Making the web faster

Reverse engineering Google PageSpeed Insights with machine learning

Image for post

An often-quoted statistic by Ericsson ConsumerLab is that waiting for a slow loading web page on a mobile device creates as much stress as watching a horror film. A study by Cloud Flare showed the connection between page speed and website conversion rate and if a webpage takes longer than 4 seconds to load on a mobile device, the conversion rate drops to less than 1%.

Page speed is an important thing, especially now that the mobile web has become more prevalent. Google has been stating since 2009 that their goal is to ‘make the web faster’ and between then-and-now has been releasing a raft of different initiatives to help webmasters build their websites with speed in mind.

One of the biggest ways that Google incentivizes website owners to build with page speed in mind, is by publicly stating that page speed is a ranking factor (i.e. is the faster a webpage is, the greater the chance of it ranking highly on Google). All of Google’s resources for helping website owners live on the Make the Web Faster website.


The Google PageSpeed Insights API

The Google PageSpeed Insights API is a tool that lets you query Google Page Speed data programmatically on a per URL basis and it gets its results from two data sources. The first source is the Chrome User Experience (CruX) data set, which is a real-world data set of web page performance data anonymously sourced from opted-in users of Google Chrome.

The second source of data is the open-source Lighthouse project which is a tool that gives predictions of a web pages’ page speed performance and gives recommendations on how to make improvements. It can be accessed in a variety of ways including via a web page, a command-line tool or via the developer tools in Google Chrome.

The PageSpeed Insights API comes back with over 80 different results in its response as a JSON object comprised of data from both CRuX and Lighthouse. A lot of this data is rooted in how webpage speed metrics are measured.


How webpage speeds are measured

There are some page speed metrics that Google has created to measure page speed performance, and the most important of these can be seen on the image below:

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The Speed Indexis a score that is calculated by taking the difference between the First Contentful Painttime and the Visually Ready Timeand in general the lower the Speed Index the better a website performs for page speed.


Why is this important?

Building an enterprise website can be both complicated and expensive and if the website doesn’t perform well in search it can have a detrimental effect on the bottom line of the business the website is representing. If a website is already live but is performing poorly for page speed, it can be expensive to go back in and make updates to make it perform better.

In a competitive business environment where resources are limited, it would be useful to know where to put a budget against making fixes where you know you will get the most benefit. I decided to investigate this further and the first step was to build a data set of page speed performance against rankings and then use machine learning to try and understand the data better and get insights.

I built a data set of 100,000 websites using the top 1000 most popular search phrases on Google and running these through serpapi.com to get the positions of the top 100 websites for each keyword phrase. I then queried each of those 100,000 websites against the Pagespeed Insights API to pull out the most important metrics for analysis.

It is interesting to look at a chart for position versus average Speed Index for the top 10 positions on Google for the dataset:

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Speed Index versus Position for the top 1000 keywords on Google

Remember that the lower the Speed Index the better and as can be seen that apart from position 1, there is a clear relationship between Speed Index and position (i.e. the faster the page, the higher position). It would be a gross oversimplification to say that Speed Index drives position (as can be seen by position 1), but there is something there to investigate.

#seo #data-science #random-forest-regressor #data-science-workflow #machine-learning #data analysis

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Making the web faster

Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years - Prismetric

The term web design simply encompasses a design process related to the front-end design of website that includes writing mark-up. Creative web design has a considerable impact on your perceived business credibility and quality. It taps onto the broader scopes of web development services.

Web designing is identified as a critical factor for the success of websites and eCommerce. The internet has completely changed the way businesses and brands operate. Web design and web development go hand-in-hand and the need for a professional web design and development company, offering a blend of creative designs and user-centric elements at an affordable rate, is growing at a significant rate.

In this blog, we have focused on the different areas of designing a website that covers all the trends, tools, and techniques coming up with time.

Web design
In 2020 itself, the number of smartphone users across the globe stands at 6.95 billion, with experts suggesting a high rise of 17.75 billion by 2024. On the other hand, the percentage of Gen Z web and internet users worldwide is up to 98%. This is not just a huge market but a ginormous one to boost your business and grow your presence online.

Web Design History
At a huge particle physics laboratory, CERN in Switzerland, the son of computer scientist Barner Lee published the first-ever website on August 6, 1991. He is not only the first web designer but also the creator of HTML (HyperText Markup Language). The worldwide web persisted and after two years, the world’s first search engine was born. This was just the beginning.

Evolution of Web Design over the years
With the release of the Internet web browser and Windows 95 in 1995, most trading companies at that time saw innumerable possibilities of instant worldwide information and public sharing of websites to increase their sales. This led to the prospect of eCommerce and worldwide group communications.

The next few years saw a soaring launch of the now-so-famous websites such as Yahoo, Amazon, eBay, Google, and substantially more. In 2004, by the time Facebook was launched, there were more than 50 million websites online.

Then came the era of Google, the ruler of all search engines introducing us to search engine optimization (SEO) and businesses sought their ways to improve their ranks. The world turned more towards mobile web experiences and responsive mobile-friendly web designs became requisite.

Let’s take a deep look at the evolution of illustrious brands to have a profound understanding of web design.

Here is a retrospection of a few widely acclaimed brands over the years.

Netflix
From a simple idea of renting DVDs online to a multi-billion-dollar business, saying that Netflix has come a long way is an understatement. A company that has sent shockwaves across Hollywood in the form of content delivery. Abundantly, Netflix (NFLX) is responsible for the rise in streaming services across 190 countries and meaningful changes in the entertainment industry.

1997-2000

The idea of Netflix was born when Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph decided to rent DVDs by mail. With 925 titles and a pay-per-rental model, Netflix.com debuts the first DVD rental and sales site with all novel features. It offered unlimited rentals without due dates or monthly rental limitations with a personalized movie recommendation system.

Netflix 1997-2000

2001-2005

Announcing its initial public offering (IPO) under the NASDAQ ticker NFLX, Netflix reached over 1 million subscribers in the United States by introducing a profile feature in their influential website design along with a free trial allowing members to create lists and rate their favorite movies. The user experience was quite engaging with the categorization of content, recommendations based on history, search engine, and a queue of movies to watch.

Netflix 2001-2005 -2003

2006-2010

They then unleashed streaming and partnering with electronic brands such as blu-ray, Xbox, and set-top boxes so that users can watch series and films straight away. Later in 2010, they also launched their sophisticated website on mobile devices with its iconic red and black themed background.

Netflix 2006-2010 -2007

2011-2015

In 2013, an eye-tracking test revealed that the users didn’t focus on the details of the movie or show in the existing interface and were perplexed with the flow of information. Hence, the professional web designers simply shifted the text from the right side to the top of the screen. With Daredevil, an audio description feature was also launched for the visually impaired ones.

Netflix 2011-2015

2016-2020

These years, Netflix came with a plethora of new features for their modern website design such as AutoPay, snippets of trailers, recommendations categorized by genre, percentage based on user experience, upcoming shows, top 10 lists, etc. These web application features yielded better results in visual hierarchy and flow of information across the website.

