Skye  Torp

Skye Torp


How to Practical Uses Of Dependency injection In Angular

In this Angular article, we will learn about Practical Usage of Dependency injection in Angular. Angular has an extensive system that uses *providers” to add and configure dependencies to the application you’re building. To create providers, you use the built-in Dependency Injection (DI) system. This post will cover Angular’s powerful DI system at a high level and demonstrate a few practical use cases and strategies for configuring your dependencies. Let’s get practical!

Dependency Injection decouples the creation of a dependency from using that dependency. This promotes loose coupling within our code, a foundation for creating well-architected software. When we use DI, we follow a design principle called Dependency Inversion. Dependency Inversion is a core tenet of software design principles. It’s so integral that it’s part of the acronym SOLID, used to describe design patterns for good coding practices. Dependency Inversion represents the letter D in the acronym. Following SOLID design practices yields flexible, maintainable software that allows our applications to grow with new features more quickly. And by using DI, we can change the dependent code without changing the consuming code, which is pretty cool! This is nearly impossible with tightly coupled code, where you might have to touch everything to make a small change.

The cool thing is Angular has DI built-in and helps set us up for success. How handy!

When you use the Angular CLI to generate a service, it automatically adds the code to register the service within Angular’s DI system for us. Automation sure is sweet! Services contain business logic code that we want to keep separate from view logic.

When Angular CLI generates a service, it adds an @Injectable() TypeScript decorator, which is the bit of code that registers a service within Angular DI system:

  providedIn: 'root'
export class MyService {

Without doing anything else, we can use our dependency in the application by injecting it into the consuming code as a constructor parameter:

  // standard component metadata here
export class MyComponent {
  constructor(private myService: MyService) { }

In Angular v14, you have a new option to use the inject() function instead of injecting the service into the consumer as a constructor parameter.

Another way to register dependencies is to provide them manually through the providers array. Different Angular building blocks accept providers in the metadata. So you can register a provider like this:

  imports: // stuff here
  declarations: // stuff here
  providers: [
export class AppModule {

There’s something else to note, though. Angular’s DI system allows you to provide a dependency to different places within the application. We saw an example of this in the first code snippet of the @Injectable() TypeScript decorator. Angular CLI automatically generates:

  providedIn: 'root'
export class MyService {

The configuration option providedIn: 'root' specifies where within the application to provide the service. In this case, we’re saying provide to “root”, which means the root of the app, so this service is available across the entirety of the application.

While having this level of configurability sounds unnecessarily complicated, it allows you to fine-tune which dependency to use in your consuming code. You can configure the providers array in other modules and Angular building blocks, such as components and directives. You’ll get the provider you configured closest to the consuming code when you do so.

Now that we have a quick overview of how to provide dependencies, let’s review an integral piece of Angular’s DI system, injection tokens.

Injection tokens allow us to have values and objects as dependencies. This means we can depend on strings, such as “Hello world!”, and objects, which include configuration objects and global variables such as Web APIs. But injection tokens are even more remarkable because we can also create dependencies to constructs that don’t have a runtime definition, such as interfaces! Let’s take a look at an example using an injection token.

Let’s say we want to have a dependency on the bread emoji. You can create the bread emoji, register the token to Angular’s DI system, and set up a default value like this:

const export BREAD_TOKEN = new InjectionToken<string>('bread', {
  providedIn: 'root',
  factory: () => '🍞'

When you want to use the BREAD_TOKEN, you’d use the @Inject decorator:

  // standard component metadata here
export class MyBreadComponent {
  constructor(@Inject(BREAD_TOKEN) private bread: string) { }

Now we can access the 🍞 emoji from within the component! This might not seem like a big deal, but having injection tokens as a means to represent values and interfaces as dependencies is enormous! And it sets us up to leverage the power of Angular’s DI system.

We can use injection tokens along with configuring providers within Angular’s DI system for more power and fine-grained control.

You can configure the providers array to add fine-grained control to your providers. When combined with injection tokens, we can unleash a lot of power. But first, it’s essential to know when it makes sense to do so. Always prefer the most straightforward, default way of registering a dependency and then use fine-grained control as needed.

