Selina  O'Hara

Selina O'Hara

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Spring Boot Project Architecture - CRUD Database Project

Hi there everyone, Ramesh here welcome to the Spring boot tutorial for the beginners series. In this video, you will learn Spring Boot Project Architecture.

GitHub link: https://github.com/RameshMF/spring-boot-tutorial-course

#spring-boot #java

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Spring Boot Project Architecture - CRUD Database Project

Enhance Amazon Aurora Read/Write Capability with ShardingSphere-JDBC

1. Introduction

Amazon Aurora is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed by AWS(Amazon Web Services). Aurora gives you the performance and availability of commercial-grade databases with full MySQL and PostgreSQL compatibility. In terms of high performance, Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL have shown an increase in throughput of up to 5X over stock MySQL and 3X over stock PostgreSQL respectively on similar hardware. In terms of scalability, Aurora achieves enhancements and innovations in storage and computing, horizontal and vertical functions.

Aurora supports up to 128TB of storage capacity and supports dynamic scaling of storage layer in units of 10GB. In terms of computing, Aurora supports scalable configurations for multiple read replicas. Each region can have an additional 15 Aurora replicas. In addition, Aurora provides multi-primary architecture to support four read/write nodes. Its Serverless architecture allows vertical scaling and reduces typical latency to under a second, while the Global Database enables a single database cluster to span multiple AWS Regions in low latency.

Aurora already provides great scalability with the growth of user data volume. Can it handle more data and support more concurrent access? You may consider using sharding to support the configuration of multiple underlying Aurora clusters. To this end, a series of blogs, including this one, provides you with a reference in choosing between Proxy and JDBC for sharding.

1.1 Why sharding is needed

AWS Aurora offers a single relational database. Primary-secondary, multi-primary, and global database, and other forms of hosting architecture can satisfy various architectural scenarios above. However, Aurora doesn’t provide direct support for sharding scenarios, and sharding has a variety of forms, such as vertical and horizontal forms. If we want to further increase data capacity, some problems have to be solved, such as cross-node database Join, associated query, distributed transactions, SQL sorting, page turning, function calculation, database global primary key, capacity planning, and secondary capacity expansion after sharding.

1.2 Sharding methods

It is generally accepted that when the capacity of a MySQL table is less than 10 million, the time spent on queries is optimal because at this time the height of its BTREE index is between 3 and 5. Data sharding can reduce the amount of data in a single table and distribute the read and write loads to different data nodes at the same time. Data sharding can be divided into vertical sharding and horizontal sharding.

1. Advantages of vertical sharding

  • Address the coupling of business system and make clearer.
  • Implement hierarchical management, maintenance, monitoring, and expansion to data of different businesses, like micro-service governance.
  • In high concurrency scenarios, vertical sharding removes the bottleneck of IO, database connections, and hardware resources on a single machine to some extent.

2. Disadvantages of vertical sharding

  • After splitting the library, Join can only be implemented by interface aggregation, which will increase the complexity of development.
  • After splitting the library, it is complex to process distributed transactions.
  • There is a large amount of data on a single table and horizontal sharding is required.

3. Advantages of horizontal sharding

  • There is no such performance bottleneck as a large amount of data on a single database and high concurrency, and it increases system stability and load capacity.
  • The business modules do not need to be split due to minor modification on the application client.

4. Disadvantages of horizontal sharding

  • Transaction consistency across shards is hard to be guaranteed;
  • The performance of associated query in cross-library Join is poor.
  • It’s difficult to scale the data many times and maintenance is a big workload.

Based on the analysis above, and the available studis on popular sharding middleware, we selected ShardingSphere, an open source product, combined with Amazon Aurora to introduce how the combination of these two products meets various forms of sharding and how to solve the problems brought by sharding.

ShardingSphere is an open source ecosystem including a set of distributed database middleware solutions, including 3 independent products, Sharding-JDBC, Sharding-Proxy & Sharding-Sidecar.