Netflix 2016-2020

2021

With a sleek logo in their iconic red N, timeless black background with a ‘Watch anywhere, Cancel anytime’ the color, the combination, the statement, and the leading ott platform for top video streaming service Netflix has overgrown into a revolutionary lifestyle of Netflix and Chill.

Netflix 2021

Contunue to read: Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years

#web #web-design #web-design-development #web-design-case-study #web-design-history #web-development

Alex Riley

Alex Riley

1607510226

Best Web App Ideas To Make Money In 2021 - Application Startup Guide

Some Popular Web App Ideas for 2021

Are you looking for best web application business ideas that make money in 2021?

There are lots of simple web app ideas but all those web application business ideas do not make money.

Read More

#trending web app ideas 2021 #trending web application ideas 2021 #web application ideas 2021 #web app ideas 2021 #new web app ideas 2021 #evergreen web app ideas 2021

prashant patil

1598286700

whatsapp web-w app web-webs whatsapp »

Through whatsapp web you can easily run whatsapp on your android pc on your android mobile. Just like whatsapp mobile is for android device, whatsapp web is for windows device. Whatsapp web is quite popular which has quite cool features.

whatsapp web

how to use whatsapp web desktop
Whatsapp web is very easy to use. Simply you have to search web.whatsapp.com in your google chrome and click on first result which is the official website of whatsapp web.

As soon as you click, an interface will open in front of you, on which you will see a barcode. Follow the steps given below to use whatsapp web on your desktop

web.whatsapp.com

open your whatsapp on your mobile
You will see 3dots on the right side top inside whatsapp, you have to click
The 3rd option is whatsapp web, you have to click it
Now you have to capture the barcode you see on your desktop through your phone.
Now you can use whatsapp of your android mobile in your desktop
webs whatsapp

note: You can see whatsapp of anyone’s mobile by pointing to the barcode of your desktop. You can also call it whatsapp hack.

Remember that after using whatsapp web, logout it from your desktop. To logout follow the steps given below.

w app web

open your whatsapp on your mobile
You will see 3dots on the right side top inside whatsapp, you have to click
The 3rd option is whatsapp web, you have to click it
You will see the symbol for logout, you have to logout by clicking it.

read more

#whatsapp #whatappweb #https://web.whatsapp.com/ #wsp web #web.whatsapp web #web whatsapp

Dylan  Iqbal

Dylan Iqbal

1561523460

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet: Plotting in Python

This Matplotlib cheat sheet introduces you to the basics that you need to plot your data with Python and includes code samples.

Data visualization and storytelling with your data are essential skills that every data scientist needs to communicate insights gained from analyses effectively to any audience out there. 

For most beginners, the first package that they use to get in touch with data visualization and storytelling is, naturally, Matplotlib: it is a Python 2D plotting library that enables users to make publication-quality figures. But, what might be even more convincing is the fact that other packages, such as Pandas, intend to build more plotting integration with Matplotlib as time goes on.

However, what might slow down beginners is the fact that this package is pretty extensive. There is so much that you can do with it and it might be hard to still keep a structure when you're learning how to work with Matplotlib.   

DataCamp has created a Matplotlib cheat sheet for those who might already know how to use the package to their advantage to make beautiful plots in Python, but that still want to keep a one-page reference handy. Of course, for those who don't know how to work with Matplotlib, this might be the extra push be convinced and to finally get started with data visualization in Python. 

You'll see that this cheat sheet presents you with the six basic steps that you can go through to make beautiful plots. 

Check out the infographic by clicking on the button below:

Python Matplotlib cheat sheet

With this handy reference, you'll familiarize yourself in no time with the basics of Matplotlib: you'll learn how you can prepare your data, create a new plot, use some basic plotting routines to your advantage, add customizations to your plots, and save, show and close the plots that you make.

What might have looked difficult before will definitely be more clear once you start using this cheat sheet! Use it in combination with the Matplotlib Gallery, the documentation.

Matplotlib 

Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication-quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms.

Prepare the Data 

1D Data 

>>> import numpy as np
>>> x = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)
>>> y = np.cos(x)
>>> z = np.sin(x)

2D Data or Images 

>>> data = 2 * np.random.random((10, 10))
>>> data2 = 3 * np.random.random((10, 10))
>>> Y, X = np.mgrid[-3:3:100j, -3:3:100j]
>>> U = 1 X** 2 + Y
>>> V = 1 + X Y**2
>>> from matplotlib.cbook import get_sample_data
>>> img = np.load(get_sample_data('axes_grid/bivariate_normal.npy'))

Create Plot

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Figure 

>>> fig = plt.figure()
>>> fig2 = plt.figure(figsize=plt.figaspect(2.0))

Axes 

>>> fig.add_axes()
>>> ax1 = fig.add_subplot(221) #row-col-num
>>> ax3 = fig.add_subplot(212)
>>> fig3, axes = plt.subplots(nrows=2,ncols=2)
>>> fig4, axes2 = plt.subplots(ncols=3)

Save Plot 

>>> plt.savefig('foo.png') #Save figures
>>> plt.savefig('foo.png',  transparent=True) #Save transparent figures

Show Plot

>>> plt.show()

Plotting Routines 

1D Data 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> lines = ax.plot(x,y) #Draw points with lines or markers connecting them
>>> ax.scatter(x,y) #Draw unconnected points, scaled or colored
>>> axes[0,0].bar([1,2,3],[3,4,5]) #Plot vertical rectangles (constant width)
>>> axes[1,0].barh([0.5,1,2.5],[0,1,2]) #Plot horiontal rectangles (constant height)
>>> axes[1,1].axhline(0.45) #Draw a horizontal line across axes
>>> axes[0,1].axvline(0.65) #Draw a vertical line across axes
>>> ax.fill(x,y,color='blue') #Draw filled polygons
>>> ax.fill_between(x,y,color='yellow') #Fill between y values and 0

2D Data 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> im = ax.imshow(img, #Colormapped or RGB arrays
      cmap= 'gist_earth', 
      interpolation= 'nearest',
      vmin=-2,
      vmax=2)
>>> axes2[0].pcolor(data2) #Pseudocolor plot of 2D array
>>> axes2[0].pcolormesh(data) #Pseudocolor plot of 2D array
>>> CS = plt.contour(Y,X,U) #Plot contours
>>> axes2[2].contourf(data1) #Plot filled contours
>>> axes2[2]= ax.clabel(CS) #Label a contour plot

Vector Fields 

>>> axes[0,1].arrow(0,0,0.5,0.5) #Add an arrow to the axes
>>> axes[1,1].quiver(y,z) #Plot a 2D field of arrows
>>> axes[0,1].streamplot(X,Y,U,V) #Plot a 2D field of arrows

Data Distributions 

>>> ax1.hist(y) #Plot a histogram
>>> ax3.boxplot(y) #Make a box and whisker plot
>>> ax3.violinplot(z)  #Make a violin plot

