Ionic Framework 4 - Full Course - iOS / Android App Development - YouTube

Learn how to use Ionic 4 in this full tutorial course for beginners. Ionic Framework is the free, open source mobile UI toolkit for developing high-quality cross-platform apps for native iOS, Android, and the web—all from a single JavaScript codebase.

In this tutorial you will learn how to build a mobile app with Ionic and Angular from scratch. You will learn the basic concepts of Ionic and the Ionic CLI

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Build Android/iOS Mobile Apps with Capacitor, React.js and Ionic 4

Build Android/iOS Mobile Apps with Capacitor, React.js and Ionic 4

In this artilce, you'll learn how to build Android/iOS Mobile Apps using Ionic 4, React.js, and Capacitor

In this tutorial, we will combine the Ionic 4 component in React.js React Hooks then build to the Native Android/iOS using Capacitor. If you are new to React.js and React Hooks you can read the documentation here. We are using Capacitor for the build to Android/iOS because Cordova did not support this combination of Ionic 4 and React.js.The Android/iOS mobile apps that we will build is very simple. Just show the list of data that get from the RESTful API using the Axios library. The RESTful API contains the nested array of JSON, so, using React Hooks will be very tricky. The Axios used by React.js and Vue.js to handle the HTTP request to the RESTful API.

So, you will learn how to create the new Ionic 4 application with the type of React, using Ionic 4 components in the React Hooks, populate nested JSON array in React Hooks, and build the native Android/iOS using Capacitor.

The following libraries, frameworks, tools, and modules are required for this tutorial:

Before we move to the main steps, check the Node.js version for the latest and recommended version. Type this command in the terminal or command line.

node -v 
npm -v

Create a New Ionic 4 React Application

Use the latest Ionic 4 version to create an Ionic 4 application with the type of React. Type this command in the terminal to update the Ionic CLI to the latest version.

sudo npm install -g ionic capacitor

Next, create a new Ionic 4 application with the type of React using this command.

ionic start ionic-react tabs --type=react

If you have a problem in installing the modules using [NPM](https://morioh.com/p/9c65c77b47e0 "NPM") you can use Yarn for that. Go to the newly created Ionic 4 React Application then type this command to install the module.

cd ./ionic-react 
yarn install

Next, run the Ionic 4 React for the first time using this command.

ionic serve

Then the browser will open automatically to display this Ionic 4 React Screen.

Fetch Data from RESTful API and Display as List

As mention above, we will use Axios to fetch data from RESTful API. To install the Axios library/module, simply run this command.

npm install --save axios

Fetch data and display as a list will do in Ionic 4 React Tab 1. For that, open and edit src/pages/Tab1.tsx then replace all imports with these.

import {

  IonList,

  IonItem,

  IonContent,

  IonHeader,

  IonTitle,

  IonToolbar,

  IonLabel,

  IonAvatar,

  IonLoading

  } from '@ionic/react';

import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';

import './Tab1.css';

import axios from 'axios';

One of the problem while using React Hooks is JSON data that fetched from the RESTful API not easily can display to the Ionic 4 React component. It must return as a type which we will create an interface to handle that. Next, add these lines of interface codes before the React.FunctionComponent.

interface ITeam {
  name: string;
  code: string;
}
 
interface IMatches {
  num: number;
  date: string;
  time: string;
  team1: ITeam;
  team2: ITeam;
}
 
interface IRounds {
  name: string;
  matches: Array<IMatches>;
}

As you see, there are three interfaces that related each other because we will fetch the nested arrays from the RESTful API. Next, add the props parameter to the Tab1 React.FunctionComponent.

const Tab1: React.FunctionComponent = (props) => { 
... 
}

Next, declare the constant variables to handle data that fetched from the RESTful API and handle the loading spinner by adding these lines inside the top of Tab1 React.FunctionComponent.

const [data, setData] = useState<IRounds[]>([]); 
const [showLoading, setShowLoading] = useState(true);

