Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1595464239

How to Use Attribute Directives to Avoid Repetition in Angular Templates

Lately, we have started working on v3.0 of ABP Framework and our ultimate goal as the frontend team is to introduce solutions that improve developer experience. In this context, one of the things we are working on is migrating the current grid in Angular to the feature-rich ngx-datatable. Nevertheless, when we tried to implement it in the project, we have realized that the amount of code duplicated in each CRUD page was troublesome.

<ngx-datatable
	  [rows]="data$ | async"
	  [count]="totalCount$ | async"
	  [loadingIndicator]="list.isLoading$ | async"
	  [limit]="list.maxResultCount"
	  [offset]="list.page"
	  (page)="list.page = $event.offset"
	  (sort)="sort($event)"
	  [externalPaging]="true"
	  [externalSorting]="true"
	  [headerHeight]="50"
	  [footerHeight]="50"
	  rowHeight="auto"
	  columnMode="force"
	  class="material"
	>
	  <!-- templates here -->
	</ngx-datatable>

We have a ListService which makes it easier to work with remote pagination and sorting. It is a core feature and we are planning to keep it as UI independent as possible. Some properties of ngx-datatable fit really well, while others, sorting specifically, do not.

Nothing is wrong with ngx-datatable. It actually is an amazing work and probably one of the best grids you can use in Angular. And, to be fair, all of the bindings above are for rendering the content properly, so they are not useless after all. Still, from a developer experience perspective, this is painful. Here is how we see it:

  • CRUD pages in the community version of ABP would require this code to be copied manually over and over. We should avoid this somehow.
  • Although there is a nice code generator for ABP Commercial users, readability and maintenance of the generated code is an important aspect. Less is more.

Naturally, we started looking for a way to reduce the amount of code that will be necessary each time ngx-datatable is consumed.

Attribute Directives to the Rescue

The initial idea was to handle property and event bindings between the grid and the ListService instance, so we started worked on an attribute directive that works as an adapter. Later, we removed all appearance-related properties too. The following is what we came up with in the end:

<ngx-datatable
	  [rows]="data$ | async"
	  [count]="totalCount$ | async"
	  [list]="list"
	  default
	>
	  <!-- templates here -->
	</ngx-datatable>

Sweet, right? Thanks to two attribute directives, we now have much less code to worry about and a better focus on what really matters. The first directive, which has ngx-datatable[list] as selector, provides a single point of communication between the DatatableComponent and the ListService. The second directive, ngx-datatable[default], eliminates the noise created by property bindings just to make ngx-datatable styles match our project. We could have built only one directive, but followed single responsibility principle and ended up creating one for appearance and another for functionality. Our intention is to grant ABP developers the flexibility to remove default appearance when they want to implement their own styles.

#angular2 #angular #typescript #front-end-development #frontend #ui

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How to Use Attribute Directives to Avoid Repetition in Angular Templates
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler

1667425440

Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format

pdf2gerb

Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


pdf2gerb_cfg.pm

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)


##############################################################################################
#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
(
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
#traces:
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .012,
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .025,
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
    .040,
    .050,
    .060,
    .080,
    .100,
    .120,
);
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
{
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects
};

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
{
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINX => 0,
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXY => 0,
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found
};

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
{
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
};
    
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
{
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
};
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
our %SHAPELEN =
(
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,
);

#panelization:
#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#############################################################################################
#junk/experiment:

#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#{
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;
#}

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license

#perl 

Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1598940617

Install Angular - Angular Environment Setup Process

Angular is a TypeScript based framework that works in synchronization with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. To work with angular, domain knowledge of these 3 is required.

  1. Installing Node.js and npm
  2. Installing Angular CLI
  3. Creating workspace
  4. Deploying your First App

In this article, you will get to know about the Angular Environment setup process. After reading this article, you will be able to install, setup, create, and launch your own application in Angular. So let’s start!!!

Angular environment setup

Install Angular in Easy Steps

For Installing Angular on your Machine, there are 2 prerequisites:

  • Node.js
  • npm Package Manager
Node.js

First you need to have Node.js installed as Angular require current, active LTS or maintenance LTS version of Node.js

Download and Install Node.js version suitable for your machine’s operating system.