Plot Anatomy & Workflow 

Plot Anatomy 

 y-axis      

                           x-axis 

Workflow 

The basic steps to creating plots with matplotlib are:

1 Prepare Data
2 Create Plot
3 Plot
4 Customized Plot
5 Save Plot
6 Show Plot

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> x = [1,2,3,4]  #Step 1
>>> y = [10,20,25,30] 
>>> fig = plt.figure() #Step 2
>>> ax = fig.add_subplot(111) #Step 3
>>> ax.plot(x, y, color= 'lightblue', linewidth=3)  #Step 3, 4
>>> ax.scatter([2,4,6],
          [5,15,25],
          color= 'darkgreen',
          marker= '^' )
>>> ax.set_xlim(1, 6.5)
>>> plt.savefig('foo.png' ) #Step 5
>>> plt.show() #Step 6

Close and Clear 

>>> plt.cla()  #Clear an axis
>>> plt.clf(). #Clear the entire figure
>>> plt.close(). #Close a window

Plotting Customize Plot 

Colors, Color Bars & Color Maps 

>>> plt.plot(x, x, x, x**2, x, x** 3)
>>> ax.plot(x, y, alpha = 0.4)
>>> ax.plot(x, y, c= 'k')
>>> fig.colorbar(im, orientation= 'horizontal')
>>> im = ax.imshow(img,
            cmap= 'seismic' )

Markers 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> ax.scatter(x,y,marker= ".")
>>> ax.plot(x,y,marker= "o")

Linestyles 

>>> plt.plot(x,y,linewidth=4.0)
>>> plt.plot(x,y,ls= 'solid') 
>>> plt.plot(x,y,ls= '--') 
>>> plt.plot(x,y,'--' ,x**2,y**2,'-.' ) 
>>> plt.setp(lines,color= 'r',linewidth=4.0)

Text & Annotations 

>>> ax.text(1,
           -2.1, 
           'Example Graph', 
            style= 'italic' )
>>> ax.annotate("Sine", 
xy=(8, 0),
xycoords= 'data', 
xytext=(10.5, 0),
textcoords= 'data', 
arrowprops=dict(arrowstyle= "->", 
connectionstyle="arc3"),)

Mathtext 

>>> plt.title(r '$sigma_i=15$', fontsize=20)

Limits, Legends and Layouts 

Limits & Autoscaling 

>>> ax.margins(x=0.0,y=0.1) #Add padding to a plot
>>> ax.axis('equal')  #Set the aspect ratio of the plot to 1
>>> ax.set(xlim=[0,10.5],ylim=[-1.5,1.5])  #Set limits for x-and y-axis
>>> ax.set_xlim(0,10.5) #Set limits for x-axis

Legends 

>>> ax.set(title= 'An Example Axes',  #Set a title and x-and y-axis labels
            ylabel= 'Y-Axis', 
            xlabel= 'X-Axis')
>>> ax.legend(loc= 'best')  #No overlapping plot elements

Ticks 

>>> ax.xaxis.set(ticks=range(1,5),  #Manually set x-ticks
             ticklabels=[3,100, 12,"foo" ])
>>> ax.tick_params(axis= 'y', #Make y-ticks longer and go in and out
             direction= 'inout', 
              length=10)

Subplot Spacing 

>>> fig3.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.5,   #Adjust the spacing between subplots
             hspace=0.3,
             left=0.125,
             right=0.9,
             top=0.9,
             bottom=0.1)
>>> fig.tight_layout() #Fit subplot(s) in to the figure area

Axis Spines 

>>> ax1.spines[ 'top'].set_visible(False) #Make the top axis line for a plot invisible
>>> ax1.spines['bottom' ].set_position(( 'outward',10))  #Move the bottom axis line outward

Have this Cheat Sheet at your fingertips

Original article source at https://www.datacamp.com

#matplotlib #cheatsheet #python

Elian  Harber

Elian Harber

1641430440

Bokeh Plotting Backend for Pandas and GeoPandas

Pandas-Bokeh provides a Bokeh plotting backend for Pandas, GeoPandas and Pyspark DataFrames, similar to the already existing Visualization feature of Pandas. Importing the library adds a complementary plotting method plot_bokeh() on DataFrames and Series.

With Pandas-Bokeh, creating stunning, interactive, HTML-based visualization is as easy as calling:

df.plot_bokeh()

Pandas-Bokeh also provides native support as a Pandas Plotting backend for Pandas >= 0.25. When Pandas-Bokeh is installed, switchting the default Pandas plotting backend to Bokeh can be done via:

pd.set_option('plotting.backend', 'pandas_bokeh')

More details about the new Pandas backend can be found below.


Interactive Documentation

Please visit:

https://patrikhlobil.github.io/Pandas-Bokeh/

for an interactive version of the documentation below, where you can play with the dynamic Bokeh plots.


For more information have a look at the Examples below or at notebooks on the Github Repository of this project.

Startimage


 

Installation

You can install Pandas-Bokeh from PyPI via pip

pip install pandas-bokeh

or conda:

conda install -c patrikhlobil pandas-bokeh

With the current release 0.5.5, Pandas-Bokeh officially supports Python 3.6 and newer. For more details, see Release Notes.

How To Use

Classical Use

The Pandas-Bokeh library should be imported after Pandas, GeoPandas and/or Pyspark. After the import, one should define the plotting output, which can be:

pandas_bokeh.output_notebook(): Embeds the Plots in the cell outputs of the notebook. Ideal when working in Jupyter Notebooks.

pandas_bokeh.output_file(filename): Exports the plot to the provided filename as an HTML.

For more details about the plotting outputs, see the reference here or the Bokeh documentation.

Notebook output (see also bokeh.io.output_notebook)

import pandas as pd import pandas_bokeh pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

File output to "Interactive Plot.html" (see also bokeh.io.output_file)

import pandas as pd import pandas_bokeh pandas_bokeh.output_file("Interactive Plot.html")

Pandas-Bokeh as native Pandas plotting backend

For pandas >= 0.25, a plotting backend switch is natively supported. It can be achievied by calling:

import pandas as pd
pd.set_option('plotting.backend', 'pandas_bokeh')

Now, the plotting API is accessible for a Pandas DataFrame via:

df.plot(...)

All additional functionalities of Pandas-Bokeh are then accessible at pd.plotting. So, setting the output to notebook is:

pd.plotting.output_notebook()

or calling the grid layout functionality:

pd.plotting.plot_grid(...)

Note: Backwards compatibility is kept since there will still be the df.plot_bokeh(...) methods for a DataFrame.