To configure the providers array, you add an object containing the instructions like this:

  imports: // stuff here
  declarations: // stuff here
  providers: [
    { provide: MyService, howToProvide: OtherDependency }
export class AppModule {

The “how to provide” gives Angular-specific instructions on this dependency configuration. Then you can provide the other new dependency. Angular supports the following options for “how to provide”:

  1. useClass - Replace the current dependency with a new instance of something else
  2. useExisting - Replace the current dependency with an existing dependency
  3. useValue - Replace the current dependency with a new value
  4. useFactory - Use a factory method to determine which dependency to use based on a dynamic value

Next, let’s walk through examples of each configuration option to understand how to use them.

Configure providers with useClass

The useClass option replaces the current dependency with a new instance of another class. This is a great option to use if you’re refactoring code and want to substitute a different dependency in your application quickly. Let’s say you have a language learning app and an Angular service that wraps the authentication calls you delegate to an auth library and an auth provider. We’ll call this service AuthService, and to keep things straightforward, the code looks like this:

  providedIn: 'root'
export class AuthService {
  public login(): void { }
  public logout(): void { }

In a stroke of luck, a large tech company decides to buy your language learning app, but they require you to authenticate using their social login only. You can create a new authentication service that wraps the calls to their auth provider and keeps the same member names; we’ll call it NewAuthService. (Note, you should not name your services with these terrible generic names. Be a bit more descriptive. )

  providedIn: 'root'
export class NewAuthService {
  public login(): void { /* new way to login */ }
  public logout(): void { /* new way to logout */ }

Because both classes have the same public members, you can substitute the original AuthService with the new NewAuthService by configuring the provider:

  imports: // imports here
  declarations: //declarations here
  providers: [
    { provide: AuthService, useClass: NewAuthService }
export class AppModule { }

The cool thing about having the same public members is that there’s no need to change the consuming code. Angular instantiates a new instance of NewAuthService and provides that dependency to consuming code, even if they still refer to AuthService!

It might not make sense to keep the original AuthService around, so eventually you might want to consider transferring all the code references to use the NewAuthService only. However, the useClass configuration option is a fast way for us to quickly substitute one instance of a class for another, which means proof-of-concepts and quick checks can be super-fast!

Configure providers with useExisting

The useExisting option replaces the provider with a different provider already existing within the application. This option is a great use case for API narrowing, that is, decreasing the surface area of an API. Let’s say your language learning application has an API that’s gotten out of hand. We’ll call this API LanguageTranslationService, and it looks like this:

  providedIn: 'root'
export const LanguageTranslationService {
  public french(text: string): string { /* translates to French */ }
  public japanese(text: string): string { /* translates to Japanese */ }
  public elvish(text: string): string { /* translates to Elvish */ }
  public klingon(text: string): string { /* translates to Klingon */ }
  // so on and so forth, but you see the problem here

And you consume the service like this:

  // standard component metadata here
export class ElvishTranslationComponent implements OnInit {
  private elvish!: string;
  constructor(private translationService: LanguageTranslationService) { }
  public ngOnInit(): void {
    this.elvish = this.translationService.elvish(someText);

Oops… The LanguageTranslationService looks a bit unwieldy. Let’s narrow the API surface by creating a new class called FictitiousLanguageTranslationService and move the translation methods for the fictitious languages there. We’ll use an abstract class for this:

export abstract class FictitiousLanguageTranslationService {
  abstract elvish: (text: string) => string;
  abstract klingon: (text: string) => string;

Now we can add FictitiousLanguageTranslationService as a real dependency in the application by adding it to the providers array, but use the existing LanguageTranslationService implementation of the code:

  imports: // imports here
  declarations: // declarations here
  providers: [
    { provide: FictitiousLanguageTranslationService, useExisting: LanguageTranslationService }
export class AppModule { }

Next we’ll update the consumer to use the new dependency:

  // standard component metadata here
export class ElvishTranslationComponent implements OnInit {
  private elvish!: string;
  constructor(private fltService: FictitiousLanguageTranslationService) { }
  public ngOnInit(): void {
    this.elvish = this.translationService.elvish(someText);

Only the methods defined in the FictitiousLanguageTranslationService are available now. Pretty sweet!

