Dylan  Iqbal

Dylan Iqbal


Using GoGJ to Build a Interactive Diagrams

In depth introduction to building diagrams with GoJS

GoJS is a JavaScript library for building interactive diagrams. This tutorial covers the essentails of using GoJS by building an org chart diagram from scratch.

Kinds of Diagrams

A diagram is any visual representation of a structure, or a process, or simply data with relationships. They are used to convey the meaning in an intuitive way. Diagrams and graphs are diverse: there are strongly-linked graphs like flowcharts, family trees, genograms, organizational charts, decision trees, and so on. Diagrams may also be visual representations of real-world objects such as shelves (planograms) or shop floors, or room layouts. They can also display kanbans and work-item graphs, graphs atop maps, or more abstract data representations such as plots for statistical visualizations.

Table of Contents

  • Kinds of Diagrams
  • Creating a Diagram
  • Diagrams and Models
  • Styling Nodes
  • Kinds of Models
  • Diagram Layouts: Who's the boss?
  • Link Templates

Diagrams are commonly graph-like in nature, containing Nodes and Links, organized manually or by Layouts and Groups (which may also act as sub-graphs). These concepts are all classes in GoJS, and come with a host of convenience methods for traversing and organizing your diagram structures, allowing users to manipulate those structures, and enforcing interactivity rules.

GoJS makes it easy to form representations from model data, and allows users to interact with them. GoJS adds keyboard, mouse, and touch support, the ability to create, link and edit data, move and rotate objects, copy and paste, save and load, undo and redo, and whatever else your users may need. GoJS allows you to create any kind of diagram, from flowcharts to floorplans.

Some diagrams built with GoJS, taken from the GoJS Samples

Creating a Diagram

You can download the latest version of GoJS here.

If you use Node.js you could download the latest GoJS with npm, npm install gojs, and reference GoJS in the package:

<script src="node_modules/gojs/release/go-debug.js"></script>

For getting-started convenience you could link straight to the GoJS provided by CDNJS, but this is likely to be out of date and I recommend always using the latest version of GoJS:

<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/gojs/1.6.7/go-debug.js"></script>

GoJS diagrams are contained in an HTML <div> element in your page that you give an explicit size:

<!-- The DIV for a Diagram needs an explicit size or else we will not see anything.
     In this case we also add a background color so we can see the area. -->
<div id="myDiagramDiv" style="width:400px; height:150px; background-color: #DAE4E4;"></div>

Pass the <div>'s id to GoJS to make a Diagram:

    var $ = go.GraphObject.make; // We use $ for conciseness, but you can use anything, $, GO, MAKE, etc
    var myDiagram = $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv");

This produces an empty diagram, so not much to look at yet:

See the Pen pymgLO by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

This article shows by example how to use go.GraphObject.make to build GoJS objects. For more detail, see Building Objects in GoJS. Using $ as an abbreviation for go.GraphObject.make is handy and we will assume its use from now on. If you use $ for something else in your code, you can always pick a different short variable name, such as $$ or MAKE or GO.

GoJS uses go as the "namespace" in which all GoJS types reside. All code uses of GoJS classes such as Diagram or Node or Panel or Shape or TextBlock will be prefixed with go..

Diagrams and Models

Diagram parts such as Nodes and Links are visualizations of data that is managed by a Model. In GoJS, Models hold the data (arrays of JavaScript objects) that describe Parts, and Diagrams act as views to visualize this data using actual Node and Link objects. Models, not Diagrams, are what you save and load.

Here's an example of a Model and Diagram, followed by the diagram it creates:

var $ = go.GraphObject.make;
var myDiagram =
  $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv",
      initialContentAlignment: go.Spot.Center, // center Diagram contents
      "undoManager.isEnabled": true // enable Ctrl-Z to undo and Ctrl-Y to redo

var myModel = $(go.Model);
// in model data, each node is represented by a JavaScript object:
myModel.nodeDataArray = [
  { key: "Alpha" },
  { key: "Beta" },
  { key: "Gamma" }
myDiagram.model = myModel;

See the Pen zqQvvd by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

The diagram displays the three nodes that are in the model. Since there was no location information given, GoJS automatically assigns them locations in a grid-like fashion using the default layout. Some interaction is already possible:

  • Click and drag the background to pan the view.
  • Click a node to select it. Click and drag a node to move it around.
  • Click and hold on the background, then start dragging, and a selection box will appear.
  • Use CTRL-C and CTRL-V, or control-drag-and-drop, to make a copy of the selection.
  • Press the Delete key to delete selected nodes.
  • Since the undo manager was enabled, CTRL-Z and CTRL-Y will undo and redo moves and copies and deletions.
  • Read about more Keyboard Commands.