Plot types

Supported plottypes are at the moment:

Also, check out the complementary chapter Outputs, Formatting & Layouts about:


Lineplot

Basic Lineplot

This simple lineplot in Pandas-Bokeh already contains various interactive elements:

  • a pannable and zoomable (zoom in plotarea and zoom on axis) plot
  • by clicking on the legend elements, one can hide and show the individual lines
  • a Hovertool for the plotted lines

Consider the following simple example:

import numpy as np

np.random.seed(42)
df = pd.DataFrame({"Google": np.random.randn(1000)+0.2, 
                   "Apple": np.random.randn(1000)+0.17}, 
                   index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = df.cumsum()
df = df + 50
df.plot_bokeh(kind="line")       #equivalent to df.plot_bokeh.line()

ApplevsGoogle_1

Note, that similar to the regular pandas.DataFrame.plot method, there are also additional accessors to directly access the different plotting types like:

  • df.plot_bokeh(kind="line", ...)df.plot_bokeh.line(...)
  • df.plot_bokeh(kind="bar", ...)df.plot_bokeh.bar(...)
  • df.plot_bokeh(kind="hist", ...)df.plot_bokeh.hist(...)
  • ...

Advanced Lineplot

There are various optional parameters to tune the plots, for example:

kind: Which kind of plot should be produced. Currently supported are: "line", "point", "scatter", "bar" and "histogram". In the near future many more will be implemented as horizontal barplot, boxplots, pie-charts, etc.

x: Name of the column to use for the horizontal x-axis. If the x parameter is not specified, the index is used for the x-values of the plot. Alternative, also an array of values can be passed that has the same number of elements as the DataFrame.

y: Name of column or list of names of columns to use for the vertical y-axis.

figsize: Choose width & height of the plot

title: Sets title of the plot

xlim/ylim: Set visibler range of plot for x- and y-axis (also works for datetime x-axis)

xlabel/ylabel: Set x- and y-labels

logx/logy: Set log-scale on x-/y-axis

xticks/yticks: Explicitly set the ticks on the axes

color: Defines a single color for a plot.

colormap: Can be used to specify multiple colors to plot. Can be either a list of colors or the name of a Bokeh color palette

hovertool: If True a Hovertool is active, else if False no Hovertool is drawn.

hovertool_string: If specified, this string will be used for the hovertool (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation and here)

toolbar_location: Specify the position of the toolbar location (None, "above", "below", "left" or "right"). Default: "right"

zooming: Enables/Disables zooming. Default: True

panning: Enables/Disables panning. Default: True

fontsize_label/fontsize_ticks/fontsize_title/fontsize_legend: Set fontsize of labels, ticks, title or legend (int or string of form "15pt")

rangetool Enables a range tool scroller. Default False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.line

Try them out to get a feeling for the effects. Let us consider now:

df.plot_bokeh.line(
    figsize=(800, 450),
    y="Apple",
    title="Apple vs Google",
    xlabel="Date",
    ylabel="Stock price [$]",
    yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
    ylim=(0, 400),
    toolbar_location=None,
    colormap=["red", "blue"],
    hovertool_string=r"""<img
                        src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Apple_logo_black.svg/170px-Apple_logo_black.svg.png' 
                        height="42" alt="@imgs" width="42"
                        style="float: left; margin: 0px 15px 15px 0px;"
                        border="2"></img> Apple 
                        
                        <h4> Stock Price: </h4> @{Apple}""",
    panning=False,
    zooming=False)

ApplevsGoogle_2

Lineplot with data points

For lineplots, as for many other plot-kinds, there are some special keyword arguments that only work for this plotting type. For lineplots, these are:

plot_data_points: Plot also the data points on the lines

plot_data_points_size: Determines the size of the data points

marker: Defines the point type (Default: "circle"). Possible values are: 'circle', 'square', 'triangle', 'asterisk', 'circle_x', 'square_x', 'inverted_triangle', 'x', 'circle_cross', 'square_cross', 'diamond', 'cross'

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.line```

Let us use this information to have another version of the same plot:

df.plot_bokeh.line(
    figsize=(800, 450),
    title="Apple vs Google",
    xlabel="Date",
    ylabel="Stock price [$]",
    yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
    ylim=(100, 200),
    xlim=("2001-01-01", "2001-02-01"),
    colormap=["red", "blue"],
    plot_data_points=True,
    plot_data_points_size=10,
    marker="asterisk")

ApplevsGoogle_3

Lineplot with rangetool

ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(1000), index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(1000, 4), index=ts.index, columns=list('ABCD'))
df = df.cumsum()

df.plot_bokeh(rangetool=True)

rangetool

Pointplot

If you just wish to draw the date points for curves, the pointplot option is the right choice. It also accepts the kwargs of bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter like marker or size:

import numpy as np

x = np.arange(-3, 3, 0.1)
y2 = x**2
y3 = x**3
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "Parabula": y2, "Cube": y3})
df.plot_bokeh.point(
    x="x",
    xticks=range(-3, 4),
    size=5,
    colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
    title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
    marker="x")

Pointplot

Stepplot

With a similar API as the line- & pointplots, one can generate a stepplot. Additional keyword arguments for this plot type are passes to bokeh.plotting.figure.step, e.g. mode (before, after, center), see the following example

import numpy as np

x = np.arange(-3, 3, 1)
y2 = x**2
y3 = x**3
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "Parabula": y2, "Cube": y3})
df.plot_bokeh.step(
    x="x",
    xticks=range(-1, 1),
    colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
    title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
    figsize=(800,300),
    fontsize_title=30,
    fontsize_label=25,
    fontsize_ticks=15,
    fontsize_legend=5,
    )

df.plot_bokeh.step(
    x="x",
    xticks=range(-1, 1),
    colormap=["#009933", "#ff3399"],
    title="Pointplot (Parabula vs. Cube)",
    mode="after",
    figsize=(800,300)
    )

Stepplot

Note that the step-plot API of Bokeh does so far not support a hovertool functionality.

Scatterplot

A basic scatterplot can be created using the kind="scatter" option. For scatterplots, the x and y parameters have to be specified and the following optional keyword argument is allowed:

category: Determines the category column to use for coloring the scatter points

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter

Note, that the pandas.DataFrame.plot_bokeh() method return per default a Bokeh figure, which can be embedded in Dashboard layouts with other figures and Bokeh objects (for more details about (sub)plot layouts and embedding the resulting Bokeh plots as HTML click here).

In the example below, we use the building grid layout support of Pandas-Bokeh to display both the DataFrame (using a Bokeh DataTable) and the resulting scatterplot:

# Load Iris Dataset:
df = pd.read_csv(
    r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/iris/iris.csv"
)
df = df.sample(frac=1)

# Create Bokeh-Table with DataFrame:
from bokeh.models.widgets import DataTable, TableColumn
from bokeh.models import ColumnDataSource

data_table = DataTable(
    columns=[TableColumn(field=Ci, title=Ci) for Ci in df.columns],
    source=ColumnDataSource(df),
    height=300,
)

# Create Scatterplot:
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh.scatter(
    x="petal length (cm)",
    y="sepal width (cm)",
    category="species",
    title="Iris DataSet Visualization",
    show_figure=False,
)

# Combine Table and Scatterplot via grid layout:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[data_table, p_scatter]], plot_width=400, plot_height=350)

 

Scatterplot

A possible optional keyword parameters that can be passed to bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter is size. Below, we use the sepal length of the Iris data as reference for the size:

#Change one value to clearly see the effect of the size keyword
df.loc[13, "sepal length (cm)"] = 15

#Make scatterplot:
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh.scatter(
    x="petal length (cm)",
    y="sepal width (cm)",
    category="species",
    title="Iris DataSet Visualization with Size Keyword",
    size="sepal length (cm)")

Scatterplot2

In this example you can see, that the additional dimension sepal length cannot be used to clearly differentiate between the virginica and versicolor species.