2. ShardingSphere introduction:

The characteristics of Sharding-JDBC are:

  1. With the client end connecting directly to the database, it provides service in the form of jar and requires no extra deployment and dependence.
  2. It can be considered as an enhanced JDBC driver, which is fully compatible with JDBC and all kinds of ORM frameworks.
  3. Applicable in any ORM framework based on JDBC, such as JPA, Hibernate, Mybatis, Spring JDBC Template or direct use of JDBC.
  4. Support any third-party database connection pool, such as DBCP, C3P0, BoneCP, Druid, HikariCP;
  5. Support any kind of JDBC standard database: MySQL, Oracle, SQLServer, PostgreSQL and any databases accessible to JDBC.
  6. Sharding-JDBC adopts decentralized architecture, applicable to high-performance light-weight OLTP application developed with Java

Hybrid Structure Integrating Sharding-JDBC and Applications

Sharding-JDBC’s core concepts

Data node: The smallest unit of a data slice, consisting of a data source name and a data table, such as ds_0.product_order_0.

Actual table: The physical table that really exists in the horizontal sharding database, such as product order tables: product_order_0, product_order_1, and product_order_2.

Logic table: The logical name of the horizontal sharding databases (tables) with the same schema. For instance, the logic table of the order product_order_0, product_order_1, and product_order_2 is product_order.

Binding table: It refers to the primary table and the joiner table with the same sharding rules. For example, product_order table and product_order_item are sharded by order_id, so they are binding tables with each other. Cartesian product correlation will not appear in the multi-tables correlating query, so the query efficiency will increase greatly.

Broadcast table: It refers to tables that exist in all sharding database sources. The schema and data must consist in each database. It can be applied to the small data volume that needs to correlate with big data tables to query, dictionary table and configuration table for example.

3. Testing ShardingSphere-JDBC

3.1 Example project

Download the example project code locally. In order to ensure the stability of the test code, we choose shardingsphere-example-4.0.0 version.

git clone https://github.com/apache/shardingsphere-example.git

Project description:

shardingsphere-example
  ├── example-core
  │   ├── config-utility
  │   ├── example-api
  │   ├── example-raw-jdbc
  │   ├── example-spring-jpa #spring+jpa integration-based entity,repository
  │   └── example-spring-mybatis
  ├── sharding-jdbc-example
  │   ├── sharding-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-raw-jdbc-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example #integration-based sharding-jdbc functions
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-boot-mybatis-example
  │   │   ├── sharding-spring-namespace-jpa-example
  │   │   └── sharding-spring-namespace-mybatis-example
  │   ├── orchestration-example
  │   │   ├── orchestration-raw-jdbc-example
  │   │   ├── orchestration-spring-boot-example #integration-based sharding-jdbc governance function
  │   │   └── orchestration-spring-namespace-example
  │   ├── transaction-example
  │   │   ├── transaction-2pc-xa-example #sharding-jdbc sample of two-phase commit for a distributed transaction
  │   │   └──transaction-base-seata-example #sharding-jdbc distributed transaction seata sample
  │   ├── other-feature-example
  │   │   ├── hint-example
  │   │   └── encrypt-example
  ├── sharding-proxy-example
  │   └── sharding-proxy-boot-mybatis-example
  └── src/resources
        └── manual_schema.sql  

Configuration file description:

application-master-slave.properties #read/write splitting profile
application-sharding-databases-tables.properties #sharding profile
application-sharding-databases.properties       #library split profile only
application-sharding-master-slave.properties    #sharding and read/write splitting profile
application-sharding-tables.properties          #table split profile
application.properties                         #spring boot profile

Code logic description:

The following is the entry class of the Spring Boot application below. Execute it to run the project.

The execution logic of demo is as follows:

3.2 Verifying read/write splitting

As business grows, the write and read requests can be split to different database nodes to effectively promote the processing capability of the entire database cluster. Aurora uses a reader/writer endpoint to meet users' requirements to write and read with strong consistency, and a read-only endpoint to meet the requirements to read without strong consistency. Aurora's read and write latency is within single-digit milliseconds, much lower than MySQL's binlog-based logical replication, so there's a lot of loads that can be directed to a read-only endpoint.