Npm Package Manager

Angular, Angular CLI and Angular applications are dependent on npm packages. By installing Node.js, you have automatically installed the npm Package manager which will be the base for installing angular in your system. To check the presence of npm client and Angular version check of npm client, run this command:

  1. npm -v

Installing Angular CLI

  • Open Terminal/Command Prompt
  • To install Angular CLI, run the below command:
  1. npm install -g @angular/cli

installing angular CLI

· After executing the command, Angular CLI will get installed within some time. You can check it using the following command

  1. ng --version

Workspace Creation

Now as your Angular CLI is installed, you need to create a workspace to work upon your application. Methods for it are:

  • Using CLI
  • Using Visual Studio Code
1. Using CLI

To create a workspace:

  • Navigate to the desired directory where you want to create your workspace using cd command in the Terminal/Command prompt
  • Then in the directory write this command on your terminal and provide the name of the app which you want to create. In my case I have mentioned DataFlair:
  1. Ng new YourAppName

create angular workspace

  • After running this command, it will prompt you to select from various options about the CSS and other functionalities.

angular CSS options

  • To leave everything to default, simply press the Enter or the Return key.

angular setup

#angular tutorials #angular cli install #angular environment setup #angular version check #download angular #install angular #install angular cli

Nico Jonsson

Nico Jonsson

1605576444

How to Use DOM Manipulation properly in Angular

If you are coming from the background of working with angularjs, it was quite straight forward to access and manipulate the DOM there. You had access to the DOM node through element injected in the link function of the directive.

function link(scope, element, attrs) {
}

Or through angular.element which was an AngularJS’s built in subset of jQuery. But this approach had its drawbacks. It made your code tightly coupled with Browser’s API.

The new Angular (2 onwards) works on multiple platforms: mobile, web workers etc. So, they have introduced a number of APIs to work as an abstraction layer between your code and platform APIs. These APIs come in the form of different reference types likeElementRef, TemplateRef, ViewRef, ComponentRef and ViewContainerRef.

In this blog, we will see some examples of how these reference types can be used to manipulate DOM in angular. But before that let’s look at the ways to access these reference types within a Component/Directive.

DOM Queries

Angular has provided two ways to query/access various reference types within a Component/Directive. These are

  • ViewChild/ViewChildren
  • ContentChild/ContentChildren

ViewChild/ViewChildren

These are decorators which can be used within a Component/Directive as @ViewChild (returns a single reference) or @ViewChildren (returns a list of references in the form of a QueryList). These will assign the values of reference types from template to the component fields they are applied to. The basic usage is as follow:

@ViewChild(selector, {read: ReferenceType}) fieldName;

A selector can be a string representing a template reference variable, or a Component/Directive class, or a TemplateRef or a provider defined in the child component tree.

@ViewChild("myElem") template: ElementRef;

The second parameter is optional and is only required to query some reference types which can’t be inferred easily by Angular like ViewContainerRef.

@ViewChild("myContainer", {read: ViewContainerRef}) container: ViewContainerRef;

ContentChild/ContentChildren

The usage is pretty much similar to that of ViewChild/ViewChildren. The only difference is that it queries within the <ng-content> projected elements of the component while the @ViewChild queries within the template of the component. This will be explained better in the examples of upcoming sections.

DOM access via ElementRef

ElementRef is a very basic abstraction layer on a DOM element in Angular. It’s an angular wrapper around the native element.

You can get hold of ElementRef in a Component or Directive in following ways:

Dependency Injection

Host element of a Component or Directive can be accessed via direct DI in the constructor.

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test',
  template: '<div>I am a test component</div>'
})
export class TestComponent implements OnInit {

  constructor(private element: ElementRef) { }

  ngOnInit() {
    console.log(this.element.nativeElement);
  }

}
/*
* Output: 
*   <app-test>
*     <div>I am a test component</div>
*   </app-test>
* */

Using ViewChild and Template Reference Variables

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test',
  template: `
    <div #child1>First Child</div>
    <div>Second Child</div>
  `
})
export class TestComponent implements OnInit {

  @ViewChild("child1") firstChild: ElementRef;

  constructor() { }

  ngOnInit() {
    console.log(this.firstChild.nativeElement);
  }

}

/*
* Output: <div>First Child</div>
* */

Using ContentChild

Works in a similar manner as that of @ViewChild, but for <ng-content> projected elements.

// Child Component
@Component({
  selector: "component-a",
  template: `<ng-content></ng-content>`
})
export class ComponentA {
  @ContentChild("contentChild") contentChild: ElementRef;
  
  ngOnInit() {
    console.log(this.contentChild.nativeElement);
  }
}
// Parent Component
@Component({
  selector: 'app-test',
  template: `
    <component-a>
      <div #contentChild>Content Child 1</div>
      <div>Content Child 2</div>
    </component-a>
  `
})
export class TestComponent implements OnInit {}
/*
* Output: <div>Content Child 1</div>
* */

It looks pretty straight forward that you can easily access a DOM element via ElementRef and then manipulate the DOM by accessing the nativeElement. Something like this:

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test-component',
  template: `
    <div class="header">I am a header</div>
    <div class="body" #body>
    </div>
    <div class="footer">I am a footer</div>
  `
})
export class TestComponent implements AfterContentInit {
  @ViewChild("body") bodyElem: ElementRef;

  ngAfterContentInit(): void {
    this.bodyElem.nativeElement.innerHTML = `<div>Hi, I am child added by directly calling the native APIs.</div>`;
  }

}

However, the direct usage of ElementRef is discouraged by Angular Team because it directly provides the access to DOM which can make your application vulnerable to XSS attacks. It also creates tight coupling between your application and rendering layers which makes is difficult to run an app on multiple platforms.