Styling Nodes

Nodes are styled by creating templates consisting of GraphObjects. To create a Node, we have several building block classes at our disposal:

  • Shape, to display a geometry (pre-defined or custom) with colors
  • TextBlock, to display (potentially editable) text
  • Picture, to display images
  • Panel, containers to hold a collection of other objects that can be positioned and sized in different manners according to the type of the Panel (like tables, vertical stacks, and automatically stretching containers)

All of these building blocks are derived from the GraphObject class, so we casually refer to them as GraphObjects or objects or elements.

We want model data properties to affect our Nodes, and this is done by way of data bindings. Data bindings allow us to change the appearance and behavior of GraphObjects in Nodes by automatically setting properties on those GraphObjects to values that are taken from the model data.

The default Node template is simple: A Node which contains one TextBlock. There is a data binding between a TextBlock's text property and the model data's key. In code, the template looks like this:

myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
      // TextBlock.text is bound to Node.data.key
      new go.Binding("text", "key"))

The result is a node that will display the key in the model data object, as we saw with the diagram above.

Nesting can be arbitrarily deep, and every class has its own unique set of properties to explore. More generally, the skeleton of a Node template will look something like this:

myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
  $(go.Node, "Vertical" // second argument of a Node/Panel can be a Panel type
    { /* set Node properties here */ },
    // example Node binding sets Node.location to the value of Node.data.loc
    new go.Binding("location", "loc"),

    // GraphObjects contained within the Node
    // this Shape will be vertically above the TextBlock
      "RoundedRectangle", // string argument can name a predefined figure
      { /* set Shape properties here */ },
      // example Shape binding sets Shape.figure to the value of Node.data.fig
      new go.Binding("figure", "fig")),

      "default text",  // string argument can be initial text string
      { /* set TextBlock properties here */ },
      // example TextBlock binding sets TextBlock.text to the value of Node.data.key
      new go.Binding("text", "key"))

Now let's make a simple template commonly seen in organizational diagrams — an image next to a name. Consider the following Node template:

  • A Node of "Horizontal" Panel type, meaning that its elements will be laid out horizontally side-by-side. It has two elements:
    • A Picture for the portrait, with the image source data bound
    • A TextBlock for the name, with the text data bound
var $ = go.GraphObject.make;
var myDiagram =
  $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv",
      initialContentAlignment: go.Spot.Center, // center Diagram contents
      "undoManager.isEnabled": true // enable Ctrl-Z to undo and Ctrl-Y to redo

// define a Node template
myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
  $(go.Node, "Horizontal",
    // the entire node will have an orange background
    { background: "#DD4814" },
      // Pictures are best off having an explicit width and height.
      // Adding a red background ensures something is visible when there is no source set
      { margin: 10, width: 50, height: 50, background: "red" },
      // Picture.source is data bound to the "source" attribute of the model data
      new go.Binding("source")),
      "Default Text",  // the initial value for TextBlock.text
      // some room around the text, a larger font, and a white stroke:
      { margin: 12, stroke: "white", font: "bold 16px sans-serif" },
      // TextBlock.text is data bound to the "name" attribute of the model data
      new go.Binding("text", "name"))

var model = $(go.Model);
// each node data object holds whatever properties it needs,
// for this app we add the "name" and "source" properties
model.nodeDataArray =
  { name: "Don Meow", source: "cat1.png" },
  { name: "Toulouse", source: "cat2.png" },
  { name: "Roquefort",  source: "cat3.png" },
  { } // we left this last node data empty!
myDiagram.model = model;

This produces the diagram:

See the Pen jqobMq by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

A good Node template will help users visually parse data, even when some of that data is missing. We may want to show some "default" state when not all information is present, for instance when an image does not load or when a name is not known. The "empty" node data in this example is used to show that well-designed node templates can work perfectly well without any of the properties on the bound data.

Kinds of Models

Perhaps we want to show more than just nodes. By adding some Links to show the relationship between individual nodes and a Layout to automatically position the nodes, we can show that Don Meow is really the leader of a cat cartel.

