Node-Restful | A library for Quickly Providing a REST API with Express or Connect

node-restful

Create awesome APIs using express.

Register mongoose resources and default RESTful routes are automatically made

var express = require('express'),
    bodyParser = require('body-parser'),
    methodOverride = require('method-override'),
    morgan = require('morgan'),
    restful = require('node-restful'),
    mongoose = restful.mongoose;
var app = express();

app.use(morgan('dev'));
app.use(bodyParser.urlencoded({'extended':'true'}));
app.use(bodyParser.json());
app.use(bodyParser.json({type:'application/vnd.api+json'}));
app.use(methodOverride());

mongoose.connect("mongodb://localhost/resources");

var Resource = app.resource = restful.model('resource', mongoose.Schema({
    title: String,
    year: Number,
  }))
  .methods(['get', 'post', 'put', 'delete']);

Resource.register(app, '/resources');

app.listen(3000);

Registers the following routes:

GET /resources
GET /resources/:id
POST /resources
PUT /resources/:id
DELETE /resources/:id

which do exactly what you think they do!

The best part is that restful.model returns a Mongoose model, so you can interact with it the same way that you're already accustomed to! (i.e. new Resource, Resource.findById, etc.)

Support

This library is currently supported through complaint driven development, so if you see something, have a feature request, open an issue and if it seems to jive with the mission of the library, I'll prioritize it.

Install

npm install node-restful

Usage

There is a good example application under examples/movies.

I will also show some features and use cases for them, how to set up routes, etc.

API

There are a few functions that are available after we register the mongoose schema. The first one we already saw.

.methods([...]) takes a list of methods that should be available on the resource. Future calls to methods will override previously set values To disallow delete operations, simply run

Resource.methods(['get', 'post', 'put'])

We can also run custom routes. We can add custom routes by calling .route(path, handler)

Resource.route('recommend', function(req, res, next) {
  res.send('I have a recommendation for you!');
});

This will set up a route at /resources/recommend, which will be called on all HTTP methods. We can also restrict the HTTP method by adding it to the path:

Resource.route('recommend.get', function(req, res, next) {
   res.send('GET a recommendation');
});
Resource.route('recommend', ['get', 'put', 'delete'], function(req, res, next) { ... });

Or do some combination of HTTP methods.

Now. Lets say we have to run arbitrary code before or after a route. Lets say we need to hash a password before a POST or PUT operation. Well, easy.

Resource.before('post', hash_password)
  .before('put', hash_password);
      
function hash_password(req, res, next) {
  req.body.password = hash(req.body.password);
  next();
}

Boy. That was easy. What about doing stuff after request, but before its sent back to the user? Restful stores the bundle of data to be returned in res.locals (see express docs). res.locals.status_code is the returned status code and res.locals.bundle is the bundle of data. In every before and after call, you are free to modify these are you see fit!

Resource.after('get', function(req, res, next) {
  var tmp = res.locals.bundle.title; // Lets swap the title and year fields because we're funny!
  res.locals.bundle.title = res.locals.bundle.year;
  res.locals.bundle.year = tmp;
  next(); // Don't forget to call next!
});
    
Resource.after('recommend', do_something); // Runs after all HTTP verbs

Now, this is all great. But up until now we've really only talked about defining list routes, those at /resources/route_name. We can also define detail routes. Those look like this

Resource.route('moreinfo', {
    detail: true,
    handler: function(req, res, next) {
        // req.params.id holds the resource's id
        res.send("I'm at /resources/:id/moreinfo!")
    }
});

I don't think this is the prettiest, and I'd be open to suggestions on how to beautify detail route definition...

And that's everything for now!

Built-in Filters

Node-restful accepts many options to manipulate the list results. These options can be added to your request either via the querystring or the POST body. They are passed into the mongoose query to filter your resultset.

Selecting the entity-properties you need

If you only need a few properties instead of the entire model, you can ask the service to only give just the properties you need:

A GET request to /users/?select=name%20email will result in:

[
    {
        "_id": "543adb9c7a0f149e3ac29438",
        "name": "user1",
        "email": "user1@test.com"
    },
    {
        "_id": "543adb9c7a0f149e3ac2943b",
        "name": "user2",
        "email": "user2@test.com"
    }
]

Limiting the number and skipping items

When implementing pagination you might want to use skip and limit filters. Both do exactly what their name says and just skip given amount of items or limit to a set amount of items.

/users/?limit=5 will give you the first 5 items
/users/?skip=5 will skip the first 5 and give you the rest
/users/?limit=5&skip=5 will skip the first 5 and then give you the second 5

Sorting the result

Getting a sorted list is as easy as adding a sort querystring parameter with the property you want to sort on. /users/?sort=name will give you a list sorted on the name property, with an ascending sort order.