Configure with useValue

The useValue option replaces the provider with a value. This option is a great use case for values such as configurations and mocking services in automated tests where you need to control the inputs and outputs. Let’s go back to the BREAD_TOKEN in this example and override it to show a 🥐 (croissant) instead.

We can override the token:

  imports: // imports here
  declarations: // declarations here
  providers: [
    { provide: BREAD_TOKEN, useValue: '🥐' }
export class AppModule { }

Now when we use this in the MyBreadComponent we’ll get a croissant instead of a loaf of bread!

  // standard component metadata here
export class MyBreadComponent {
  constructor(@Inject(BREAD_TOKEN) private bread: string) { }

Configure with useFactory

The useFactory option allows us to use a factory method to create a dependency. This option is a great use case if you have dynamic values to consider when creating the dependency. It’s also how we can use a factory pattern for creating our dependencies.

In this example, let’s say in your Language Learning application, if the user is learning French, we want to show a croissant in the BreadComponent instead of a loaf of bread. The user’s language selection is in the user’s config, so the example code looks like this:

  imports: // imports here
  declarations: // declarations here
  providers: [
      provide: BREAD_TOKEN,
      useFactory: (config: UserConfig) => config.language === 'fr' ? '🥐' : '🍞',
      deps: [UserConfig]
export class AppModule { }

Notice we were able to pass in a dependency to the configuration option. The useClass and useFactory options support passing in dependencies.

Now when we use this in the MyBreadComponent we’ll get a croissant instead of a loaf of bread only if the the user’s configuration has French as their language!

  // standard component metadata here
export class MyBreadComponent {
  constructor(@Inject(BREAD_TOKEN) private bread: string) { 
    // bread is either 🍞 or 🥐 based on the language setting

Dependency Injection when configuring external dependencies

With a better understanding of injection tokens and when to use the different configuration options, next you may want to check out the post, Three Ways to Configure Modules in Your Angular App. This covers configuring modules and Okta configuration demonstrating the different concepts covered within in this post in real-life use cases.

Learn more about Angular Dependency Injection

This article offers a high-level overview of Angular’s DI system. As you can already see, it’s a powerful system with many different configuration options and a lot of complexity. As a result, even though Angular has these configuration options, using the most straightforward approach will make troubleshooting and maintenance easier.

Let us know in the comments below if you want to see more information about Angular’s DI system. Since this was a quick overview, I didn’t cover providing to different injectors, injector resolutions, resolution modifiers, and new capabilities in Angular v14. I am happy to dive into more detail on these topics!

Original article sourced at:


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How to Practical Uses Of Dependency injection In Angular
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr


Install Angular - Angular Environment Setup Process

Angular is a TypeScript based framework that works in synchronization with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. To work with angular, domain knowledge of these 3 is required.

  1. Installing Node.js and npm
  2. Installing Angular CLI
  3. Creating workspace
  4. Deploying your First App

In this article, you will get to know about the Angular Environment setup process. After reading this article, you will be able to install, setup, create, and launch your own application in Angular. So let’s start!!!

Angular environment setup

Install Angular in Easy Steps

For Installing Angular on your Machine, there are 2 prerequisites:

  • Node.js
  • npm Package Manager

First you need to have Node.js installed as Angular require current, active LTS or maintenance LTS version of Node.js

Download and Install Node.js version suitable for your machine’s operating system.