To fetch data from the RESTful API using Axios, we have to do that by calling **useEffect** function that comes with React Hooks. Add these lines of **useEffect** function after the constant variable.

useEffect(() => {
  const fetchData = async () => {
    const result = await axios(
      'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openfootball/world-cup.json/master/2018/worldcup.json',
    );
    setData(result.data.rounds);
    setShowLoading(false);
  };

  fetchData();
}, []);

Add this function to go to details page included with parameter from this Tab1 page.

const showDetail = (data: any) => {
  let prop: any = props;
  prop.history.push({
    pathname: '/tab1/details/' + JSON.stringify(data)
  })
}

As you see, the parameter data is all selected data from the list that converted to the string. Next, modify the Ionic 4 React component to display the list of data that contains the nested JSON arrays.

return (
  <>
    <IonHeader>
      <IonToolbar>
        <IonTitle>World Cup 2018</IonTitle>
      </IonToolbar>
    </IonHeader>
    <IonContent>
      <IonLoading
        isOpen={showLoading}
        onDidDismiss={() => setShowLoading(false)}
        message={'Loading...'}
      />
      <IonList>
        {data.map((round, idx) => (
          <IonItem key={idx} onClick={() => { showDetail(round) }}>
            <IonAvatar slot="start">
              <img src="assets/imgs/ball.png" alt="ball" />
            </IonAvatar>
            <IonLabel>
              <h2>{round.name}</h2>
              {round.matches.map((im, idx2) => (
                <p key={idx2}>
                  <span>{im.date} {im.time}: {im.team1.name} vs {im.team2.name}</span>
                </p>
              ))}
            </IonLabel>
          </IonItem>
        ))}
      </IonList>
    </IonContent>
  </>
);

Display the Details of Data

We will use existing Details page that linked to the Tab2. For that, we have to modify the Details page and Tabs to move the Details page linked to the Tab1. Open and edit src/App.tsx then modify the Ionic 4 React IonRouterOutlet to be like this.

<IonRouterOutlet>
  <Route path="/:tab(tab1)" component={Tab1} exact={true} />
  <Route path="/:tab(tab1)/details/:data" component={Details} />
  <Route path="/:tab(tab2)" component={Tab2} exact={true} />
  <Route path="/:tab(tab3)" component={Tab3} />
  <Route exact path="/" render={() => <Redirect to="/tab1" />} />
</IonRouterOutlet>

Now, the Details page is part of the Tab1 with the additional parameter of data that send from the Tab1 list of data. Next, make a little title and icon modification of the Tabs by modifying the Tabs codes.

<IonTabBar slot="bottom">
  <IonTabButton tab="schedule" href="/tab1">
    <IonIcon icon={aperture} />
    <IonLabel>Matchdays</IonLabel>
  </IonTabButton>
  <IonTabButton tab="speakers" href="/tab2">
    <IonIcon icon={apps} />
    <IonLabel>Tab Two</IonLabel>
  </IonTabButton>
  <IonTabButton tab="map" href="/tab3">
    <IonIcon icon={send} />
    <IonLabel>Tab Three</IonLabel>
  </IonTabButton>
</IonTabBar>

Next, open and edit the src/pages/Details.tsx then replace all imports with these.

import React, { useState, useEffect } from 'react';
import {
  IonBackButton,
  IonButtons,
  IonHeader,
  IonToolbar,
  IonTitle,
  IonContent,
  IonGrid,
  IonRow,
  IonCol,
  IonLabel,
  IonList,
  IonItem } from '@ionic/react';

Add the props param to the Details React.FunctionComponent.

const Details: React.FunctionComponent = (props) => { 
... 
}

Declare the variables to convert props, match, and params.data as the any types. This method is different than the previous method in the list of data that convert a JSON array to the interface.

let prop: any = props; 
let match: any = prop.match; 
let data: any = JSON.parse(match.params.data);

Next, we have to extract the data from params to the Ionic 4 React components.