Barplot

The barplot API has no special keyword arguments, but accepts optional kwargs of bokeh.plotting.figure.vbar like alpha. It uses per default the index for the bar categories (however, also columns can be used as x-axis category using the x argument).

data = {
    'fruits':
    ['Apples', 'Pears', 'Nectarines', 'Plums', 'Grapes', 'Strawberries'],
    '2015': [2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4],
    '2016': [5, 3, 3, 2, 4, 6],
    '2017': [3, 2, 4, 4, 5, 3]
}
df = pd.DataFrame(data).set_index("fruits")

p_bar = df.plot_bokeh.bar(
    ylabel="Price per Unit [€]", 
    title="Fruit prices per Year", 
    alpha=0.6)

Barplot

Using the stacked keyword argument you also maked stacked barplots:

p_stacked_bar = df.plot_bokeh.bar(
    ylabel="Price per Unit [€]",
    title="Fruit prices per Year",
    stacked=True,
    alpha=0.6)

Barplot2

Also horizontal versions of the above barplot are supported with the keyword kind="barh" or the accessor plot_bokeh.barh. You can still specify a column of the DataFrame as the bar category via the x argument if you do not wish to use the index.

#Reset index, such that "fruits" is now a column of the DataFrame:
df.reset_index(inplace=True)

#Create horizontal bar (via kind keyword):
p_hbar = df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="barh",
    x="fruits",
    xlabel="Price per Unit [€]",
    title="Fruit prices per Year",
    alpha=0.6,
    legend = "bottom_right",
    show_figure=False)

#Create stacked horizontal bar (via barh accessor):
p_stacked_hbar = df.plot_bokeh.barh(
    x="fruits",
    stacked=True,
    xlabel="Price per Unit [€]",
    title="Fruit prices per Year",
    alpha=0.6,
    legend = "bottom_right",
    show_figure=False)

#Plot all barplot examples in a grid:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_bar, p_stacked_bar],
                        [p_hbar, p_stacked_hbar]], 
                       plot_width=450)

Barplot3

Histogram

For drawing histograms (kind="hist"), Pandas-Bokeh has a lot of customization features. Optional keyword arguments for histogram plots are:

bins: Determines bins to use for the histogram. If bins is an int, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the given range (10, by default). If bins is a sequence, it defines the bin edges, including the rightmost edge, allowing for non-uniform bin widths. If bins is a string, it defines the method used to calculate the optimal bin width, as defined by histogram_bin_edges.

histogram_type: Either "sidebyside", "topontop" or "stacked". Default: "topontop"

stacked: Boolean that overrides the histogram_type as "stacked" if given. Default: False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.quad

Below examples of the different histogram types:

import numpy as np

df_hist = pd.DataFrame({
    'a': np.random.randn(1000) + 1,
    'b': np.random.randn(1000),
    'c': np.random.randn(1000) - 1
    },
    columns=['a', 'b', 'c'])

#Top-on-Top Histogram (Default):
df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
    bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    hovertool=False,
    title="Normal distributions (Top-on-Top)",
    line_color="black")

#Side-by-Side Histogram (multiple bars share bin side-by-side) also accessible via
#kind="hist":
df_hist.plot_bokeh(
    kind="hist",
    bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
    histogram_type="sidebyside",
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    hovertool=False,
    title="Normal distributions (Side-by-Side)",
    line_color="black")

#Stacked histogram:
df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
    bins=np.linspace(-5, 5, 41),
    histogram_type="stacked",
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    hovertool=False,
    title="Normal distributions (Stacked)",
    line_color="black")

Histogram

Further, advanced keyword arguments for histograms are:

  • weights: A column of the DataFrame that is used as weight for the histogramm aggregation (see also numpy.histogram)
  • normed: If True, histogram values are normed to 1 (sum of histogram values=1). It is also possible to pass an integer, e.g. normed=100 would result in a histogram with percentage y-axis (sum of histogram values=100). Default: False
  • cumulative: If True, a cumulative histogram is shown. Default: False
  • show_average: If True, the average of the histogram is also shown. Default: False

Their usage is shown in these examples:

p_hist = df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
    y=["a", "b"],
    bins=np.arange(-4, 6.5, 0.5),
    normed=100,
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    ylabel="Share[%]",
    title="Normal distributions (normed)",
    show_average=True,
    xlim=(-4, 6),
    ylim=(0, 30),
    show_figure=False)

p_hist_cum = df_hist.plot_bokeh.hist(
    y=["a", "b"],
    bins=np.arange(-4, 6.5, 0.5),
    normed=100,
    cumulative=True,
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    ylabel="Share[%]",
    title="Normal distributions (normed & cumulative)",
    show_figure=False)

pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_hist, p_hist_cum]], plot_width=450, plot_height=300)

Histogram2


 

Areaplot

Areaplot (kind="area") can be either drawn on top of each other or stacked. The important parameters are:

stacked: If True, the areaplots are stacked. If False, plots are drawn on top of each other. Default: False

kwargs**: Optional keyword arguments of bokeh.plotting.figure.patch


Let us consider the energy consumption split by source that can be downloaded as DataFrame via:

df_energy = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/energy/energy.csv", 
parse_dates=["Year"])
df_energy.head()
YearOilGasCoalNuclear EnergyHydroelectricityOther Renewable
1970-01-012291.5826.71467.317.7265.85.8
1971-01-012427.7884.81459.224.9276.46.3
1972-01-012613.9933.71475.734.1288.96.8
1973-01-012818.1978.01519.645.9292.57.3
1974-01-012777.31001.91520.959.6321.17.7


Creating the Areaplot can be achieved via:

df_energy.plot_bokeh.area(
    x="Year",
    stacked=True,
    legend="top_left",
    colormap=["brown", "orange", "black", "grey", "blue", "green"],
    title="Worldwide energy consumption split by energy source",
    ylabel="Million tonnes oil equivalent",
    ylim=(0, 16000))

areaplot

Note that the energy consumption of fossile energy is still increasing and renewable energy sources are still small in comparison 😢!!! However, when we norm the plot using the normed keyword, there is a clear trend towards renewable energies in the last decade:

df_energy.plot_bokeh.area(
    x="Year",
    stacked=True,
    normed=100,
    legend="bottom_left",
    colormap=["brown", "orange", "black", "grey", "blue", "green"],
    title="Worldwide energy consumption split by energy source",
    ylabel="Million tonnes oil equivalent")

areaplot2

Pieplot

For Pieplots, let us consider a dataset showing the results of all Bundestags elections in Germany since 2002:

df_pie = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/Bundestagswahl/Bundestagswahl.csv")
df_pie
Partei20022005200920132017
CDU/CSU38.535.233.841.532.9
SPD38.534.223.025.720.5
FDP7.49.814.64.810.7
Grünen8.68.110.78.48.9
Linke/PDS4.08.711.98.69.2
AfD0.00.00.00.012.6
Sonstige3.04.06.011.05.0