Through the one primary and multiple secondary configuration, query requests can be evenly distributed to multiple data replicas, which further improves the processing capability of the system. Read/write splitting can improve the throughput and availability of system, but it can also lead to data inconsistency. Aurora provides a primary/secondary architecture in a fully managed form, but applications on the upper-layer still need to manage multiple data sources when interacting with Aurora, routing SQL requests to different nodes based on the read/write type of SQL statements and certain routing policies.

ShardingSphere-JDBC provides read/write splitting features and it is integrated with application programs so that the complex configuration between application programs and database clusters can be separated from application programs. Developers can manage the Shard through configuration files and combine it with ORM frameworks such as Spring JPA and Mybatis to completely separate the duplicated logic from the code, which greatly improves the ability to maintain code and reduces the coupling between code and database.

3.2.1 Setting up the database environment

Create a set of Aurora MySQL read/write splitting clusters. The model is db.r5.2xlarge. Each set of clusters has one write node and two read nodes.

3.2.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot Master profile description:

You need to replace the green ones with your own environment configuration.

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create-drop
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#Activate master-slave configuration item so that sharding-jdbc can use master-slave profile
spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-master-slave.properties sharding-jdbc profile description:

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_master,ds_slave_0,ds_slave_1
# data souce-master
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.password=Your master DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.jdbc-url=Your primary DB data sourceurl spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master.username=Your primary DB username
# data source-slave
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.password= Your slave DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.jdbc-url=Your slave DB data source url
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_0.username= Your slave DB username
# data source-slave
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.password= Your slave DB password
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.jdbc-url= Your slave DB data source url
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_slave_1.username= Your slave DB username
# Routing Policy Configuration
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.load-balance-algorithm-type=round_robin
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.name=ds_ms
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.master-data-source-name=ds_master
spring.shardingsphere.masterslave.slave-data-source-names=ds_slave_0,ds_slave_1
# sharding-jdbc configures the information storage mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log,and you can see the conversion from logical SQL to actual SQL from the print
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.2.3 Test and verification process description

  • Test environment data initialization: Spring JPA initialization automatically creates tables for testing.

  • Write data to the master instance

As shown in the ShardingSphere-SQL log figure below, the write SQL is executed on the ds_master data source.

  • Data query operations are performed on the slave library.

As shown in the ShardingSphere-SQL log figure below, the read SQL is executed on the ds_slave data source in the form of polling.

[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:39,376 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] Rule Type: master-slave 
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:39,376 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] SQL: select orderentit0_.order_id as order_id1_1_, orderentit0_.address_id as address_2_1_, 
orderentit0_.status as status3_1_, orderentit0_.user_id as user_id4_1_ from t_order orderentit0_ ::: DataSources: ds_slave_0 
---------------------------- Print OrderItem Data -------------------
Hibernate: select orderiteme1_.order_item_id as order_it1_2_, orderiteme1_.order_id as order_id2_2_, orderiteme1_.status as status3_2_, orderiteme1_.user_id 
as user_id4_2_ from t_order orderentit0_ cross join t_order_item orderiteme1_ where orderentit0_.order_id=orderiteme1_.order_id
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:40,898 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] Rule Type: master-slave 
[INFO ] 2022-04-02 19:43:40,898 --main-- [ShardingSphere-SQL] SQL: select orderiteme1_.order_item_id as order_it1_2_, orderiteme1_.order_id as order_id2_2_, orderiteme1_.status as status3_2_, 
orderiteme1_.user_id as user_id4_2_ from t_order orderentit0_ cross join t_order_item orderiteme1_ where orderentit0_.order_id=orderiteme1_.order_id ::: DataSources: ds_slave_1 

Note: As shown in the figure below, if there are both reads and writes in a transaction, Sharding-JDBC routes both read and write operations to the master library. If the read/write requests are not in the same transaction, the corresponding read requests are distributed to different read nodes according to the routing policy.

@Override
@Transactional // When a transaction is started, both read and write in the transaction go through the master library. When closed, read goes through the slave library and write goes through the master library
public void processSuccess() throws SQLException {
    System.out.println("-------------- Process Success Begin ---------------");
    List<Long> orderIds = insertData();
    printData();
    deleteData(orderIds);
    printData();
    System.out.println("-------------- Process Success Finish --------------");
}

3.2.4 Verifying Aurora failover scenario

The Aurora database environment adopts the configuration described in Section 2.2.1.