return (
  <>
      <IonHeader>
        <IonToolbar>
          <IonButtons slot="start">
            <IonBackButton defaultHref="/tab1" />
          </IonButtons>
          <IonTitle>{data.name}</IonTitle>
        </IonToolbar>
      </IonHeader>
    <IonContent>
      {data.matches.map((m: any, idx: number) => (
        <IonList key={idx} lines="none">
          <IonItem>
            <IonLabel>
              <IonGrid>
                <IonRow>
                  <IonCol><p>{m.date}</p></IonCol>
                </IonRow>
                <IonRow>
                  <IonCol>{m.stadium.name}, {m.city}</IonCol>
                </IonRow>
                <IonRow>
                  <IonCol><h2>{m.group}</h2></IonCol>
                </IonRow>
                <IonRow>
                  <IonCol size="5"><b>{m.team1.name} ({m.score1})</b></IonCol>
                  <IonCol size="2">vs</IonCol>
                  <IonCol size="5"><b>({m.score2}) {m.team2.name}</b></IonCol>
                </IonRow>
                <IonRow>
                  <IonCol>
                    {m.goals1.map((g1: any, gidx1: number) => (
                      <p key={gidx1}>{g1.name} `{g1.minute}</p>
                    ))}
                  </IonCol>
                  <IonCol>&nbsp;</IonCol>
                  <IonCol>
                    {m.goals2.map((g2: any, gidx2: number) => (
                      <p key={gidx2}>{g2.name} `{g2.minute}</p>
                    ))}
                  </IonCol>
                </IonRow>
              </IonGrid>
            </IonLabel>
          </IonItem>
        </IonList>
      ))}
    </IonContent>
  </>
);

Run and Test The Ionic 4 React App to the Device using Capacitor

Before installing the Capacitor, we have to build the Ionic 4 React application first by type this command.

ionic build

Next, add the Capacitor Android platform using this command.

ionic capacitor add android

Next, type this command to build and open the Android Studio.

ionic capacitor run android

Now, you can run the Ionic 4 React application to the Android Device using Android Studio. And here the Ionic 4 React application looks like in the Android device.

Next, to run in the iOS device type this command first.

ionic capacitor add ios

If you get the error as below.

✖ Updating iOS native dependencies with "pod install" (may take several minutes): 
✖ update ios: 
[error] Error running update: [!] Unknown installation options: disable_input_output_paths.

To fix that error, update the Cocoapods first then remove the ios folder before running again Capacitor platform adds.

sudo gem install cocoapods -n /usr/local/bin 
rm -rf ios/ 
ionic capacitor add ios

Next, open the XCode using this command.

ionic capacitor open ios

After some setting for your Apple Account, you can run the iOS application inside your XCode to your iPhone device. Here's what we have in our iPhone device.

That it's, the Build Android/iOS Mobile Apps using Ionic 4 React.js Capacitor. You can find the full working source code from our GitHub.

How to Build Mobile Apps with Angular, Ionic 4, and Spring Boot

How to Build Mobile Apps with Angular, Ionic 4, and Spring Boot

Run Your Ionic App on Android. Make sure you're using Java 8. Run ionic cordova prepare android. Open platforms/android in Android Studio, upgrade Gradle if prompted. Set launchMode to singleTask in AndroidManifest.xml. Start your app using Android Studio...

In this brief tutorial, I’ll show you to use Ionic for JHipster v4 with Spring Boot and JHipster 6.

To complete this tutorial, you’ll need to have Java 8+, Node.js 10+, and Docker installed. You’ll also need to create an Okta developer account.

Create a Spring Boot + Angular App with JHipster

You can install JHipster via Homebrew (brew install jhipster) or with npm.

npm i -g [email protected]

Once you have JHipster installed, you have two choices. There’s the quick way to generate an app (which I recommend), and there’s the tedious way of picking all your options. I don’t care which one you use, but you must select OAuth 2.0 / OIDCauthentication to complete this tutorial successfully.