We can create a Pieplot of the last election in 2017 by specifying the "Partei" (german for party) column as the x column and the "2017" column as the y column for values:

df_pie.plot_bokeh.pie(
    x="Partei",
    y="2017",
    colormap=["blue", "red", "yellow", "green", "purple", "orange", "grey"],
    title="Results of German Bundestag Election 2017",
    )

pieplot

When you pass several columns to the y parameter (not providing the y-parameter assumes you plot all columns), multiple nested pieplots will be shown in one plot:

df_pie.plot_bokeh.pie(
    x="Partei",
    colormap=["blue", "red", "yellow", "green", "purple", "orange", "grey"],
    title="Results of German Bundestag Elections [2002-2017]",
    line_color="grey")

pieplot2

Mapplot

The mapplot method of Pandas-Bokeh allows for plotting geographic points stored in a Pandas DataFrame on an interactive map. For more advanced Geoplots for line and polygon shapes have a look at the Geoplots examples for the GeoPandas API of Pandas-Bokeh.

For mapplots, only (latitude, longitude) pairs in geographic projection (WGS84) can be plotted on a map. The basic API has the following 2 base parameters:

  • x: name of the longitude column of the DataFrame
  • y: name of the latitude column of the DataFrame

The other optional keyword arguments are discussed in the section about the GeoPandas API, e.g. category for coloring the points.

Below an example of plotting all cities for more than 1 million inhabitants:

df_mapplot = pd.read_csv(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/populated_places.csv")
df_mapplot.head()
namepop_maxlatitudelongitudesize
Mesa108539433.423915-111.7360841.085394
Sharjah110302725.37138355.4064781.103027
Changwon108149935.219102128.5835621.081499
Sheffield129290053.366677-1.4999971.292900
Abbottabad118364734.14950373.1995011.183647
df_mapplot["size"] = df_mapplot["pop_max"] / 1000000
df_mapplot.plot_bokeh.map(
    x="longitude",
    y="latitude",
    hovertool_string="""<h2> @{name} </h2> 
    
                        <h3> Population: @{pop_max} </h3>""",
    tile_provider="STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA",
    size="size", 
    figsize=(900, 600),
    title="World cities with more than 1.000.000 inhabitants")

 

Mapplot

Geoplots

Pandas-Bokeh also allows for interactive plotting of Maps using GeoPandas by providing a geopandas.GeoDataFrame.plot_bokeh() method. It allows to plot the following geodata on a map :

  • Points/MultiPoints
  • Lines/MultiLines
  • Polygons/MultiPolygons

Note: t is not possible to mix up the objects types, i.e. a GeoDataFrame with Points and Lines is for example not allowed.

Les us start with a simple example using the "World Borders Dataset" . Let us first import all neccessary libraries and read the shapefile:

import geopandas as gpd
import pandas as pd
import pandas_bokeh
pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

#Read in GeoJSON from URL:
df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")
df_states.head()
STATE_NAMEREGIONPOPESTIMATE2010POPESTIMATE2011POPESTIMATE2012POPESTIMATE2013POPESTIMATE2014POPESTIMATE2015POPESTIMATE2016POPESTIMATE2017geometry
Hawaii413638171378323139277214080381417710142632014286831427538(POLYGON ((-160.0738033454681 22.0041773479577...
Washington467413866819155689089969634107046931715281872809347405743(POLYGON ((-122.4020153103835 48.2252163723779...
Montana4990507996866100352210119211019931102831710386561050493POLYGON ((-111.4754253002074 44.70216236909688...
Maine113275681327968132810113279751328903132778713302321335907(POLYGON ((-69.77727626137293 44.0741483685119...
North Dakota2674518684830701380722908738658754859755548755393POLYGON ((-98.73043728833767 45.93827137024809...

Plotting the data on a map is as simple as calling:

df_states.plot_bokeh(simplify_shapes=10000)

US_States_1

We also passed the optional parameter simplify_shapes (~meter) to improve plotting performance (for a reference see shapely.object.simplify). The above geolayer thus has an accuracy of about 10km.

Many keyword arguments like xlabel, ylabel, xlim, ylim, title, colormap, hovertool, zooming, panning, ... for costumizing the plot are also available for the geoplotting API and can be uses as in the examples shown above. There are however also many other options especially for plotting geodata:

  • geometry_column: Specify the column that stores the geometry-information (default: "geometry")
  • hovertool_columns: Specify column names, for which values should be shown in hovertool
  • hovertool_string: If specified, this string will be used for the hovertool (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation)
  • colormap_uselog: If set True, the colormapper is using a logscale. Default: False
  • colormap_range: Specify the value range of the colormapper via (min, max) tuple
  • tile_provider: Define build-in tile provider for background maps. Possible values: None, 'CARTODBPOSITRON', 'CARTODBPOSITRON_RETINA', 'STAMEN_TERRAIN', 'STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA', 'STAMEN_TONER', 'STAMEN_TONER_BACKGROUND', 'STAMEN_TONER_LABELS'. Default: CARTODBPOSITRON_RETINA
  • tile_provider_url: An arbitraty tile_provider_url of the form '/{Z}/{X}/{Y}*.png' can be passed to be used as background map.
  • tile_attribution: String (also HTML accepted) for showing attribution for tile source in the lower right corner
  • tile_alpha: Sets the alpha value of the background tile between [0, 1]. Default: 1

One of the most common usage of map plots are choropleth maps, where the color of a the objects is determined by the property of the object itself. There are 3 ways of drawing choropleth maps using Pandas-Bokeh, which are described below.

Categories

This is the simplest way. Just provide the category keyword for the selection of the property column:

  • category: Specifies the column of the GeoDataFrame that should be used to draw a choropleth map
  • show_colorbar: Whether or not to show a colorbar for categorical plots. Default: True

Let us now draw the regions as a choropleth plot using the category keyword (at the moment, only numerical columns are supported for choropleth plots):

df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(900, 600),
    simplify_shapes=5000,
    category="REGION",
    show_colorbar=False,
    colormap=["blue", "yellow", "green", "red"],
    hovertool_columns=["STATE_NAME", "REGION"],
    tile_provider="STAMEN_TERRAIN_RETINA")

When hovering over the states, the state-name and the region are shown as specified in the hovertool_columns argument.