In order to get links into our diagram, the basic Model is not going to cut it. We are going to have to pick one of the other two models in GoJS, both of which support Links. These are GraphLinksModel and TreeModel. (Read more about models here.)

In GraphLinksModel, we have model.linkDataArray in addition to the model.nodeDataArray. It holds an array of JavaScript objects, each describing a link by specifying the "to" and "from" node keys. Here's an example where node A links to node B and where node B links to node C:

var model = $(go.GraphLinksModel);
model.nodeDataArray =
  { key: "A" },
  { key: "B" },
  { key: "C" }
model.linkDataArray =
  { from: "A", to: "B" },
  { from: "B", to: "C" }
myDiagram.model = model;

A GraphLinksModel allows you to have any number of links between nodes, going in any direction. There could be ten links running from A to B, and three more running the opposite way, from B to A.

A TreeModel works a little differently. Instead of maintaining a separate array of link data, the links in a tree model are created by specifying a "parent" for a node data. Links are then created from this association. Here's the same example done as a TreeModel, with node A linking to node B and node B linking to node C:

var model = $(go.TreeModel);
model.nodeDataArray =
  { key: "A" },
  { key: "B", parent: "A" },
  { key: "C", parent: "B" }
myDiagram.model = model;

TreeModel is simpler than GraphLinksModel, but it cannot make arbitrary link relationships, such as multiple links between the same two nodes, or a node having multiple parents. Our organizational diagram is a simple hierarchical tree-like structure, so we can use the simpler TreeModel.

First, we will complete the data by adding a few more nodes, using a TreeModel, and specifying key and parent fields in the data.

var $ = go.GraphObject.make;
var myDiagram =
  $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv",
      initialContentAlignment: go.Spot.Center, // center Diagram contents
      "undoManager.isEnabled": true // enable Ctrl-Z to undo and Ctrl-Y to redo

// the template we defined earlier
myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
  $(go.Node, "Horizontal",
    { background: "#DD4814" },
      { margin: 10, width: 50, height: 50, background: "red" },
      new go.Binding("source")),
    $(go.TextBlock, "Default Text",
      { margin: 12, stroke: "white", font: "bold 16px sans-serif" },
      new go.Binding("text", "name"))

var model = $(go.TreeModel);
model.nodeDataArray =
[ // the "key" and "parent" property names are required,
  // but you can add whatever data properties you need for your app
  { key: "1",              name: "Don Meow",   source: "cat1.png" },
  { key: "2", parent: "1", name: "Roquefort",    source: "cat2.png" },
  { key: "3", parent: "1", name: "Toulouse",   source: "cat3.png" },
  { key: "4", parent: "3", name: "Peppo", source: "cat4.png" },
  { key: "5", parent: "3", name: "Alonzo",     source: "cat5.png" },
  { key: "6", parent: "2", name: "Berlioz", source: "cat6.png" }
myDiagram.model = model;

See the Pen JXqYRL by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

Diagram Layouts: Who's the boss?

As you can see the TreeModel automatically creates the necessary Links to associate the Nodes, but with the default layout, it's hard to tell whose tree parent is who.

Diagrams have a default layout which takes all nodes that do not have a location and gives them locations, arranging them in a grid. We could explicitly give each of our nodes a location to sort out this organizational mess, but in our case, the easier solution is to use a layout that gives us good locations automatically.

We want to show a hierarchy, and are already using a TreeModel, so the most natural layout choice is TreeLayout. TreeLayout defaults to flowing from left to right, so to get it to flow from top to bottom (as is common in organizational diagrams), we will set the angle property to 90.

Using layouts in GoJS is usually simple. Each kind of layout has a number of properties that affect the results. There are samples for each layout (like TreeLayout Demo) that showcase its properties.

// define a TreeLayout that flows from top to bottom
myDiagram.layout =
    { angle: 90, layerSpacing: 35 });

GoJS has several other layouts, which you can read about here.