Here’s the easy way:

mkdir app && cd app

echo "application { config { baseName oauth2, authenticationType oauth2, \
  buildTool gradle, testFrameworks [protractor] }}" >> app.jh

jhipster import-jdl app.jh

The hard way is you run jhipster and answer a number of questions. There are so many choices when you run this option that you might question your sanity. At last count, I remember reading that JHipster allows 26K+ combinations!

The project generation process will take a couple of minutes to complete if you’re on fast internet and have a bad-ass laptop. When it’s finished, you should see output like the following.

OIDC with Keycloak and Spring Security

JHipster has several authentication options: JWT, OAuth 2.0 / OIDC, and UAA. With JWT (the default), you store the access token on the client (in local storage). This works but isn’t the most secure. UAA involves using your own OAuth 2.0 authorization server (powered by Spring Security), and OAuth 2.0 / OIDC allows you to use Keycloak or Okta.

Spring Security makes Keycloak and Okta integration so incredibly easy it’s silly. Keycloak and Okta are called "identity providers" and if you have a similar solution that is OIDC-compliant, I’m confident it’ll work with Spring Security and JHipster.

Having Keycloak set by default is nice because you can use it without having an internet connection.

To log into the JHipster app you just created, you’ll need to have Keycloak up and running. When you create a JHipster project with OIDC for authentication, it creates a Docker container definition that has the default users and roles. Start Keycloak using the following command.

docker-compose -f src/main/docker/keycloak.yml up -d

Start your application with ./gradlew (or ./mvnw if you chose Maven) and you should be able to log in using "admin/admin" for your credentials.

Open another terminal and prove all the end-to-end tests pass:

npm run e2e

If your environment is setup correctly, you’ll see output like the following:

> [email protected] e2e /Users/mraible/app
> protractor src/test/javascript/protractor.conf.js

[16:02:18] W/configParser - pattern ./e2e/entities/**/*.spec.ts did not match any files.
[16:02:18] I/launcher - Running 1 instances of WebDriver
[16:02:18] I/direct - Using ChromeDriver directly...


  account
    ✓ should fail to login with bad password
    ✓ should login successfully with admin account (1754ms)

  administration
    ✓ should load metrics
    ✓ should load health
    ✓ should load configuration
    ✓ should load audits
    ✓ should load logs


  7 passing (15s)

[16:02:36] I/launcher - 0 instance(s) of WebDriver still running
[16:02:36] I/launcher - chrome #01 passed
Execution time: 19 s.

OIDC with Okta and Spring Security

To switch to Okta, you’ll first need to create an OIDC app. If you don’t have an Okta Developer account, now is the time!

Log in to your Okta Developer account.

  • In the top menu, click on Applications
  • Click on Add Application
  • Select Web and click Next
  • Enter JHipster FTW! for the Name (this value doesn’t matter, so feel free to change it)
  • Change the Login redirect URI to be <a href="http://localhost:8080/login/oauth2/code/oidc" target="_blank">http://localhost:8080/login/oauth2/code/oidc</a>
  • Click Done, then Edit and add <a href="http://localhost:8080" target="_blank">http://localhost:8080</a> as a Logout redirect URI
  • Click Save

These are the steps you’ll need to complete for JHipster. Start your JHipster app using a command like the following:

SPRING_SECURITY_OAUTH2_CLIENT_PROVIDER_OIDC_ISSUER_URI=https://{yourOktaDomain}/oauth2/default \
  SPRING_SECURITY_OAUTH2_CLIENT_REGISTRATION_OIDC_CLIENT_ID=$clientId \
  SPRING_SECURITY_OAUTH2_CLIENT_REGISTRATION_OIDC_CLIENT_SECRET=$clientSecret ./gradlew

Create a Native App for Ionic

You’ll also need to create a Native app for Ionic. The reason for this is because Ionic for JHipster is configured to use PKCE(Proof Key for Code Exchange). The current Spring Security OIDC support in JHipster still requires a client secret. PKCE does not.