Changing the sort order uses the same rules as the string notation of mongoose's sort filter. /users/?sort=-name will return the same list as before with a descending sort order.

Filtering the results

Sometimes you just want to get all people older than 18, or you are want to get all people living in a certain city. Then you would want to use filters for that. You can ask the service for equality, or values greater or less than, give it an array of values it should match to, or even a regex.

FilterQueryExampleDescription
equalequals/users?gender=male or /users?gender__equals=maleboth return all male users
not equalne/users?gender__ne=malereturns all users who are not male (female and x)
greater thangt/users?age__gt=18returns all users older than 18
greater than or equal togte/users?age__gte=18returns all users 18 and older (age should be a number property)
less thanlt/users?age__lt=30returns all users age 29 and younger
less than or equal tolte/users?age__lte=30returns all users age 30 and younger
inin/users?gender__in=female,malereturns all female and male users
ninnin/users?age__nin=18,30returns all users with age other than 18 or 30
Regexregex/users?username__regex=/^baugarten/ireturns all users with a username starting with baugarten

Populating a sub-entity

When you have setup a mongoose Schema with properties referencing other entities, you can ask the service to populate them for you.

A GET request to /users/542edff9fffc55dd29d99346 will result in:

{
    "_id": "542edff9fffc55dd29d99346",
    "name": "the employee",
    "email": "employee@company.com",
    "boss": "542edff9fffc55dd29d99343",
    "__v": 0
}

A GET request to /users/542edff9fffc55dd29d99346?populate=boss will result in:

{
    "_id": "542edff9fffc55dd29d99346",
    "name": "the employee",
    "email": "employee@company.com",
    "boss": {
        "_id": "542edff9fffc55dd29d99343",
        "name": "the boss",
        "email": "boss@company.com",
        "__v": 0
    },
    "__v": 0
}

Contributing

You can view the issue list for what I'm working on, or contact me to help!

Just reach out to me

MIT License

Copyright (c) 2012 by Ben Augarten

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Download Details:
 

Author: baugarten
Download Link: Download The Source Code
Official Website: https://github.com/baugarten/node-restful 
License: MIT License

#nodejs #restful #mongodb 

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Node-Restful | A library for Quickly Providing a REST API with Express or Connect
Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac

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What is REST API? An Overview | Liquid Web

What is REST?

The REST acronym is defined as a “REpresentational State Transfer” and is designed to take advantage of existing HTTP protocols when used for Web APIs. It is very flexible in that it is not tied to resources or methods and has the ability to handle different calls and data formats. Because REST API is not constrained to an XML format like SOAP, it can return multiple other formats depending on what is needed. If a service adheres to this style, it is considered a “RESTful” application. REST allows components to access and manage functions within another application.

REST was initially defined in a dissertation by Roy Fielding’s twenty years ago. He proposed these standards as an alternative to SOAP (The Simple Object Access Protocol is a simple standard for accessing objects and exchanging structured messages within a distributed computing environment). REST (or RESTful) defines the general rules used to regulate the interactions between web apps utilizing the HTTP protocol for CRUD (create, retrieve, update, delete) operations.

What is an API?

An API (or Application Programming Interface) provides a method of interaction between two systems.

What is a RESTful API?

A RESTful API (or application program interface) uses HTTP requests to GET, PUT, POST, and DELETE data following the REST standards. This allows two pieces of software to communicate with each other. In essence, REST API is a set of remote calls using standard methods to return data in a specific format.

The systems that interact in this manner can be very different. Each app may use a unique programming language, operating system, database, etc. So, how do we create a system that can easily communicate and understand other apps?? This is where the Rest API is used as an interaction system.

When using a RESTful API, we should determine in advance what resources we want to expose to the outside world. Typically, the RESTful API service is implemented, keeping the following ideas in mind:

  • Format: There should be no restrictions on the data exchange format
  • Implementation: REST is based entirely on HTTP
  • Service Definition: Because REST is very flexible, API can be modified to ensure the application understands the request/response format.
  • The RESTful API focuses on resources and how efficiently you perform operations with it using HTTP.

The features of the REST API design style state:

  • Each entity must have a unique identifier.
  • Standard methods should be used to read and modify data.
  • It should provide support for different types of resources.
  • The interactions should be stateless.

For REST to fit this model, we must adhere to the following rules:

  • Client-Server Architecture: The interface is separate from the server-side data repository. This affords flexibility and the development of components independently of each other.
  • Detachment: The client connections are not stored on the server between requests.
  • Cacheability: It must be explicitly stated whether the client can store responses.
  • Multi-level: The API should work whether it interacts directly with a server or through an additional layer, like a load balancer.

