames (though URLs with IP addresses would work as well). However, even though the spec uses URLs, that doesn't necessarily make an opinionated claim on underlying mechanisms for that URL. If a browser supported new URL schemes which enabled lookups without traditional DNS (for example, with the Blockstack Name System instead), then gaia hubs could return URLs implementing that scheme. As the Blockstack ecosystem develops and supports these kinds of features, we expect users would deploy gaia hubs that would take advantage.

Extensibly limiting membership sets

Some service providers may wish to provide hub services to a limited set of different users, with a provider-specific method of authenticating that a user or address is within that set. In order to provide that functionality, our hub implementation would need to be extensible enough to allow plugging in different authentication models.

A .storage Namespace

Gaia nodes can request data from other Gaia nodes, and can store data to other Gaia nodes. In effect, Gaia nodes can be "chained together" in arbitrarily complex ways. This creates an opportunity to create a decentralized storage marketplace.

Example

For example, Alice can make her Gaia node public and program it to store data to her Amazon S3 bucket and her Dropbox account. Bob can then POST data to Alice's node, causing her node to replicate data to both providers. Later, Charlie can read Bob's data from Alice's node, causing Alice's node to fetch and serve back the data from her cloud storage. Neither Bob nor Charlie have to set up accounts on Amazon S3 and Dropbox this way, since Alice's node serves as an intermediary between them and the storage providers.

Since Alice is on the read/write path between Bob and Charlie and cloud storage, she has the opportunity to make optimizations. First, she can program her Gaia node to synchronously write data to local disk and asynchronously back it up to S3 and Dropbox. This would speed up Bob's writes, but at the cost of durability (i.e. Alice's node could crash before replicating to the cloud).

In addition, Alice can program her Gaia node to service all reads from disk. This would speed up Charlie's reads, since he'll get the latest data without having to hit back-end cloud storage providers.

Service Description

Since Alice is providing a service to Bob and Charlie, she will want compensation. This can be achieved by having both of them send her money via the underlying blockchain.

To do so, she would register her node's IP address in a .storage namespace in Blockstack, and post her rates per gigabyte in her node's profile and her payment address. Once Bob and Charlie sent her payment, her node would begin accepting reads and writes from them up to the capacity purchased. They would continue sending payments as long as Alice provides them with service.

Other experienced Gaia node operators would register their nodes in .storage, and compete for users by offerring better durability, availability, performance, extra storage features, and so on.

Notes on our deployed service

Our deployed service places some modest limitations on file uploads and rate limits. Currently, the service will only allow up to 20 write requests per second and a maximum file size of 5MB. However, these limitations are only for our service, if you deploy your own Gaia hub, these limitations are not necessary.

Project Comparison

Here's how Gaia stacks up against other decentralized storage systems. Features that are common to all storage systems are omitted for brevity.

FeaturesGaiaSiaStorjIPFSDATSSB
User controls where data is hostedX     
Data can be viewed in a normal Web browserX  X  
Data is read/writeX   XX
Data can be deletedX   XX
Data can be listedXXX XX
Deleted data space is reclaimedXXXX  
Data lookups have predictable performanceX X   
Writes permission can be delegatedX     
Listing permission can be delegatedX     
Supports multiple backends nativelyX X   
Data is globally addressableXXXXX 
Needs a cryptocurrency to work XX   
Data is content-addressed XXXXX

This document describes the high-level design and implementation of the Gaia storage system, also briefly explained in the docs.stacks.co. It includes specifications for backend storage drivers and interactions between developer APIs and the Gaia service.

Developers who wish to use the Gaia storage system should see the stacks.js documentation here and in particular the storage package here.

Instructions on setting up, configuring and testing a Gaia Hub can be found here and here.


Author: Stacks-network
Source Code: https://github.com/stacks-network/gaia 
License: MIT license

#javascript #typescript #decentralized 

Maddy Bris

Maddy Bris

1599132316

5Kw Solar System in Brisbane

1 August 2020, Sunny Sky solarannounced you to launch a residential solar power system in Queensland, Australia. There are different sizes of houses with different energy requirements so one solar power system cannot fulfill every type of electricity need.

Whether energy need is low or higher they have announced a wide range of solar power system in Brisbane that includes 5KW solar panel system, 6Kw solar panel system, 10Kw solar panel system, and many more so that everyone can enjoy the benefits of solar energy.