3.2.4.1 Verification process description

  1. Start the Spring-Boot project

2. Perform a failover on Aurora’s console

3. Execute the Rest API request

4. Repeatedly execute POST (http://localhost:8088/save-user) until the call to the API failed to write to Aurora and eventually recovered successfully.

5. The following figure shows the process of executing code failover. It takes about 37 seconds from the time when the latest SQL write is successfully performed to the time when the next SQL write is successfully performed. That is, the application can be automatically recovered from Aurora failover, and the recovery time is about 37 seconds.

3.3 Testing table sharding-only function

3.3.1 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create-drop
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#Activate sharding-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
# spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-tables.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

## configure primary-key policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# configure the binding relation of t_order and t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables[0]=t_order,t_order_item
# configure broadcast tables
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.3.2 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC automatically creates corresponding tables according to the table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, create a t_address because there is only one master instance. Two physical tables t_order_0 and t_order_1 will be created when creating t_order.

2. Write operation

As shown in the figure below, Logic SQL inserts a record into t_order. When Sharding-JDBC is executed, data will be distributed to t_order_0 and t_order_1 according to the table splitting rules.

When t_order and t_order_item are bound, the records associated with order_item and order are placed on the same physical table.

3. Read operation

As shown in the figure below, perform the join query operations to order and order_item under the binding table, and the physical shard is precisely located based on the binding relationship.

The join query operations on order and order_item under the unbound table will traverse all shards.

3.4 Testing database sharding-only function

3.4.1 Setting up the database environment

Create two instances on Aurora: ds_0 and ds_1

When the sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example project is started, tables t_order, t_order_itemt_address will be created on two Aurora instances.

3.4.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties springboot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

# Activate sharding-databases configuration items
spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-databases.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_0,ds_1
# ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.password=
# ds_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_0

spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.4.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s library splitting and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, physical tables will be created on ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the slave library are written on the table in the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

Query order is routed to the corresponding Aurora instance according to the routing rules of the slave library .

Query Address. Since address is a broadcast table, an instance of address will be randomly selected and queried from the nodes used.

As shown in the figure below, perform the join query operations to order and order_item under the binding table, and the physical shard is precisely located based on the binding relationship.

3.5 Verifying sharding function

3.5.1 Setting up the database environment

As shown in the figure below, create two instances on Aurora: ds_0 and ds_1

When the sharding-spring-boot-jpa-example project is started, physical tables t_order_01, t_order_02, t_order_item_01,and t_order_item_02 and global table t_address will be created on two Aurora instances.

3.5.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties springboot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true
# Activate sharding-databases-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-databases.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_0,ds_1
# ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.jdbc-url= 306/dev?useSSL=false&characterEncoding=utf-8
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_0.max-active=16
# ds_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_1.max-active=16
# default library splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
# Tables that do not meet the library splitting policy are placed on ds_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_0
# t_order table splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# t_order_item table splitting policy
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# sharding-jdbc mdoe
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.5.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s sharding and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, t_address will be created on both ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the sub-library are written to the table on the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

The read operation is similar to the library split function verification described in section2.4.3.

3.6 Testing database sharding, table sharding and read/write splitting function

3.6.1 Setting up the database environment

The following figure shows the physical table of the created database instance.

3.6.2 Configuring Sharding-JDBC

application.properties spring boot master profile description

# Jpa automatically creates and drops data tables based on entities
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto=create
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.dialect=org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5Dialect
spring.jpa.properties.hibernate.show_sql=true

# activate sharding-databases-tables configuration items
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-tables
#spring.profiles.active=sharding-databases-tables
#spring.profiles.active=master-slave
spring.profiles.active=sharding-master-slave

application-sharding-master-slave.properties sharding-jdbc profile description

The url, name and password of the database need to be changed to your own database parameters.