Adding the layout to the diagram and model so far, we can see our results:

var $ = go.GraphObject.make;
var myDiagram =
  $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv",
      initialContentAlignment: go.Spot.Center, // center Diagram contents
      "undoManager.isEnabled": true, // enable Ctrl-Z to undo and Ctrl-Y to redo
      layout: $(go.TreeLayout, // specify a Diagram.layout that arranges trees
                { angle: 90, layerSpacing: 35 })

// the template we defined earlier
myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
  $(go.Node, "Horizontal",
    { background: "#DD4814" },
      { margin: 10, width: 50, height: 50, background: "red" },
      new go.Binding("source")),
    $(go.TextBlock, "Default Text",
      { margin: 12, stroke: "white", font: "bold 16px sans-serif" },
      new go.Binding("text", "name"))

var model = $(go.TreeModel);
model.nodeDataArray =
  { key: "1",              name: "Don Meow",   source: "cat1.png" },
  { key: "2", parent: "1", name: "Roquefort",    source: "cat2.png" },
  { key: "3", parent: "1", name: "Toulouse",   source: "cat3.png" },
  { key: "4", parent: "3", name: "Peppo", source: "cat4.png" },
  { key: "5", parent: "3", name: "Alonzo",     source: "cat5.png" },
  { key: "6", parent: "2", name: "Berlioz", source: "cat6.png" }
myDiagram.model = model;

See the Pen GZapjL by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

Our diagram is starting to look like a proper organization, but we could do better with the links.

Link Templates

We can create new Link template that will better suit our wide, boxy nodes. A Link is a different kind of Part, and there are some special considerations. The main element of a Link is the Link's shape, and this Shape will have its geometry computed dynamically by GoJS. For the sake of simplicity, our link is going to consist of just this shape, with its stroke a little thicker than normal and its color set to dark gray instead of black. Unlike the default link template we will not have an arrowhead, because hte visual layout of the graph already implies a direction. And we will change the Link routing property from Normal to Orthogonal, and give it a corner value so that right-angle turns are rounded.

// define a Link template that routes orthogonally, with no arrowhead
myDiagram.linkTemplate =
    // default routing is go.Link.Normal
    // default corner is 0
    { routing: go.Link.Orthogonal, corner: 5 },
    $(go.Shape, { strokeWidth: 3, stroke: "#555" }) // the link shape

    // if we wanted an arrowhead we would also add another Shape with toArrow defined:
    // $(go.Shape, { toArrow: "Standard", stroke: null }

Combining our Link template with our Node template, TreeModel, and TreeLayout, we finally have a full organization diagram. The finished code and diagram are as follows:

var $ = go.GraphObject.make;

var myDiagram =
  $(go.Diagram, "myDiagramDiv",
      initialContentAlignment: go.Spot.Center, // center Diagram contents
      "undoManager.isEnabled": true, // enable Ctrl-Z to undo and Ctrl-Y to redo
      layout: $(go.TreeLayout, // specify a Diagram.layout that arranges trees
                { angle: 90, layerSpacing: 35 })

// the template we defined earlier
myDiagram.nodeTemplate =
  $(go.Node, "Horizontal",
    { background: "#DD4814" },
      { margin: 10, width: 50, height: 50, background: "red" },
      new go.Binding("source")),
    $(go.TextBlock, "Default Text",
      { margin: 12, stroke: "white", font: "bold 16px sans-serif" },
      new go.Binding("text", "name"))

// define a Link template that routes orthogonally, with no arrowhead
myDiagram.linkTemplate =
    { routing: go.Link.Orthogonal, corner: 5 },
    $(go.Shape, { strokeWidth: 3, stroke: "#555" })); // the link shape

var model = $(go.TreeModel);
model.nodeDataArray =
  { key: "1",              name: "Don Meow",   source: "cat1.png" },
  { key: "2", parent: "1", name: "Roquefort",    source: "cat2.png" },
  { key: "3", parent: "1", name: "Toulouse",   source: "cat3.png" },
  { key: "4", parent: "3", name: "Peppo", source: "cat4.png" },
  { key: "5", parent: "3", name: "Alonzo",     source: "cat5.png" },
  { key: "6", parent: "2", name: "Berlioz", source: "cat6.png" }
myDiagram.model = model;

See the Pen pymjNE by Simon Sarris (@simonsarris) on CodePen.

Now that you are familiar with some of the basics of GoJS, consider viewing the samples to see some of the diagrams possible with GoJS, or read the technical introduction to get an in-depth look at the components of GoJS.

Original article at https://scotch.io

#javascript #typescript #gojs #webdev #html

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Using GoGJ to Build a Interactive Diagrams
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.


#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as pdf2gerb.pl itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main pfg2gerb.pl file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)}Pdf2Gerb.pl ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #https://perldoc.perl.org/Exporter.html

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1072691; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code: https://github.com/swannman/pdf2gerb

License: GPL-3.0 license


Why Use WordPress? What Can You Do With WordPress?