US_States_2

 

Dropdown

By passing a list of column names of the GeoDataFrame as the dropdown keyword argument, a dropdown menu is shown above the map. This dropdown menu can be used to select the choropleth layer by the user. :

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(900, 600),
    simplify_shapes=5000,
    dropdown=["POPESTIMATE2010", "POPESTIMATE2017"],
    colormap="Viridis",
    hovertool_string="""
                        <img
                        src="https://www.states101.com/img/flags/gif/small/@STATE_NAME_SMALL.gif" 
                        height="42" alt="@imgs" width="42"
                        style="float: left; margin: 0px 15px 15px 0px;"
                        border="2"></img>
                
                        <h2>  @STATE_NAME </h2>
                        <h3> 2010: @POPESTIMATE2010 </h3>
                        <h3> 2017: @POPESTIMATE2017 </h3>""",
    tile_provider_url=r"http://c.tile.stamen.com/watercolor/{Z}/{X}/{Y}.jpg",
    tile_attribution='Map tiles by <a href="http://stamen.com">Stamen Design</a>, under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0">CC BY 3.0</a>. Data by <a href="http://openstreetmap.org">OpenStreetMap</a>, under <a href="http://www.openstreetmap.org/copyright">ODbL</a>.'
    )

US_States_3

Using hovertool_string, one can pass a string that can contain arbitrary HTML elements (including divs, images, ...) that is shown when hovering over the geographies (@{column} will be replaced by the value of the column for the element the mouse hovers over, see also Bokeh documentation).

Here, we also used an OSM tile server with watercolor style via tile_provider_url and added the attribution via tile_attribution.

Sliders

Another option for interactive choropleth maps is the slider implementation of Pandas-Bokeh. The possible keyword arguments are here:

  • slider: By passing a list of column names of the GeoDataFrame, a slider can be used to . This dropdown menu can be used to select the choropleth layer by the user.
  • slider_range: Pass a range (or numpy.arange) of numbers object to relate the sliders values with the slider columns. By passing range(0,10), the slider will have values [0, 1, 2, ..., 9], when passing numpy.arange(3,5,0.5), the slider will have values [3, 3.5, 4, 4.5]. Default: range(0, len(slider))
  • slider_name: Specifies the title of the slider. Default is an empty string.

This can be used to display the change in population relative to the year 2010:


#Calculate change of population relative to 2010:
for i in range(8):
    df_states["Delta_Population_201%d"%i] = ((df_states["POPESTIMATE201%d"%i] / df_states["POPESTIMATE2010"]) -1 ) * 100

#Specify slider columns:
slider_columns = ["Delta_Population_201%d"%i for i in range(8)]

#Specify slider-range (Maps "Delta_Population_2010" -> 2010, 
#                           "Delta_Population_2011" -> 2011, ...):
slider_range = range(2010, 2018)

#Make slider plot:
df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(900, 600),
    simplify_shapes=5000,
    slider=slider_columns,
    slider_range=slider_range,
    slider_name="Year", 
    colormap="Inferno",
    hovertool_columns=["STATE_NAME"] + slider_columns,
    title="Change of Population [%]")

US_States_4



 

Plot multiple geolayers

If you wish to display multiple geolayers, you can pass the Bokeh figure of a Pandas-Bokeh plot via the figure keyword to the next plot_bokeh() call:

import geopandas as gpd
import pandas_bokeh
pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

# Read in GeoJSONs from URL:
df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")
df_cities = gpd.read_file(
    r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/ne_10m_populated_places_simple_bigcities.geojson"
)
df_cities["size"] = df_cities.pop_max / 400000

#Plot shapes of US states (pass figure options to this initial plot):
figure = df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(800, 450),
    simplify_shapes=10000,
    show_figure=False,
    xlim=[-170, -80],
    ylim=[10, 70],
    category="REGION",
    colormap="Dark2",
    legend="States",
    show_colorbar=False,
)

#Plot cities as points on top of the US states layer by passing the figure:
df_cities.plot_bokeh(
    figure=figure,         # <== pass figure here!
    category="pop_max",
    colormap="Viridis",
    colormap_uselog=True,
    size="size",
    hovertool_string="""<h1>@name</h1>
                        <h3>Population: @pop_max </h3>""",
    marker="inverted_triangle",
    legend="Cities",
)

Multiple Geolayers


Point & Line plots:

Below, you can see an example that use Pandas-Bokeh to plot point data on a map. The plot shows all cities with a population larger than 1.000.000. For point plots, you can select the marker as keyword argument (since it is passed to bokeh.plotting.figure.scatter). Here an overview of all available marker types:

gdf = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/populated%20places/ne_10m_populated_places_simple_bigcities.geojson")
gdf["size"] = gdf.pop_max / 400000

gdf.plot_bokeh(
    category="pop_max",
    colormap="Viridis",
    colormap_uselog=True,
    size="size",
    hovertool_string="""<h1>@name</h1>
                        <h3>Population: @pop_max </h3>""",
    xlim=[-15, 35],
    ylim=[30,60],
    marker="inverted_triangle");

Pointmap

In a similar way, also GeoDataFrames with (multi)line shapes can be drawn using Pandas-Bokeh.


 


Colorbar formatting:

If you want to display the numerical labels on your colorbar with an alternative to the scientific format, you can pass in a one of the bokeh number string formats or an instance of one of the bokeh.models.formatters to the colorbar_tick_format argument in the geoplot

An example of using the string format argument:

df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

# pass in a string format to colorbar_tick_format to display the ticks as 10m rather than 1e7
df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(900, 600),
    category="POPESTIMATE2017",
    simplify_shapes=5000,    
    colormap="Inferno",
    colormap_uselog=True,
    colorbar_tick_format="0.0a")

colorbar_tick_format with string argument

An example of using the bokeh PrintfTickFormatter:

df_states = gpd.read_file(r"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh/master/docs/Testdata/states/states.geojson")

df_states["STATE_NAME_SMALL"] = df_states["STATE_NAME"].str.lower()

for i in range(8):
    df_states["Delta_Population_201%d"%i] = ((df_states["POPESTIMATE201%d"%i] / df_states["POPESTIMATE2010"]) -1 ) * 100

# pass in a PrintfTickFormatter instance colorbar_tick_format to display the ticks with 2 decimal places  
df_states.plot_bokeh(
    figsize=(900, 600),
    category="Delta_Population_2017",
    simplify_shapes=5000,    
    colormap="Inferno",
    colorbar_tick_format=PrintfTickFormatter(format="%4.2f"))

colorbar_tick_format with bokeh.models.formatter_instance


Outputs, Formatting & Layouts

Output options

The pandas.DataFrame.plot_bokeh API has the following additional keyword arguments:

  • show_figure: If True, the resulting figure is shown (either in the notebook or exported and shown as HTML file, see Basics. If False, None is returned. Default: True
  • return_html: If True, the method call returns an HTML string that contains all Bokeh CSS&JS resources and the figure embedded in a div. This HTML representation of the plot can be used for embedding the plot in an HTML document. Default: False

If you have a Bokeh figure or layout, you can also use the pandas_bokeh.embedded_html function to generate an embeddable HTML representation of the plot. This can be included into any valid HTML (note that this is not possible directly with the HTML generated by the pandas_bokeh.output_file output option, because it includes an HTML header). Let us consider the following simple example:

#Import Pandas and Pandas-Bokeh (if you do not specify an output option, the standard is
#output_file):
import pandas as pd
import pandas_bokeh