spring.shardingsphere.datasource.names=ds_master_0,ds_master_1,ds_master_0_slave_0,ds_master_0_slave_1,ds_master_1_slave_0,ds_master_1_slave_1
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_0_slave_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.jdbc-url= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.username= 
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.jdbc-url=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.username=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_0.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.type=com.zaxxer.hikari.HikariDataSource
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.driver-class-name=com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.jdbc-url= spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.username=admin
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.password=
spring.shardingsphere.datasource.ds_master_1_slave_1.max-active=16
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.sharding-column=user_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-database-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=ds_$->{user_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.binding-tables=t_order,t_order_item
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.broadcast-tables=t_address
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.default-data-source-name=ds_master_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.actual-data-nodes=ds_$->{0..1}.t_order_item_$->{0..1}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.sharding-column=order_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.table-strategy.inline.algorithm-expression=t_order_item_$->{order_id % 2}
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.column=order_item_id
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.type=SNOWFLAKE
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.tables.t_order_item.key-generator.props.worker.id=123
# master/slave data source and slave data source configuration
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_0.master-data-source-name=ds_master_0
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_0.slave-data-source-names=ds_master_0_slave_0, ds_master_0_slave_1
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_1.master-data-source-name=ds_master_1
spring.shardingsphere.sharding.master-slave-rules.ds_1.slave-data-source-names=ds_master_1_slave_0, ds_master_1_slave_1
# sharding-jdbc mode
spring.shardingsphere.mode.type=Memory
# start shardingsphere log
spring.shardingsphere.props.sql.show=true

 

3.6.3 Test and verification process description

1. DDL operation

JPA automatically creates tables for testing. When Sharding-JDBC’s library splitting and routing rules are configured, the client executes DDL, and Sharding-JDBC will automatically create corresponding tables according to table splitting rules. If t_address is a broadcast table, t_address will be created on both ds_0 and ds_1. The three tables, t_address, t_order and t_order_item will be created on ds_0 and ds_1 respectively.

2. Write operation

For the broadcast table t_address, each record written will also be written to the t_address tables of ds_0 and ds_1.

The tables t_order and t_order_item of the slave library are written to the table on the corresponding instance according to the slave library field and routing policy.

3. Read operation

The join query operations on order and order_item under the binding table are shown below.

3. Conclusion

As an open source product focusing on database enhancement, ShardingSphere is pretty good in terms of its community activitiy, product maturity and documentation richness.

Among its products, ShardingSphere-JDBC is a sharding solution based on the client-side, which supports all sharding scenarios. And there’s no need to introduce an intermediate layer like Proxy, so the complexity of operation and maintenance is reduced. Its latency is theoretically lower than Proxy due to the lack of intermediate layer. In addition, ShardingSphere-JDBC can support a variety of relational databases based on SQL standards such as MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQL Server, etc.

However, due to the integration of Sharding-JDBC with the application program, it only supports Java language for now, and is strongly dependent on the application programs. Nevertheless, Sharding-JDBC separates all sharding configuration from the application program, which brings relatively small changes when switching to other middleware.

In conclusion, Sharding-JDBC is a good choice if you use a Java-based system and have to to interconnect with different relational databases — and don’t want to bother with introducing an intermediate layer.

Author

Sun Jinhua

A senior solution architect at AWS, Sun is responsible for the design and consult on cloud architecture. for providing customers with cloud-related design and consulting services. Before joining AWS, he ran his own business, specializing in building e-commerce platforms and designing the overall architecture for e-commerce platforms of automotive companies. He worked in a global leading communication equipment company as a senior engineer, responsible for the development and architecture design of multiple subsystems of LTE equipment system. He has rich experience in architecture design with high concurrency and high availability system, microservice architecture design, database, middleware, IOT etc.

Sigrid  Farrell

Sigrid Farrell

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Spring Boot CRUD Operations

In the video in this article, we take a closer look at the Spring Boot CRUD Operations Example alongside Exception Handling!

In the video below, we take a closer look at the Spring Boot CRUD Operations example with exception handling. Let’s get started!

#spring boot #spring boot tutorial for beginners #crud #crud #crud #spring boot crud operations

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Sigrid Farrell

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How To Create Spring Boot Project In Eclipse

Java programming language is often said to be too complicated and cumbersome in terms of building simple applications. However, Java provides a stable platform that offers an extremely mature ecosystem which makes it possible for developers to create robust software without much hassle.