Can you use WordPress for anything other than blogging? To your surprise, yes. WordPress is more than just a blogging tool, and it has helped thousands of websites and web applications to thrive. The use of WordPress powers around 40% of online projects, and today in our blog, we would visit some amazing uses of WordPress other than blogging.
What Is The Use Of WordPress?

WordPress is the most popular website platform in the world. It is the first choice of businesses that want to set a feature-rich and dynamic Content Management System. So, if you ask what WordPress is used for, the answer is – everything. It is a super-flexible, feature-rich and secure platform that offers everything to build unique websites and applications. Let’s start knowing them:

1. Multiple Websites Under A Single Installation
WordPress Multisite allows you to develop multiple sites from a single WordPress installation. You can download WordPress and start building websites you want to launch under a single server. Literally speaking, you can handle hundreds of sites from one single dashboard, which now needs applause.
It is a highly efficient platform that allows you to easily run several websites under the same login credentials. One of the best things about WordPress is the themes it has to offer. You can simply download them and plugin for various sites and save space on sites without losing their speed.

2. WordPress Social Network
WordPress can be used for high-end projects such as Social Media Network. If you don’t have the money and patience to hire a coder and invest months in building a feature-rich social media site, go for WordPress. It is one of the most amazing uses of WordPress. Its stunning CMS is unbeatable. And you can build sites as good as Facebook or Reddit etc. It can just make the process a lot easier.
To set up a social media network, you would have to download a WordPress Plugin called BuddyPress. It would allow you to connect a community page with ease and would provide all the necessary features of a community or social media. It has direct messaging, activity stream, user groups, extended profiles, and so much more. You just have to download and configure it.
If BuddyPress doesn’t meet all your needs, don’t give up on your dreams. You can try out WP Symposium or PeepSo. There are also several themes you can use to build a social network.

3. Create A Forum For Your Brand’s Community
Communities are very important for your business. They help you stay in constant connection with your users and consumers. And allow you to turn them into a loyal customer base. Meanwhile, there are many good technologies that can be used for building a community page – the good old WordPress is still the best.
It is the best community development technology. If you want to build your online community, you need to consider all the amazing features you get with WordPress. Plugins such as BB Press is an open-source, template-driven PHP/ MySQL forum software. It is very simple and doesn’t hamper the experience of the website.
Other tools such as wpFoRo and Asgaros Forum are equally good for creating a community blog. They are lightweight tools that are easy to manage and integrate with your WordPress site easily. However, there is only one tiny problem; you need to have some technical knowledge to build a WordPress Community blog page.

4. Shortcodes
Since we gave you a problem in the previous section, we would also give you a perfect solution for it. You might not know to code, but you have shortcodes. Shortcodes help you execute functions without having to code. It is an easy way to build an amazing website, add new features, customize plugins easily. They are short lines of code, and rather than memorizing multiple lines; you can have zero technical knowledge and start building a feature-rich website or application.
There are also plugins like Shortcoder, Shortcodes Ultimate, and the Basics available on WordPress that can be used, and you would not even have to remember the shortcodes.

5. Build Online Stores
If you still think about why to use WordPress, use it to build an online store. You can start selling your goods online and start selling. It is an affordable technology that helps you build a feature-rich eCommerce store with WordPress.
WooCommerce is an extension of WordPress and is one of the most used eCommerce solutions. WooCommerce holds a 28% share of the global market and is one of the best ways to set up an online store. It allows you to build user-friendly and professional online stores and has thousands of free and paid extensions. Moreover as an open-source platform, and you don’t have to pay for the license.
Apart from WooCommerce, there are Easy Digital Downloads, iThemes Exchange, Shopify eCommerce plugin, and so much more available.

6. Security Features
WordPress takes security very seriously. It offers tons of external solutions that help you in safeguarding your WordPress site. While there is no way to ensure 100% security, it provides regular updates with security patches and provides several plugins to help with backups, two-factor authorization, and more.
By choosing hosting providers like WP Engine, you can improve the security of the website. It helps in threat detection, manage patching and updates, and internal security audits for the customers, and so much more.

Read More

#use of wordpress #use wordpress for business website #use wordpress for website #what is use of wordpress #why use wordpress #why use wordpress to build a website

Nat  Grady

Nat Grady


Wordcloud2: R interface to Wordcloud for Data Visualization


R interface to wordcloud for data visualization. Timdream's wordcloud2.js is used in this package.