Everything is a ‘View’ in Angular

A view is the smallest building block of an angular app’s UI. Every component has its own view. You can consider it as a group of elements which can be created and destroyed together.

A view can be classified into two types:

  • Embedded Views — created from templates
  • Host Views — created from components

Displaying a view in UI can be broken down into two steps:

  1. Creating a view from template or component
  2. Rendering a view into a view container

Embedded Views

Embedded views are created from templates defined using <ng-template> element.

Creating an embedded view

First a template needs to be accessed within a component as TemplateRefusing @ViewChild and template reference variable. Then, an embedded view can be created from a TemplateRef by passing a data-binding context.

const viewRef = this.template.createEmbeddedView({
  name: "View 1"
});

This context is being consumed by the template in<ng-template>.

<ng-template #template let-viewName="name">
  <div>Hi, My name is {{viewName}}. I am a view created from a template</div>
</ng-template>

You can also use the $implicit property in the context if you have only a single property to bind.

const viewRef = this.template.createEmbeddedView({
  $implicit: "View 1"
});

In this case, you can skip assigning values to template variables.

<ng-template #template let-viewName>
  <div>Hi, My name is {{viewName}}. I am a view created from a template</div>
</ng-template>

Rendering an embedded view

Till now, we have created only an instance of ViewRef. This view is still not visible in the UI. In order to see it in the UI, we need a placeholder (a view container) to render it. This placeholder is being provided by ViewContainerRef.

Any element can serve as a view container, however <ng-container> is a better candidate as it is rendered as a comment and doesn’t leave any redundant element in the html DOM.

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test-component',
  template: `
    <div class="header">I am a header</div>
    <div class="body">
      <ng-container #container></ng-container>
    </div>
    <div class="footer">I am a footer</div>

    <ng-template #template let-viewName="name">
      <div>Hi, My name is {{viewName}}. I am a view created from a template</div>
    </ng-template>
  `,
})
export class TestComponent implements AfterContentInit {

  @ViewChild("template") template: TemplateRef;
  @ViewChild("container", {read: ViewContainerRef}) container: ViewContainerRef;

  constructor() { }

  ngAfterContentInit(): void {
    const viewRef = this.template.createEmbeddedView({
      name: "View 1"
    });
    this.container.insert(viewRef);
  }
}

Both <ng-container> and <ng-template> elements will be rendered as comments leaving the html DOM neat and clean.

The above 2 steps process of creating a view and adding it into a container can further be reduced by using the createEmbeddedView method available in the ViewContainerRef itself.

this.container.createEmbeddedView(this.template, {
  name: "View 1"
});

This can be further simplified by moving the whole view creation logic from component class to the template using ngTemplateOutlet and ngTemplateOutletContext.

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test-component',
  template: `
    <div class="header">I am a header</div>
    <div class="body">
      <ng-container [ngTemplateOutlet]="template" [ngTemplateOutletContext]="{name: 'View 1'}"></ng-container>
    </div>
    <div class="footer">I am a footer</div>

    <ng-template #template let-viewName="name">
      <div>Hi, My name is {{viewName}}. I am a view created from a template</div>
    </ng-template>
  `
})
export class TestComponent {}

Host Views

Host Views are quite similar to Embedded View. The only difference is that the Host Views are created from components instead of templates.

Creating a host view

In order to create a host view, first you need to create a ComponentFactory of the component you want to render using ComponentFactoryResolver.

constructor(
  private componentFactoryResolver: ComponentFactoryResolver
) {
  this.someComponentFactory = this.componentFactoryResolver.resolveComponentFactory(SomeComponent);
}

Then, a dynamic instance of the component is created by passing an Injector instance to the factory. Every component should be bound to an instance of Injector. You can use the injector of the parent component for the dynamically created components.

const componentRef = this.someComponentFactory.create(this.injector);
const viewRef = componentRef.hostView;

Rendering a host view

Rendering a host view is almost similar to rendering an embedded view. You can directly insert it into a view container.