Residential Solar Power System needs to be flexible because of the changing requirement of energy. As we know our energy needs hikes up in the summers more than winters because we use air conditioners, refrigerators (also used in winters but less than summers), fans. In winter we drop down these usages so the energy needs to go up and down according to the weather changing.

Some households have a high energy need, some have low, and mostly have the normal or average of high and low. Sunny Sky Solar offers expert’s advice to all the customers on call or personally because it is important to analyze the energy need, budget, location, and many other things before buying a solar power system for your home sweet home.

Their professionals analyze all these things and suggest you the best residential solar power system in Brisbane to reduce the energy costs and clean the environment as solar energy is green & clean energy.

At this time of announcing the residential solar panel system, the representative of Sunny Sky Solar has talked about some advantages of a residential solar power system. He said “get update yourself by the time is important because the latest technology will save you lots of money and time. The solar power system is the best technology in this era that can give you lots of benefits. Don’t get upset with the initial cost because after installing a solar power system at your house it will repay you the initial cost in two to three years. So, you are going to invest in a great deal if you are purchasing a solar panel system in Brisbane.”

He also added “Residential solar power system can save your pocket from getting loose every month for heavy electricity bills. You will earn money by producing solar energy and feeding your power supply grid as government, and mostly all the power suppliers give benefits to producing solar energy. You can easily earn money by feeding the power grid with your excess produced solar energy. You will use solar energy and save the excess by feeding the power grid this way.”

Sunny Sky Solar offering an efficient range of residential and commercial solar power system that includes 5KW solar panel system, 6.6Kw solar panel system, 10Kw solar panel system, and there are many more that you can select according to your energy needs and budget.
They provide expert assistance that will help you in choosing the best solar system for your house. Their experienced professionals work under the guidance of experts who ensures the perfections and safety at the time of installing and after the installation.

Installing a solar power system at your place will be more convenient with them because they work under the expert’s supervision that makes them perfect and faster. They ensure safety first at the time of installing because at that time family members are around the installing site and accidents can happen.

They also ensure the quality of products they used in installing and other solar products. If the products will be durable and efficient, the system will produce more electricity with higher efficiency for a longer period.
The main thing that matters while installing a solar power system at a residence is the roof situation, Sunny Sky Solar doesn’t work for doing business only. They first check the place or analyze from your information that your location is safe for installing a solar power system or not. If the find any problem they will suggest repairing it first because if you will put the solar power system at a less secure place and the solar system’s weight can damage it then repairing that place first should your main priority.
This shows their loyalty and caring behavior towards the customers.

#solar panel system #solar panel system in brisbane #5kw solar panel system #5kw solar panel system #10kw solar panel system #10kw solar panel system in brisbane

Secret Email System Review - Recommended or Not?

Matt Bacak’s secret email system is one of the most successful products in the WarriorPlus marketplace in recent memory. My secret email system review will not try to hard sell you on the product – I mean, it’s pretty cheap, so if you’re going to buy it, you’re going to buy it. Instead, I’ll concentrate on explaining the benefits of email marketing and how to get the most out of Matt’s system.

Nowadays, digital marketing is essential for every business. But what is the best strategy? There are many different points of view, but one thing is certain: emails are essential. Email marketing is one of the most efficient and cost-effective ways to promote a business online, and it is simple and inexpensive to get started. The most important thing is to understand your audience and deliver content and offers that are truly relevant to them.

The PDF Download of an Honest Secret Email System Review
The front-end product
What Matt Bacak is selling, which has been promoted by such capable affiliates as Curt Maly, is a PDF ebook that you can download immediately after purchasing. However, there are a number of bonuses included to sweeten the deal. You get access to Mr. Bacak’s private Facebook group, and instead of a simple PDF download, you get a massive zip file full of useful files and videos.
Now that we know what we’re up against, let’s get into this secret email system review!

What is Included in the Secret Email System Download?
Here is a list of everything you get inside the zip file sold at the front end of the Secret Email System:

Matt Bacak’s 3x Formula Calculator (plus a video explaining how to use it)
1000 email swipe files in text format (swipe files or “swipes” are like templates you can repurpose in a variety of ways).
A 1.5-hour video session

Free access to Matt’s high-converting leadpages lead generation template
A massive book of swipe files (in PDF format)
A copy of Matt’s book, Secrets of the Internet Millionaire Mind,
A video tutorial on how to select “irresistible offers” from affiliate marketplaces.