Original description



knitr and shiny is support in wordcloud2 package.


wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 1,shape = 'star')


wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 2, minRotation = -pi/2, maxRotation = -pi/2)


wordcloud2(demoFreq, size = 2, minRotation = -pi/6, maxRotation = -pi/6,
  rotateRatio = 1)


Chinese version

## Sys.setlocale("LC_CTYPE","eng")
wordcloud2(demoFreqC, size = 2, fontFamily = "微软雅黑",
           color = "random-light", backgroundColor = "grey")


Example of successfully deploying interactivate clickable wordcloud with special shape on R-shiny

Thanks JacobXPX's contribution to this feature:

Thanks AdamSpannbauer for pointing out the issues.

Additional features are added or modified:

hover information display are fixed, refering AdeelK93's previous work, thanks!

multiple wordclouds which seperatedly click are supported.

clickedWordInputId is changed to be automatically generated by: paste0(outputId, "_clicked_word")).

See sample below for more details:

    #using default clicked word input id
    wordcloud2Output("my_wc", width = "50%", height = "400px"),
    #using custom clicked word input id
    wordcloud2Output("my_wc2", width = "50%", height = "400px"),
    figPath = system.file("examples/a.png",package = "wordcloud2")
    output$my_wc  = renderWordcloud2(wordcloud2(data = demoFreq, figPath = figPath, size = 0.4,color = "blue"))
    output$my_wc2 = renderWordcloud2(wordcloud2(demoFreq))
    #using default clicked word input id
    output$print  = renderPrint(input$my_wc_clicked_word)
    #using custom clicked word input id
    output$print2 = renderPrint(input$my_wc2_clicked_word)

run the above code and click refresh, it will work.



Download Details:

Author: Lchiffon
Source Code: https://github.com/Lchiffon/wordcloud2 

#r #datavisualization 

Josefa  Corwin

Josefa Corwin


Mailboxer: A Rails Gem to Send Messages inside A Web Application


This project is based on the need for a private message system for ging / social_stream. Instead of creating our core message system heavily dependent on our development, we are trying to implement a generic and potent messaging gem.

After looking for a good gem to use we noticed the lack of messaging gems and functionality in them. Mailboxer tries to fill this void delivering a powerful and flexible message system. It supports the use of conversations with two or more participants, sending notifications to recipients (intended to be used as system notifications “Your picture has new comments”, “John Doe has updated his document”, etc.), and emailing the messageable model (if configured to do so). It has a complete implementation of a Mailbox object for each messageable with inbox, sentbox and trash.

The gem is constantly growing and improving its functionality. As it is used with our parallel development ging / social_stream we are finding and fixing bugs continously. If you want some functionality not supported yet or marked as TODO, you can create an issue to ask for it. It will be great feedback for us, and we will know what you may find useful in the gem.

Mailboxer was born from the great, but outdated, code from lpsergi / acts_as_messageable.

We are now working to make exhaustive documentation and some wiki pages in order to make it even easier to use the gem to its full potential. Please, give us some time if you find something missing or ask for it. You can also find us on the Gitter room for this repo. Join us there to talk.


Add to your Gemfile:

gem 'mailboxer'

Then run:

$ bundle install

Run install script:

$ rails g mailboxer:install

And don't forget to migrate your database:

$ rake db:migrate

You can also generate email views:

$ rails g mailboxer:views


If upgrading from 0.11.0 to 0.12.0, run the following generators:

$ rails generate mailboxer:namespacing_compatibility
$ rails generate mailboxer:install -s

Then, migrate your database:

$ rake db:migrate

Requirements & Settings


We are now adding support for sending emails when a Notification or a Message is sent to one or more recipients. You should modify the mailboxer initializer (/config/initializer/mailboxer.rb) to edit these settings:

Mailboxer.setup do |config|
  #Enables or disables email sending for Notifications and Messages
  config.uses_emails = true
  #Configures the default `from` address for the email sent for Messages and Notifications of Mailboxer
  config.default_from = "no-reply@dit.upm.es"

You can change the way in which emails are delivered by specifying a custom implementation of notification and message mailers:

Mailboxer.setup do |config|
  config.notification_mailer = CustomNotificationMailer
  config.message_mailer = CustomMessageMailer

If you have subclassed the Mailboxer::Notification class, you can specify the mailers using a member method:

class NewDocumentNotification < Mailboxer::Notification
  def mailer_class

class NewCommentNotification < Mailboxer::Notification
  def mailer_class

Otherwise, the mailer class will be determined by appending 'Mailer' to the mailable class name.