The Spring Framework – one of the many powerful frameworks present in the Java ecosystem – brings with it a collection of configuration and programming models to simplify the development and testing of applications in Java.

In this article, we’ll go through some of the useful features of the STS IDE (Eclipse Spring Tool Suite), which are useful for you when developing Spring Boot projects or applications in Eclipse. We’ll talk about the various benefits of STS as opposed to the traditional way of building Spring applications with Eclipse.

Then, we’ll look at how to bootstrap an application, how to execute it, and eventually, how to add additional dependencies. Finally, we’ll conclude this tutorial by adding applications arguments.

#full stack development #spring boot project in eclipse #spring boot project #eclipse #how to create spring boot project in eclipse

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Top Android Projects with Source Code

Android Projects with Source Code – Your entry pass into the world of Android

Hello Everyone, welcome to this article, which is going to be really important to all those who’re in dilemma for their projects and the project submissions. This article is also going to help you if you’re an enthusiast looking forward to explore and enhance your Android skills. The reason is that we’re here to provide you the best ideas of Android Project with source code that you can choose as per your choice.

These project ideas are simple suggestions to help you deal with the difficulty of choosing the correct projects. In this article, we’ll see the project ideas from beginners level and later we’ll move on to intermediate to advance.

top android projects with source code

Android Projects with Source Code

Before working on real-time projects, it is recommended to create a sample hello world project in android studio and get a flavor of project creation as well as execution: Create your first android project

Android Projects for beginners

1. Calculator

build a simple calculator app in android studio source code

Android Project: A calculator will be an easy application if you have just learned Android and coding for Java. This Application will simply take the input values and the operation to be performed from the users. After taking the input it’ll return the results to them on the screen. This is a really easy application and doesn’t need use of any particular package.

To make a calculator you’d need Android IDE, Kotlin/Java for coding, and for layout of your application, you’d need XML or JSON. For this, coding would be the same as that in any language, but in the form of an application. Not to forget creating a calculator initially will increase your logical thinking.

Once the user installs the calculator, they’re ready to use it even without the internet. They’ll enter the values, and the application will show them the value after performing the given operations on the entered operands.

Source Code: Simple Calculator Project

2. A Reminder App

Android Project: This is a good project for beginners. A Reminder App can help you set reminders for different events that you have throughout the day. It’ll help you stay updated with all your tasks for the day. It can be useful for all those who are not so good at organizing their plans and forget easily. This would be a simple application just whose task would be just to remind you of something at a particular time.

To make a Reminder App you need to code in Kotlin/Java and design the layout using XML or JSON. For the functionality of the app, you’d need to make use of AlarmManager Class and Notifications in Android.

In this, the user would be able to set reminders and time in the application. Users can schedule reminders that would remind them to drink water again and again throughout the day. Or to remind them of their medications.

3. Quiz Application

Android Project: Another beginner’s level project Idea can be a Quiz Application in android. Here you can provide the users with Quiz on various general knowledge topics. These practices will ensure that you’re able to set the layouts properly and slowly increase your pace of learning the Android application development. In this you’ll learn to use various Layout components at the same time understanding them better.

To make a quiz application you’ll need to code in Java and set layouts using xml or java whichever you prefer. You can also use JSON for the layouts whichever preferable.

In the app, questions would be asked and answers would be shown as multiple choices. The user selects the answer and gets shown on the screen if the answers are correct. In the end the final marks would be shown to the users.

4. Simple Tic-Tac-Toe

android project tic tac toe game app

Android Project: Tic-Tac-Toe is a nice game, I guess most of you all are well aware of it. This will be a game for two players. In this android game, users would be putting X and O in the given 9 parts of a box one by one. The first player to arrange X or O in an adjacent line of three wins.

To build this game, you’d need Java and XML for Android Studio. And simply apply the logic on that. This game will have a set of three matches. So, it’ll also have a scoreboard. This scoreboard will show the final result at the end of one complete set.

Upon entering the game they’ll enter their names. And that’s when the game begins. They’ll touch one of the empty boxes present there and get their turn one by one. At the end of the game, there would be a winner declared.