The PDF version of The Secret Email System
The Checklist for the Secret Email System PDF
Text files containing instructions for joining the Facebook group and other bonuses
Matt was charging less than $6 for all of that value last time I checked. He is demonstrating his many years of experience in internet marketing by creating an irresistible offer that people will want to buy and affiliates will want to promote. As a result, the Secret Email System has sold more copies on Warrior Plus than any other product in recent memory.

Examine everything included in the secret email system
Who is Matt Bacak, and why should I listen to him?
Many consider Matt Bacak to be an internet marketing legend, and email marketing is his primary focus. My first encounter with Matt came in the form of some Facebook ads he ran. Matt explained who he was in the video ad (which featured a little guy dancing in the background) and invited me to visit his blog, which I did. He demonstrated a thorough understanding of online business, so it’s no surprise that he put together the ultimate email marketing package.
headshot of Matt Bacak

Overall, Matt’s ad was one of the strangest Facebook ads I’ve ever seen. It was also one of the most effective and memorable. I didn’t buy whatever Matt was selling that day, but I read his blog and remembered his name and who he was. When I saw Curt Maly running ads for Matt Bacak’s Secret Email System months later, it made a big difference.

When I saw that the price was under $6 and that the bonuses were included, I knew I had to buy the product. I didn’t buy it right away because I was too busy, but it stayed in the back of my mind until I had the opportunity to do so.
If it isn’t obvious, I’ll explain: the reason you should listen to Matt Bacak is that he knows how to get inside people’s heads and stay there, both as a marketer and as a public figure.

Is the Secret Email System Training of Good Quality?
At first glance, the training does not appear to be groundbreaking, but this is because the creator is unconcerned about flashy packaging. You literally get a zip file full of stuff that most people would put on a membership website. I can see how this would irritate some people who are used to flashy ClickFunnels and Kajabi courses.

If that describes you, you’re missing out. Matt’s training isn’t flashy, but it describes a solid system that most businesses can implement in some way. As the name implies, it all revolves around building a list and emailing it on a regular basis. Did I ruin the surprise?
Front end offer and upsells from a secret email system
Bonuses from the Secret Email System (and a Bonus From Me)
I’ve already outlined everything you get in the zip file that serves as the funnel’s front-end offer. Everything else, other than the Secret Email System PDF itself, is considered a bonus, and the total value could easily be in the hundreds of dollars.

That’s why purchasing this product was such a no-brainer for me. I already knew how to write good marketing emails, but I really wanted to look inside Matt’s system.
In addition to everything else, you’ll get lifetime access to Matt’s private Facebook community. He answers questions from people here on a daily basis, and it can be a great place to learn.

The truth is that you get so much value and stuff from purchasing this product that adding another bonus is almost pointless. But I’m a bonus machine, so be prepared.
In 2020, I published my first book on email marketing, How to Build Your First Money Making Email List. You’re already getting a lot of reading material, but if you purchase Matt’s product through my link, I’ll add it to the stack. Most of the books I write sell for $27, so this just adds to the ridiculous valuation of this sub-six-dollar product.
Bonuses Bonuses for Matt Bacak’s Secret Email System
Will This Product Really Help You Make Money Online?

It all depends on whether or not you use the secret email system. According to multiple sources, Matt Bacak is in charge of millions of dollars in sales for both himself and his clients. And the best thing about this guy is that he’s upfront and honest, and he puts his money where his mouth is. What I mean is that he doesn’t hold anything back in the books he writes. That is another reason he has amassed such a large and devoted fan base.

Finally, if your business can profit from email marketing or if you want to use email marketing to become an influential public figure, I believe this ebook can assist you. It helped me improve my understanding of the business side of being an affiliate marketer and is far more valuable than the price tag. This product will be especially useful if you want to get started in affiliate marketing with a small investment.

matt bacak’s business model
Going Beyond My Review – Secret Email System
The book itself goes beyond email marketing, but I don’t want to give too much away. Instead, I’ll go over some of the finer points of lead generation quickly so you can get started building your email list as soon as possible.

Now, I’m guessing that roughly 90% of people reading this review are affiliate marketers or are interested in affiliate marketing. As a result, I’m going to focus on lead generation strategies used by many successful affiliates. If you want to learn more about my favorite affiliate marketing strategies, click on that link to read my in-depth guide.

