A Comparative Analysis of Recurrent Neural Networks

A Comparative Analysis of Recurrent Neural Networks

Recurrent neural networks, also known as RNNs, are a class of neural networks that allow previous outputs to be used as inputs while having hidden states.

Recurrent neural networks, also known as RNNs, are a class of neural networks that allow previous outputs to be used as inputs while having hidden states. RNN models are mostly used in the fields of natural language processing and speech recognition.

The vanishing and exploding gradient phenomena are often encountered in the context of RNNs. The reason why they happen is that it is difficult to capture long term dependencies because of multiplicative gradient that can be exponentially decreasing/increasing with respect to the number of layers.

Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Long Short-Term Memory units (LSTM) deal with the vanishing gradient problem encountered by traditional RNNs, with LSTM being a generalization of GRU.

1D Convolution_ layer_ creates a convolution kernel that is convolved with the layer input over a single spatial (or temporal) dimension to produce a tensor of outputs. It is very effective for deriving features from a fixed-length segment of the overall dataset. A 1D CNN works well for natural language processing (NLP).

DATASET: IMDb Movie Review

TensorFlow Datasets is a collection of datasets ready to use, with TensorFlow or other Python ML frameworks, such as Jax. All datasets are exposed as [_tf.data.Datasets_](https://www.tensorflow.org/api_docs/python/tf/data/Dataset), enabling easy-to-use and high-performance input pipelines.

“imdb_reviews”

This is a dataset for binary sentiment classification containing substantially more data than previous benchmark datasets. It provides a set of 25,000 highly polar movie reviews for training, and 25,000 for testing.

Import Libraries

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
%matplotlib inline

Load the Dataset

import tensorflow as tf
import tensorflow_datasets

imdb, info=tensorflow_datasets.load("imdb_reviews", with_info=True, as_supervised=True)
imdb

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info

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Training and Testing Data

train_data, test_data=imdb['train'], imdb['test']

training_sentences=[]
training_label=[]
testing_sentences=[]
testing_label=[]
for s,l in train_data:
  training_sentences.append(str(s.numpy()))
  training_label.append(l.numpy())
for s,l in test_data:
  testing_sentences.append(str(s.numpy()))
  testing_label.append(l.numpy())
training_label_final=np.array(training_label)
testing_label_final=np.array(testing_label)

Tokenization and Padding

vocab_size=10000
embedding_dim=16
max_length=120
trunc_type='post'
oov_tok='<oov>'
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
tokenizer= Tokenizer(num_words=vocab_size, oov_token=oov_tok)
tokenizer.fit_on_texts(training_sentences)
word_index=tokenizer.word_index
sequences=tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(training_sentences)
padded=pad_sequences(sequences, maxlen=max_length, truncating=trunc_type)
testing_sequences=tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(testing_sentences)
testing_padded=pad_sequences(testing_sequences, maxlen=max_length)
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Embedding

Multi-layer Bidirectional LSTM

imdb convolutional-network long-short-term-memory recurrent-neural-network gated-recurrent-unit neural networks

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A recurrent neural network is an input node that feeds sigmoid activation. The way an RNN does this is to take the output of one neuron and return it as input to another neuron or feed the input of the current time step to the output of earlier time steps. Here you feed the input from the previous times step by step into the input of the current times and vice versa.