#tutorials #api #application #application programming interface #crud #http #json #programming #protocols #representational state transfer #rest #rest api #rest api graphql #rest api json #rest api xml #restful #soap #xml #yaml

An API-First Approach For Designing Restful APIs | Hacker Noon

I’ve been working with Restful APIs for some time now and one thing that I love to do is to talk about APIs.

So, today I will show you how to build an API using the API-First approach and Design First with OpenAPI Specification.

First thing first, if you don’t know what’s an API-First approach means, it would be nice you stop reading this and check the blog post that I wrote to the Farfetchs blog where I explain everything that you need to know to start an API using API-First.

Preparing the ground

Before you get your hands dirty, let’s prepare the ground and understand the use case that will be developed.

Tools

If you desire to reproduce the examples that will be shown here, you will need some of those items below.

  • NodeJS
  • OpenAPI Specification
  • Text Editor (I’ll use VSCode)
  • Command Line

Use Case

To keep easy to understand, let’s use the Todo List App, it is a very common concept beyond the software development community.

#api #rest-api #openai #api-first-development #api-design #apis #restful-apis #restful-api

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Our plugin is used JWT authentication for the authorization process.

REST API Unilevel MLM Woo-commerce plugin contains following APIs.
User Login Rest API
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User Join Rest API
Get User info Rest API
Get Affiliate URL Rest API 
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Get Genealogy JSON Rest API
Get Total Earning Rest API
Get Current Balance Rest API
Get Payout Details Rest API
Get Payout List Rest API
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Withdrawal Request Rest API
Get Withdrawal List Rest API

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Opencart REST API extensions - V3.x | Rest API Integration, Affiliate

Opencart REST API extensions - V3.x | Rest API Integration : OpenCart APIs is fully integrated with the OpenCart REST API. This is interact with your OpenCart site by sending and receiving data as JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects. Using the OpenCart REST API you can register the customers and purchasing the products and it provides data access to the content of OpenCart users like which is publicly accessible via the REST API. This APIs also provide the E-commerce Mobile Apps.

Opencart REST API 
OCRESTAPI Module allows the customer purchasing product from the website it just like E-commerce APIs its also available mobile version APIs.

Opencart Rest APIs List 
Customer Registration GET APIs.
Customer Registration POST APIs.
Customer Login GET APIs.
Customer Login POST APIs.
Checkout Confirm GET APIs.
Checkout Confirm POST APIs.


If you want to know Opencart REST API Any information, you can contact us at -
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Top 10 API Security Threats Every API Team Should Know

As more and more data is exposed via APIs either as API-first companies or for the explosion of single page apps/JAMStack, API security can no longer be an afterthought. The hard part about APIs is that it provides direct access to large amounts of data while bypassing browser precautions. Instead of worrying about SQL injection and XSS issues, you should be concerned about the bad actor who was able to paginate through all your customer records and their data.

Typical prevention mechanisms like Captchas and browser fingerprinting won’t work since APIs by design need to handle a very large number of API accesses even by a single customer. So where do you start? The first thing is to put yourself in the shoes of a hacker and then instrument your APIs to detect and block common attacks along with unknown unknowns for zero-day exploits. Some of these are on the OWASP Security API list, but not all.

Insecure pagination and resource limits

Most APIs provide access to resources that are lists of entities such as /users or /widgets. A client such as a browser would typically filter and paginate through this list to limit the number items returned to a client like so:

First Call: GET /items?skip=0&take=10 
Second Call: GET /items?skip=10&take=10

However, if that entity has any PII or other information, then a hacker could scrape that endpoint to get a dump of all entities in your database. This could be most dangerous if those entities accidently exposed PII or other sensitive information, but could also be dangerous in providing competitors or others with adoption and usage stats for your business or provide scammers with a way to get large email lists. See how Venmo data was scraped

A naive protection mechanism would be to check the take count and throw an error if greater than 100 or 1000. The problem with this is two-fold:

  1. For data APIs, legitimate customers may need to fetch and sync a large number of records such as via cron jobs. Artificially small pagination limits can force your API to be very chatty decreasing overall throughput. Max limits are to ensure memory and scalability requirements are met (and prevent certain DDoS attacks), not to guarantee security.
  2. This offers zero protection to a hacker that writes a simple script that sleeps a random delay between repeated accesses.
skip = 0
while True:    response = requests.post('https://api.acmeinc.com/widgets?take=10&skip=' + skip),                      headers={'Authorization': 'Bearer' + ' ' + sys.argv[1]})    print("Fetched 10 items")    sleep(randint(100,1000))    skip += 10

How to secure against pagination attacks

To secure against pagination attacks, you should track how many items of a single resource are accessed within a certain time period for each user or API key rather than just at the request level. By tracking API resource access at the user level, you can block a user or API key once they hit a threshold such as “touched 1,000,000 items in a one hour period”. This is dependent on your API use case and can even be dependent on their subscription with you. Like a Captcha, this can slow down the speed that a hacker can exploit your API, like a Captcha if they have to create a new user account manually to create a new API key.