The Most Effective Methods for Building an Email List
Here’s a rundown of some of the best (and quickest) ways to build an email list. First, you’ll need a way to collect emails, and it must be a high-converting method. My favorite lead generation tools are:
ConvertBox (on-site messaging software/advanced popup builder)
ConversioBot (website chatbot platform)

You may have noticed that the majority of them are chatbots. Chatbots, on the other hand, are one of the best ways to not only capture an email address, but also to obtain additional customer information and even directly sell products.
The following are the most effective ways to drive traffic to these tools:
Facebook ads (particularly effective when paired with ConvertBox)
Google Ads and YouTube Ads (a killer combination with ConvertBox or Conversiobot)

Influencer Marketing
Facebook organic marketing
Search Engine Optimization
Secret Email System sales page Matt Bacak

If you can master even one of those traffic methods and use it to drive people to a high-converting optin or sales funnel, you’ll be well on your way to creating a recurring income.
Whether or not you choose to purchase this product through my link, I wish you the best of luck with your online business. If you do purchase the system, I hope to see you in the Facebook community! Please feel free to contact me via message or email at any time.

And if you do get the ebook through my link, please let me know so I can send you a copy of my book as a bonus!

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About The Secret Email System
Here are some frequently asked product-related questions.
Is the secret email system bonus worth it?

In my opinion, the front end product and the majority of the bonuses are worth the price. I would have paid more just to gain access to Matt’s Facebook group!
What are the benefits of a hidden email system?
The main benefit is that you will learn one of the highest ROI business practices (email marketing) from someone who has built a seven-figure online business.

What do you call email marketing?
Email marketing is an important component of digital marketing for many businesses. Email marketing software is frequently referred to as an autoresponder, but a good email marketing platform will have more functionality.

Is this a legitimate way to make money online?
My secret email system review says it’s a great way to make money online as long as your online business uses marketing emails. It does require a list, but Matt teaches several methods for creating one.

Visit The Officail Website

#secret email system matt bacak #secret email system review #secret email system #secret email system bonus #secret email system bonuses #secret email system reviews

Super Affiliate System Review - Recommended or Not?

Is it worth your money?

John Crestani created the Super Affiliate System, an ideal program to equip people with information and skills to achieve affiliate marketing success. In this system, learners need to participate in a module-based learning setting that will help them get started with affiliate marketing by using a simplified system that consists of a single website, buyers, and regular quality traffic. Go through the super affiliate system review to find out more!

John Crestanis’s extensive knowledge and skills in this industry set the Super Affiliate System far apart from competitor affiliate marketing systems. But is the Super Affiliate Commission System a genuine deal? Is it worth investing in? Today, in this Super Affiliate System review, we will take a look at what the system requires and decide whether it’s a real deal affiliate marketing enthusiasts should invest in.

What is the Super Affiliate System?

This is a complete training course that assists people in becoming successful affiliate marketers. The guide uses videos to lead you through the tools and processes you need to become a super affiliate marketer. The program creator has shared thriving, in-depth strategies to give you a life of freedom if you pay heed to them.

The Super Affiliate System is a training guide to equip you with knowledge and skills in the industry. The system will also allow a list of tools needed for affiliate marketers to fast-track their potential.

Super Affiliate System Review: Pros and Cons

There are a few pros and cons that will enlighten beginner affiliates on whether to consider this system or not. Let’s have a look at them one by one:
Pros:-

The system has extensive and informative, easy to follow modules.

The system is designed in a user-friendly manner, especially for beginners.

Equipped with video tutorials to quickly guide you through the process.

The system gives affiliates niche information to provide them with a competitive advantage.

Equipped with revision sections, weekly questions, and daily assignments to help you grasp all the course ideas.

The system extends clients to a 24/7 support system.

It allows clients to have monthly payment plans that can be suitable for those who can’t bear the price of a single down payment. It offers

clients a lot of bonuses.

Clients are allowed a 60-day Super Affiliate System refund guarantee.

Cons:-

It’s very expensive.

Limited coverage of affiliate networks and niches.

Who created the Super Affiliate System?

John Crestani, a 29-year-old expert in affiliate marketing from Santa Monica, California, is the program’s creator. The veteran left out of college and chose to earn money online since there are low job prospects. He failed several times, striving to make ends meet for quite some time until he successfully built a successful affiliate site dealing with health-related products.
He is currently a seven-figure person making more than $500 per month. His remarkable success in affiliate marketing has made him a featured in Yahoo Finance, Inc., Forbes, Business Insider, and Home Business magazine.