Go back to the Okta developer console and follow the steps below:

  • In the top menu, click on Applications
  • Click on Add Application
  • Select Native and click Next
  • Enter Ionic FTW! for the Name
  • Add Login redirect URIs: <a href="http://localhost:8100/implicit/callback" target="_blank">http://localhost:8100/implicit/callback</a> and dev.localhost.ionic:/callback
  • Click Done, then Edit and add Logout redirect URIs: <a href="http://localhost:8100/implicit/logout" target="_blank">http://localhost:8100/implicit/logout</a> and dev.localhost.ionic:/logout
  • Click Save

You’ll need the client ID from your Native app, so keep your browser tab open or copy/paste it somewhere.

Create Groups and Add Them as Claims to the ID Token

In order to login to your JHipster app, you’ll need to adjust your Okta authorization server to include a groups claim.

On Okta, navigate to Users > Groups. Create ROLE_ADMIN and ROLE_USER groups and add your account to them.

Navigate to API > Authorization Servers, click the Authorization Servers tab and edit the default one. Click the Claims tab and Add Claim. Name it "groups" or "roles" and include it in the ID Token. Set the value type to "Groups" and set the filter to be a Regex of .*. Click Create.

Navigate to <a href="http://localhost:8080" target="_blank">http://localhost:8080</a>, click sign in and you’ll be redirected to Okta to log in.

Enter the credentials you used to signup for your account, and you should be redirected back to your JHipster app.

Generate Entities for a Photo Gallery

Let’s enhance this example a bit and create a photo gallery that you can upload pictures to. Kinda like Flickr, but waaayyyy more primitive.

JHipster has a JDL (JHipster Domain Language) feature that allows you to model the data in your app, and generate entities from it. You can use its JDL Studio feature to do this online and save it locally once you’ve finished.

I created a data model for this app that has an Album, Photo, and Tag entities and set up relationships between them. Below is a screenshot of what it looks like in JDL Studio.

Copy the JDL below and save it in a photos.jdl file in the root directory of your project.

entity Album {
  title String required,
  description TextBlob,
  created Instant
}

entity Photo {
  title String required,
  description TextBlob,
  image ImageBlob required,
  taken Instant
}

entity Tag {
  name String required minlength(2)
}

relationship ManyToOne {
  Album{user(login)} to User,
  Photo{album(title)} to Album
}

relationship ManyToMany {
  Photo{tag(name)} to Tag{photo}
}

paginate Album with pagination
paginate Photo, Tag with infinite-scroll

You can generate entities and CRUD code (Java for Spring Boot; TypeScript and HTML for Angular) using the following command:

jhipster import-jdl photos.jdl

When prompted, type a to update existing files.

This process will create Liquibase changelog files (to create your database tables), entities, repositories, Spring MVC controllers, and all the Angular code that’s necessary to create, read, update, and delete your data objects. It’ll even generate Jest unit tests and Protractor end-to-end tests!

When the process completes, restart your app, and confirm that all your entities exist (and work) under the Entities menu.

You might notice that the entity list screen is pre-loaded with data. This is done by faker.js. To turn it off, edit src/main/resources/config/application-dev.yml, search for liquibase and set its contexts value to dev. I made this change in this example’s code and ran ./gradlew clean to clear the database.

liquibase:
  # Add 'faker' if you want the sample data to be loaded automatically
  contexts: dev

Develop a Mobile App with Ionic and Angular

Getting started with Ionic for JHipster is similar to JHipster. You simply have to install the Ionic CLI, Yeoman, the module itself, and run a command to create the app.

npm i -g [email protected] [email protected] yo
yo jhipster-ionic

If you have your app application at ~/app, you should run this command from your home directory (~). Ionic for JHipster will prompt you for the location of your backend application. Use mobile for your app’s name and app for the JHipster app’s location.

Type a when prompted to overwrite mobile/src/app/app.component.ts.

Open mobile/src/app/auth/auth.service.ts in an editor, search for data.clientId and replace it with the client ID from your Native app on Okta.