Insecure API key generation

Most APIs are protected by some sort of API key or JWT (JSON Web Token). This provides a natural way to track and protect your API as API security tools can detect abnormal API behavior and block access to an API key automatically. However, hackers will want to outsmart these mechanisms by generating and using a large pool of API keys from a large number of users just like a web hacker would use a large pool of IP addresses to circumvent DDoS protection.

How to secure against API key pools

The easiest way to secure against these types of attacks is by requiring a human to sign up for your service and generate API keys. Bot traffic can be prevented with things like Captcha and 2-Factor Authentication. Unless there is a legitimate business case, new users who sign up for your service should not have the ability to generate API keys programmatically. Instead, only trusted customers should have the ability to generate API keys programmatically. Go one step further and ensure any anomaly detection for abnormal behavior is done at the user and account level, not just for each API key.

Accidental key exposure

APIs are used in a way that increases the probability credentials are leaked:

  1. APIs are expected to be accessed over indefinite time periods, which increases the probability that a hacker obtains a valid API key that’s not expired. You save that API key in a server environment variable and forget about it. This is a drastic contrast to a user logging into an interactive website where the session expires after a short duration.
  2. The consumer of an API has direct access to the credentials such as when debugging via Postman or CURL. It only takes a single developer to accidently copy/pastes the CURL command containing the API key into a public forum like in GitHub Issues or Stack Overflow.
  3. API keys are usually bearer tokens without requiring any other identifying information. APIs cannot leverage things like one-time use tokens or 2-factor authentication.

If a key is exposed due to user error, one may think you as the API provider has any blame. However, security is all about reducing surface area and risk. Treat your customer data as if it’s your own and help them by adding guards that prevent accidental key exposure.

How to prevent accidental key exposure

The easiest way to prevent key exposure is by leveraging two tokens rather than one. A refresh token is stored as an environment variable and can only be used to generate short lived access tokens. Unlike the refresh token, these short lived tokens can access the resources, but are time limited such as in hours or days.

The customer will store the refresh token with other API keys. Then your SDK will generate access tokens on SDK init or when the last access token expires. If a CURL command gets pasted into a GitHub issue, then a hacker would need to use it within hours reducing the attack vector (unless it was the actual refresh token which is low probability)

Exposure to DDoS attacks

APIs open up entirely new business models where customers can access your API platform programmatically. However, this can make DDoS protection tricky. Most DDoS protection is designed to absorb and reject a large number of requests from bad actors during DDoS attacks but still need to let the good ones through. This requires fingerprinting the HTTP requests to check against what looks like bot traffic. This is much harder for API products as all traffic looks like bot traffic and is not coming from a browser where things like cookies are present.

Stopping DDoS attacks

The magical part about APIs is almost every access requires an API Key. If a request doesn’t have an API key, you can automatically reject it which is lightweight on your servers (Ensure authentication is short circuited very early before later middleware like request JSON parsing). So then how do you handle authenticated requests? The easiest is to leverage rate limit counters for each API key such as to handle X requests per minute and reject those above the threshold with a 429 HTTP response. There are a variety of algorithms to do this such as leaky bucket and fixed window counters.

Incorrect server security

APIs are no different than web servers when it comes to good server hygiene. Data can be leaked due to misconfigured SSL certificate or allowing non-HTTPS traffic. For modern applications, there is very little reason to accept non-HTTPS requests, but a customer could mistakenly issue a non HTTP request from their application or CURL exposing the API key. APIs do not have the protection of a browser so things like HSTS or redirect to HTTPS offer no protection.

How to ensure proper SSL

Test your SSL implementation over at Qualys SSL Test or similar tool. You should also block all non-HTTP requests which can be done within your load balancer. You should also remove any HTTP headers scrub any error messages that leak implementation details. If your API is used only by your own apps or can only be accessed server-side, then review Authoritative guide to Cross-Origin Resource Sharing for REST APIs

Incorrect caching headers

APIs provide access to dynamic data that’s scoped to each API key. Any caching implementation should have the ability to scope to an API key to prevent cross-pollution. Even if you don’t cache anything in your infrastructure, you could expose your customers to security holes. If a customer with a proxy server was using multiple API keys such as one for development and one for production, then they could see cross-pollinated data.

#api management #api security #api best practices #api providers #security analytics #api management policies #api access tokens #api access #api security risks #api access keys