#Create DataFrame to Plot:
import numpy as np
x = np.arange(-10, 10, 0.1)
sin = np.sin(x)
cos = np.cos(x)
tan = np.tan(x)
df = pd.DataFrame({"x": x, "sin(x)": sin, "cos(x)": cos, "tan(x)": tan})

#Make Bokeh plot from DataFrame using Pandas-Bokeh. Do not show the plot, but export
#it to an embeddable HTML string:
html_plot = df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="line",
    x="x",
    y=["sin(x)", "cos(x)", "tan(x)"],
    xticks=range(-20, 20),
    title="Trigonometric functions",
    show_figure=False,
    return_html=True,
    ylim=(-1.5, 1.5))

#Write some HTML and embed the HTML plot below it. For production use, please use
#Templates and the awesome Jinja library.
html = r"""
<script type="text/x-mathjax-config">
  MathJax.Hub.Config({tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']]}});
</script>
<script type="text/javascript"
  src="http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js?config=TeX-AMS-MML_HTMLorMML">
</script>

<h1> Trigonometric functions </h1>

<p> The basic trigonometric functions are:</p>

<p>$ sin(x) $</p>
<p>$ cos(x) $</p>
<p>$ tan(x) = \frac{sin(x)}{cos(x)}$</p>

<p>Below is a plot that shows them</p>

""" + html_plot

#Export the HTML string to an external HTML file and show it:
with open("test.html" , "w") as f:
    f.write(html)
    
import webbrowser
webbrowser.open("test.html")

This code will open up a webbrowser and show the following page. As you can see, the interactive Bokeh plot is embedded nicely into the HTML layout. The return_html option is ideal for the use in a templating engine like Jinja.

Embedded HTML

Auto Scaling Plots

For single plots that have a number of x axis values or for larger monitors, you can auto scale the figure to the width of the entire jupyter cell by setting the sizing_mode parameter.

df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.rand(10, 4), columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']) df.plot_bokeh(kind="bar", figsize=(500, 200), sizing_mode="scale_width")

Scaled Plot

The figsize parameter can be used to change the height and width as well as act as a scaling multiplier against the axis that is not being scaled.

 

Number formats

To change the formats of numbers in the hovertool, use the number_format keyword argument. For a documentation about the format to pass, have a look at the Bokeh documentation.Let us consider some examples for the number 3.141592653589793:

FormatOutput
03
0.0003.141
0.00 $3.14 $

This number format will be applied to all numeric columns of the hovertool. If you want to make a very custom or complicated hovertool, you should probably use the hovertool_string keyword argument, see e.g. this example. Below, we use the number_format parameter to specify the "Stock Price" format to 2 decimal digits and an additional $ sign.

import numpy as np

#Lineplot:
np.random.seed(42)
df = pd.DataFrame({
    "Google": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.2,
    "Apple": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.17
},
                  index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = df.cumsum()
df = df + 50
df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="line",
    title="Apple vs Google",
    xlabel="Date",
    ylabel="Stock price [$]",
    yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
    ylim=(0, 400),
    colormap=["red", "blue"],
    number_format="1.00 $")

Number format

Suppress scientific notation for axes

If you want to suppress the scientific notation for axes, you can use the disable_scientific_axes parameter, which accepts one of "x", "y", "xy":

df = pd.DataFrame({"Animal": ["Mouse", "Rabbit", "Dog", "Tiger", "Elefant", "Wale"],
                   "Weight [g]": [19, 3000, 40000, 200000, 6000000, 50000000]})
p_scientific = df.plot_bokeh(x="Animal", y="Weight [g]", show_figure=False)
p_non_scientific = df.plot_bokeh(x="Animal", y="Weight [g]", disable_scientific_axes="y", show_figure=False,)
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_scientific, p_non_scientific]], plot_width = 450)

Number format

 

Dashboard Layouts

As shown in the Scatterplot Example, combining plots with plots or other HTML elements is straighforward in Pandas-Bokeh due to the layout capabilities of Bokeh. The easiest way to generate a dashboard layout is using the pandas_bokeh.plot_grid method (which is an extension of bokeh.layouts.gridplot):

import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import pandas_bokeh
pandas_bokeh.output_notebook()

#Barplot:
data = {
    'fruits':
    ['Apples', 'Pears', 'Nectarines', 'Plums', 'Grapes', 'Strawberries'],
    '2015': [2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4],
    '2016': [5, 3, 3, 2, 4, 6],
    '2017': [3, 2, 4, 4, 5, 3]
}
df = pd.DataFrame(data).set_index("fruits")
p_bar = df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="bar",
    ylabel="Price per Unit [€]",
    title="Fruit prices per Year",
    show_figure=False)

#Lineplot:
np.random.seed(42)
df = pd.DataFrame({
    "Google": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.2,
    "Apple": np.random.randn(1000) + 0.17
},
                  index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))
df = df.cumsum()
df = df + 50
p_line = df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="line",
    title="Apple vs Google",
    xlabel="Date",
    ylabel="Stock price [$]",
    yticks=[0, 100, 200, 300, 400],
    ylim=(0, 400),
    colormap=["red", "blue"],
    show_figure=False)

#Scatterplot:
from sklearn.datasets import load_iris
iris = load_iris()
df = pd.DataFrame(iris["data"])
df.columns = iris["feature_names"]
df["species"] = iris["target"]
df["species"] = df["species"].map(dict(zip(range(3), iris["target_names"])))
p_scatter = df.plot_bokeh(
    kind="scatter",
    x="petal length (cm)",
    y="sepal width (cm)",
    category="species",
    title="Iris DataSet Visualization",
    show_figure=False)

#Histogram:
df_hist = pd.DataFrame({
    'a': np.random.randn(1000) + 1,
    'b': np.random.randn(1000),
    'c': np.random.randn(1000) - 1
},
                       columns=['a', 'b', 'c'])

p_hist = df_hist.plot_bokeh(
    kind="hist",
    bins=np.arange(-6, 6.5, 0.5),
    vertical_xlabel=True,
    normed=100,
    hovertool=False,
    title="Normal distributions",
    show_figure=False)

#Make Dashboard with Grid Layout:
pandas_bokeh.plot_grid([[p_line, p_bar], 
                        [p_scatter, p_hist]], plot_width=450)

Dashboard Layout

Using a combination of row and column elements (see also Bokeh Layouts) allow for a very easy general arrangement of elements. An alternative layout to the one above is:

p_line.plot_width = 900
p_hist.plot_width = 900

layout = pandas_bokeh.column(p_line,
                pandas_bokeh.row(p_scatter, p_bar),
                p_hist)

pandas_bokeh.show(layout)

Alternative Dashboard Layout


 



 

 

Release Notes

Release Notes can be found here.

Contributing to Pandas-Bokeh

If you wish to contribute to the development of Pandas-Bokeh you can follow the instructions on the CONTRIBUTING.md.

 

Author: PatrikHlobil
Source Code: https://github.com/PatrikHlobil/Pandas-Bokeh 
License: MIT License

#machine-learning  #datavisualizations #python