// try to get the oauth settings from the server
this.requestor.xhr({method: 'GET', url: AUTH_CONFIG_URI}).then(async (data: any) => {
  this.authConfig = {
    identity_client: '{yourClientId}',
    identity_server: data.issuer,
    redirect_url: redirectUri,
    end_session_redirect_url: logoutRedirectUri,
    scopes,
    usePkce: true
  };
  ...
}

When using Keycloak, this change is not necessary.### Add Claims to Access Token

In order to authentication successfully with your Ionic app, you have to do a bit more configuration in Okta. Since the Ionic client will only send an access token to JHipster, you need to 1) add a groups claim to the access token and 2) add a couple more claims so the user’s name will be available in JHipster.

Navigate to API > Authorization Servers, click the Authorization Servers tab and edit the default one. Click the Claims tab and Add Claim. Name it "groups" and include it in the Access Token. Set the value type to "Groups" and set the filter to be a Regex of .*. Click Create.

Add another claim, name it given_name, include it in the access token, use Expression in the value type, and set the value to user.firstName. Optionally, include it in the profile scope. Perform the same actions to create a family_name claim and use expression user.lastName.

When you are finished, your claims should look as follows.

Run the following commands to start your Ionic app.

cd mobile
ionic serve

You’ll see a screen with a sign-in button. Click on it, and you’ll be redirected to Okta to authenticate.

Now that you having log in working, you can use the entity generator to generate Ionic pages for your data model. Run the following commands (in your ~/mobile directory) to generate screens for your entities.

yo jhipster-ionic:entity album

When prompted to generate this entity from an existing one, type Y. Enter ../app as the path to your existing application. When prompted to regenerate entities and overwrite files, type Y. Enter a when asked about conflicting files.

Go back to your browser where your Ionic app is running (or restart it if you stopped it). Click on Entities on the bottom, then Albums. Click the blue + icon in the bottom corner, and add a new album.

Click the ✔️ in the top right corner to save your album. You’ll see a success message and it listed on the next screen.

Refresh your JHipster app’s album list and you’ll see it there too!

Generate code for the other entities using the following commands and the same answers as above.

yo jhipster-ionic:entity photo
yo jhipster-ionic:entity tag

Run Your Ionic App on iOS

To generate an iOS project for your Ionic application, run the following command:

ionic cordova prepare ios

When prompted to install the ios platform, type Y. When the process completes, open your project in Xcode:

open platforms/ios/MyApp.xcworkspace

You’ll need to configure code signing in the General tab, then you should be able to run your app in Simulator.

Log in to your Ionic app, tap Entities and view the list of photos.

Add a photo in the JHipster app at <a href="http://localhost:8080" target="_blank">http://localhost:8080</a>.

To see this new album in your Ionic app, pull down with your mouse to simulate the pull-to-refresh gesture on a phone. Looky there - it works!

There are some gestures you should know about on this screen. Clicking on the row will take you to a view screen where you can see the photo’s details. You can also swipe left to expose edit and delete buttons.

Run Your Ionic App on Android

Deploying your app on Android is very similar to iOS. In short:

  1. Make sure you’re using Java 8
  2. Run ionic cordova prepare android
  3. Open platforms/android in Android Studio, upgrade Gradle if prompted
  4. Set launchMode to singleTask in AndroidManifest.xml
  5. Start your app using Android Studio
  6. While your app is starting, run adb reverse tcp:8080 tcp:8080 so the emulator can talk to JHipster
Learn More About Ionic 4 and JHipster 6

Ionic is a nice way to leverage your web development skills to build mobile apps. You can do most of your development in the browser, and deploy to your device when you’re ready to test it. You can also just deploy your app as a PWA and not both to deploy it to an app store.

JHipster supports PWAs too, but I think Ionic apps look like native apps, which is a nice effect. There’s a lot more I could cover about JHipster and Ionic, but this should be enough to get you started.

You can find the source code for the application developed in this post on GitHub at @oktadeveloper/okta-ionic4-jhipster-example.

Thank you for reading!