Source Code: Tic Tac Toe Game Project

5. Stopwatch

Android Project: A stopwatch is another simple android project idea that will work the same as a normal handheld timepiece that measures the time elapsed between its activation and deactivation. This application will have three buttons that are: start, stop, and hold.

This application would need to use Java and XML. For this application, we need to set the timer properly as it is initially set to milliseconds, and that should be converted to minutes and then hours properly. The users can use this application and all they’d need to do is, start the stopwatch and then stop it when they are done. They can also pause the timer and continue it again when they like.

6. To Do App

Android Project: This is another very simple project idea for you as a beginner. This application as the name suggests will be a To-Do list holding app. It’ll store the users schedules and their upcoming meetings or events. In this application, users will be enabled to write their important notes as well. To make it safe, provide a login page before the user can access it.

So, this app will have a login page, sign-up page, logout system, and the area to write their tasks, events, or important notes. You can build it in android studio using Java and XML at ease. Using XML you can build the user interface as user-friendly as you can. And to store the users’ data, you can use SQLite enabling the users to even delete the data permanently.

Now for users, they will sign up and get access to the write section. Here the users can note down the things and store them permanently. Users can also alter the data or delete them. Finally, they can logout and also, login again and again whenever they like.

7. Roman to decimal converter

Android Project: This app is aimed at the conversion of Roman numbers to their significant decimal number. It’ll help to check the meaning of the roman numbers. Moreover, it will be easy to develop and will help you get your hands on coding and Android.

You need to use Android Studio, Java for coding and XML for interface. The application will take input from the users and convert them to decimal. Once it converts the Roman no. into decimal, it will show the results on the screen.

The users are supposed to just enter the Roman Number and they’ll get the decimal values on the screen. This can be a good android project for final year students.

8. Virtual Dice Roller

Android Project: Well, coming to this part that is Virtual Dice or a random no. generator. It is another simple but interesting app for computer science students. The only task that it would need to do would be to generate a number randomly. This can help people who’re often confused between two or more things.

Using a simple random number generator you can actually create something as good as this. All you’d need to do is get you hands-on OnClick listeners. And a good layout would be cherry on the cake.

The user’s task would be to set the range of the numbers and then click on the roll button. And the app will show them a randomly generated number. Isn’t it interesting ? Try soon!

9. A Scientific Calculator App

Android Project: This application is very important for you as a beginner as it will let you use your logical thinking and improve your programming skills. This is a scientific calculator that will help the users to do various calculations at ease.

To make this application you’d need to use Android Studio. Here you’d need to use arithmetic logics for the calculations. The user would need to give input to the application that will be in terms of numbers. After that, the user will give the operator as an input. Then the Application will calculate and generate the result on the user screen.

10. SMS App

Android Project: An SMS app is another easy but effective idea. It will let you send the SMS to various no. just in the same way as you use the default messaging application in your phone. This project will help you with better understanding of SMSManager in Android.

For this application, you would need to implement Java class SMSManager in Android. For the Layout you can use XML or JSON. Implementing SMSManager into the app is an easy task, so you would love this.

The user would be provided with the facility to text to whichever number they wish also, they’d be able to choose the numbers from the contact list. Another thing would be the Textbox, where they’ll enter their message. Once the message is entered they can happily click on the send button.

#android tutorials #android application final year project #android mini projects #android project for beginners #android project ideas #android project ideas for beginners #android projects #android projects for students #android projects with source code #android topics list #intermediate android projects #real-time android projects

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Sigrid Farrell

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Angular 12 + Spring Boot: CRUD example

In this tutorial, we will learn how to build a full stack Spring Boot + Angular 12 example with a CRUD App. The back-end server uses Spring Boot with Spring Web MVC for REST Controller and Spring Data JPA for interacting with embedded database (H2 database). Front-end side is made with Angular 12, HttpClient, Router and Bootstrap 4.

Run both Project on same server/port:

How to Integrate Angular with Spring Boot Rest API

Contents [hide]

#angular #full stack #spring #angular #angular 12 #crud #h2 database #mysql #postgresql #rest api #spring boot #spring data jpa