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test-component',
  template: `
    <div class="header">I am a header</div>
    <div class="body">
      <ng-container #container></ng-container>
    </div>
    <div class="footer">I am a footer</div>
  `,
})
export class TestComponentComponent implements AfterContentInit {

  @ViewChild("container", {read: ViewContainerRef}) container: ViewContainerRef;

  private someComponentFactory: ComponentFactory<SomeComponent>;

  constructor(
    private componentFactoryResolver: ComponentFactoryResolver,
    private injector: Injector
  ) {
    this.someComponentFactory = this.componentFactoryResolver.resolveComponentFactory(SomeComponent);
  }

  ngAfterContentInit(): void {
    const componentRef = this.someComponentFactory.create(this.injector);
    const viewRef = componentRef.hostView;
    this.container.insert(viewRef);
  }
}

Or by directly calling the createComponent method of ViewContainerRef and passing the component factory instance.

this.container.createComponent(this.someComponentFactory);

Now, similar to embedded view, we can also shift the whole logic of host view creation in template itself using ngComponentOutlet.

@Component({
  selector: 'app-test-component',
  template: `
    <div class="header">I am a header</div>
    <div class="body">
      <ng-container [ngComponentOutlet]="comp"></ng-container>
    </div>
    <div class="footer">I am a footer</div>
  `
})
export class TestComponent {
  comp = SomeComponent;
}

Don’t forget to store the reference of the component class in parent component’s field. The template has access only to the fields of the components.

Summary

Here we come to an end. Let’s conclude what we have understood till now.

  • We can access the DOM in Angular using different reference types likeElementRef, TemplateRef, ViewRef, ComponentRef and ViewContainerRef.
  • These reference types can be queried from templates using @ViewChild and @ContentChild.
  • Browser’s native DOM element can be accessed via ElementRef. However, manipulating this element directly is discouraged because of security reasons.
  • Concept of Views.
  • How to create and render an Embedded View.
  • How to create and render a Component View.

So, that’s it for today about understanding DOM manipulation in Angular.

Originally published by medium

Ayyaz Zafar

1624138795

Angular Material Autocomplete - Multiple Use Cases covered

Learn How to use Angular Material Autocomplete Suggestions Search Input. I covered multiple use cases.

Please watch this video. I hope this video would be helpful for you to understand it and use it in your projects

Please subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCL5nKCmpReJZZMe9_bYR89w

#angular #angular-material #angular-js #autocomplete #angular-material-autocomplete #angular-tutorial

Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1595464239

How to Use Attribute Directives to Avoid Repetition in Angular Templates

Lately, we have started working on v3.0 of ABP Framework and our ultimate goal as the frontend team is to introduce solutions that improve developer experience. In this context, one of the things we are working on is migrating the current grid in Angular to the feature-rich ngx-datatable. Nevertheless, when we tried to implement it in the project, we have realized that the amount of code duplicated in each CRUD page was troublesome.

<ngx-datatable
	  [rows]="data$ | async"
	  [count]="totalCount$ | async"
	  [loadingIndicator]="list.isLoading$ | async"
	  [limit]="list.maxResultCount"
	  [offset]="list.page"
	  (page)="list.page = $event.offset"
	  (sort)="sort($event)"
	  [externalPaging]="true"
	  [externalSorting]="true"
	  [headerHeight]="50"
	  [footerHeight]="50"
	  rowHeight="auto"
	  columnMode="force"
	  class="material"
	>
	  <!-- templates here -->
	</ngx-datatable>

We have a ListService which makes it easier to work with remote pagination and sorting. It is a core feature and we are planning to keep it as UI independent as possible. Some properties of ngx-datatable fit really well, while others, sorting specifically, do not.

Nothing is wrong with ngx-datatable. It actually is an amazing work and probably one of the best grids you can use in Angular. And, to be fair, all of the bindings above are for rendering the content properly, so they are not useless after all. Still, from a developer experience perspective, this is painful. Here is how we see it:

  • CRUD pages in the community version of ABP would require this code to be copied manually over and over. We should avoid this somehow.
  • Although there is a nice code generator for ABP Commercial users, readability and maintenance of the generated code is an important aspect. Less is more.

Naturally, we started looking for a way to reduce the amount of code that will be necessary each time ngx-datatable is consumed.

Attribute Directives to the Rescue

The initial idea was to handle property and event bindings between the grid and the ListService instance, so we started worked on an attribute directive that works as an adapter. Later, we removed all appearance-related properties too. The following is what we came up with in the end:

<ngx-datatable
	  [rows]="data$ | async"
	  [count]="totalCount$ | async"
	  [list]="list"
	  default
	>
	  <!-- templates here -->
	</ngx-datatable>

Sweet, right? Thanks to two attribute directives, we now have much less code to worry about and a better focus on what really matters. The first directive, which has ngx-datatable[list] as selector, provides a single point of communication between the DatatableComponent and the ListService. The second directive, ngx-datatable[default], eliminates the noise created by property bindings just to make ngx-datatable styles match our project. We could have built only one directive, but followed single responsibility principle and ended up creating one for appearance and another for functionality. Our intention is to grant ABP developers the flexibility to remove default appearance when they want to implement their own styles.

#angular2 #angular #typescript #front-end-development #frontend #ui