With the enormous success he has seen in affiliate marketing, John has designed an easy-to-follow guide to provide people with the skills to make money as an affiliate marketer. He has described all the strategies and tools he used to lead him to success.

Super Affiliate System Review: Does it Work?

The system accommodates affiliate marketers with in-depth details on how to develop successful affiliate networks. The Super Affiliate System review has a positive impact on different affiliate marketers who have tried it and noticed impressive results. But then, does it work?

The program doesn’t promise you overnight riches; it demands work and application to perform it. After finishing the Super Affiliate System online video training course, attaining success requires you to put John’s strategies into practice. A lot of commitment, hard work, and time are required in order to become a successful affiliate marketer.

How Does It Work?

As its name suggests, the Super Affiliate System is there to make you a super affiliate. John himself is an experienced affiliate, and he has accumulated all the necessary tools to achieve success in training others to become super affiliates. The Super Affiliate Network System members’ area has outlined everything that the veteran affiliate used to make millions as an affiliate.
The guide will help you set up campaigns, traffic resources, essential tools you need as an affiliate, and the veteran affiliate networks to achieve success.

Most amateur affiliates usually get frustrated as they might demand time to start making money. Those who succeed in getting little coins mainly do the following to earn;

They first become Super Affiliate System affiliates.

They promote the Super Affiliate System in multiple ways.

They convert the marketing leads they get into sales.

They receive a commission on every sale they make.

Affiliate marketing involves trading other people’s products and earning commissions from the sales you make. It’s an online business that can be done either with free or paid traffic. With the Super Affiliate System, one of the basic teachings you’ll get in the guide is how to make money by promoting the course itself using paid traffic Facebook ads.

What’s in the Super Affiliate System?

The system is amongst the most comprehensive affiliate marketing courses on the market. The Super Affiliate System comprises more than 50 hours of content that takes about six weeks to complete. The Super Affiliate System also includes several video lectures and tutorials alongside several questions and homework assignments to test its retention.

What Does the Super Affiliate Program Cover?

This program aims to provide affiliates with comprehensive ideas and tactics to become successful affiliate marketers. Therefore, their online video training course is comprehensive. Below are areas of information included within the modules;

Facebook ads

Native ads

Website creation

Google ads

Social ads

Niche selection

YouTube ads

Content creation

Scaling

Tracking and testing

Affiliate networks

Click funnels

Advanced strategies

Besides the extensive information the creator has presented on these topics, he also went an extra mile to review the complete material and also guide marketers through the course.

Who is the Super Affiliate System for?

There are a number of digital products out there that provide solutions to techniques to earn money online. But not all options offer real value for what you want. John gives people a Super Affiliate System free webinar to allow them to learn what the system entails. It will help if you spare time to watch it, as it takes 90 minutes to get through. 
Below is a brief guide to who this system is for:

  1. It is for beginners who can equip themselves with appropriate affiliate marketing skills. People who are still employed and want to have an alternative earning scheme fit here.

  2. The system is also suitable for entrepreneurs who need to learn to earn money online, mainly using paid ads.

  3. The Super Affiliate System also suits anyone who is looking for another alternative stream of income.

Making money online has many advantages at large. You have the flexibility to work from any place, in the comfort of your home, with just an internet connection. Even though John has stated that there are no special skills needed to achieve success in affiliate marketing, there are little basics necessary to keep you on track. 
Having a proper mindset is also vital to attaining success in affiliate marketing. So, affiliates who believe in the system working for them need to be dedicated, focused, and committed. 
They incorporate;

Keep in mind that you have more than $895 in advertisements to get started. Furthermore, set aside a couple of dollars so that you keep on the right track.
There is also additional software you require to get started. It needs an extra of between $80 and $100 a month to get it.

Where to Buy a Super Affiliate System?

If you are interested in joining this big team, you have to get into the Super Affiliate System on the official website, superaffiliatesystem.org, and get it from there. You have to pay their set fees to get their courses and other new materials within their learning scope.

Super Affiliate System Review: Is it Worth the Money?

It depends on an individual whether the system is worth it or not. The system is worth the money for serious people who want to go deep into an affiliate marketing career and have the time to put the Super Affiliate System strategies into practice. Super Affiliate System Review, Is it worth your money?
But people who also look forward to becoming rich overnight need to get off as this is not your way. Hard work and commitment are paramount to getting everything that works best for you.

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