Npm Package Manager

Angular, Angular CLI and Angular applications are dependent on npm packages. By installing Node.js, you have automatically installed the npm Package manager which will be the base for installing angular in your system. To check the presence of npm client and Angular version check of npm client, run this command:

  1. npm -v

Installing Angular CLI

  • Open Terminal/Command Prompt
  • To install Angular CLI, run the below command:
  1. npm install -g @angular/cli

installing angular CLI

· After executing the command, Angular CLI will get installed within some time. You can check it using the following command

  1. ng --version

Workspace Creation

Now as your Angular CLI is installed, you need to create a workspace to work upon your application. Methods for it are:

  • Using CLI
  • Using Visual Studio Code
1. Using CLI

To create a workspace:

  • Navigate to the desired directory where you want to create your workspace using cd command in the Terminal/Command prompt
  • Then in the directory write this command on your terminal and provide the name of the app which you want to create. In my case I have mentioned DataFlair:
  1. Ng new YourAppName

create angular workspace

  • After running this command, it will prompt you to select from various options about the CSS and other functionalities.

angular CSS options

  • To leave everything to default, simply press the Enter or the Return key.

angular setup

#angular tutorials #angular cli install #angular environment setup #angular version check #download angular #install angular #install angular cli

Lilyan  Streich

Lilyan Streich


Angular 9 Dependency Injection Example Tutorial

Dependencies are services or objects that a class needs to perform its function. DI is a coding pattern in which a class asks for dependencies from external sources rather than creating them itself.

In Angular, the DI framework provides declared dependencies to a class when that class is instantiated. This guide explains how DI works in Angular, and how you use it to make your apps flexible, efficient, and robust, as well as testable and maintainable.

Angular Dependency injection is an essential application design pattern. Angular has its dependency injection framework, and you really can’t build an Angular application without it. It’s used so widely that almost everyone just calls it DI.

#angular #angular 9 #angular dependency injection

Ayyaz Zafar


Angular Material Autocomplete - Multiple Use Cases covered

Learn How to use Angular Material Autocomplete Suggestions Search Input. I covered multiple use cases.

Please watch this video. I hope this video would be helpful for you to understand it and use it in your projects

Please subscribe:

#angular #angular-material #angular-js #autocomplete #angular-material-autocomplete #angular-tutorial

Roberta  Ward

Roberta Ward


Basics of Angular: Part-1

What is Angular? What it does? How we implement it in a project? So, here are some basics of angular to let you learn more about angular.

Angular is a Typescript-based open-source front-end web application platform. The Angular Team at Google and a community of individuals and corporations lead it. Angular lets you extend HTML’s syntax to express your apps’ components clearly. The angular resolves challenges while developing a single page and cross-platform applications. So, here the meaning of the single-page applications in angular is that the index.html file serves the app. And, the index.html file links other files to it.

We build angular applications with basic concepts which are NgModules. It provides a compilation context for components. At the beginning of an angular project, the command-line interface provides a built-in component which is the root component. But, NgModule can add a number of additional components. These can be created through a template or loaded from a router. This is what a compilation context about.

What is a Component in Angular?

Components are key features in Angular. It controls a patch of the screen called a view. A couple of components that we create on our own helps to build a whole application. In the end, the root component or the app component holds our entire application. The component has its business logic that it does to support the view inside the class. The class interacts with the view through an API of properties and methods. All the components added by us in the application are not linked to the index.html. But, they link to the app.component.html through the selectors. A component can be a component and not only a typescript class by adding a decorator @Component. Then, for further access, a class can import it. The decorator contains some metadata like selector, template, and style. Here’s an example of how a component decorator looks like:

    selector: 'app-root',
    templateUrl: 'app.component.html',
    styleUrls: ['app.component.scss']

Role of App Module

Modules are the package of functionalities of our app. It gives Angular the information about which features does my app has and what feature it uses. It is an empty Typescript class, but we transform it by adding a decorator @NgModule. So, we have four properties that we set up on the object pass to @NgModule. The four properties are declarations, imports, providers, and bootstrap. All the built-in new components add up to the declarations array in @NgModule.

declarations: [
imports: [
bootstrap: [AppComponent]

What is Data Binding?

Data Binding is the communication between the Typescript code of the component and the template. So, we have different kinds of data binding given below:

  • When there is a requirement to output data from our Typescript code in the HTML template. String interpolation handles this purpose like {{data}} in HTML file. Property Binding is also used for this purpose like [property] = “data”.
  • When we want to trigger any event like clicking a button. Event Binding works while we react to user events like (event) = “expression”.
  • When we can react to user events and output something at the same time. Two-way Binding is used like [(ngModel)] = “data”.

image for understanding data binding

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