User identities

Users must have an identity defined by a name and an email. We must ensure that Messageable models have some specific methods. These methods are:

#Returning any kind of identification you want for the model
def name
  return "You should add method :name in your Messageable model"
#Returning the email address of the model if an email should be sent for this object (Message or Notification).
#If no mail has to be sent, return nil.
def mailboxer_email(object)
  #Check if an email should be sent for that object
  #if true
  return "define_email@on_your.model"
  #if false
  #return nil

These names are explicit enough to avoid colliding with other methods, but as long as you need to change them you can do it by using mailboxer initializer (/config/initializer/mailboxer.rb). Just add or uncomment the following lines:

Mailboxer.setup do |config|
  # ...
  #Configures the methods needed by mailboxer
  config.email_method = :mailboxer_email
  config.name_method = :name
  config.notify_method = :notify
  # ...

You may change whatever you want or need. For example:

config.email_method = :notification_email
config.name_method = :display_name
config.notify_method = :notify_mailboxer

Will use the method notification_email(object) instead of mailboxer_email(object), display_name for name and notify_mailboxer for notify.

Using default or custom method names, if your model doesn't implement them, Mailboxer will use dummy methods so as to notify you of missing methods rather than crashing.

Preparing your models

In your model:

class User < ActiveRecord::Base

You are not limited to the User model. You can use Mailboxer in any other model and use it in several different models. If you have ducks and cylons in your application and you want to exchange messages as if they were the same, just add acts_as_messageable to each one and you will be able to send duck-duck, duck-cylon, cylon-duck and cylon-cylon messages. Of course, you can extend it for as many classes as you need.


class Duck < ActiveRecord::Base
class Cylon < ActiveRecord::Base

Mailboxer API

Warning for version 0.8.0

Version 0.8.0 sees Messageable#read and Messageable#unread renamed to mark_as_(un)read, and Receipt#read and Receipt#unread to is_(un)read. This may break existing applications, but read is a reserved name for Active Record, and the best pratice in this case is simply avoid using it.

How can I send a message?

#alfa wants to send a message to beta
alfa.send_message(beta, "Body", "subject")

How can I read the messages of a conversation?

As a messageable, what you receive are receipts, which are associated with the message itself. You should retrieve your receipts for the conversation and get the message associated with them.

This is done this way because receipts save the information about the relation between messageable and the messages: is it read?, is it trashed?, etc.

#alfa gets the last conversation (chronologically, the first in the inbox)
conversation = alfa.mailbox.inbox.first

#alfa gets it receipts chronologically ordered.
receipts = conversation.receipts_for alfa

#using the receipts (i.e. in the view)
receipts.each do |receipt|
  message = receipt.message
  read = receipt.is_unread? #or message.is_unread?(alfa)

How can I reply to a message?

#alfa wants to reply to all in a conversation
#using a receipt
alfa.reply_to_all(receipt, "Reply body")

#using a conversation
alfa.reply_to_conversation(conversation, "Reply body")
#alfa wants to reply to the sender of a message (and ONLY the sender)
#using a receipt
alfa.reply_to_sender(receipt, "Reply body")

How can I delete a message from trash?

#delete conversations forever for one receipt (still in database)

#you can mark conversation as deleted for one participant
conversation.mark_as_deleted participant

#Mark the object as deleted for messageable
#Object can be:
  #* A Receipt
  #* A Conversation
  #* A Notification
  #* A Message
  #* An array with any of them
alfa.mark_as_deleted conversation

# get available message for specific user

How can I retrieve my conversations?

#alfa wants to retrieve all his conversations

#A wants to retrieve his inbox

#A wants to retrieve his sent conversations

#alfa wants to retrieve his trashed conversations

How can I paginate conversations?

You can use Kaminari to paginate the conversations as normal. Please, make sure you use the last version as mailboxer uses select('DISTINCT conversations.*') which was not respected before Kaminari 0.12.4 according to its changelog. Working correctly on Kaminari 0.13.0.

#Paginating all conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.conversations.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating received conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.inbox.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating sent conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.sentbox.page(params[:page]).per(9)

#Paginating trashed conversations using :page parameter and 9 per page
conversations = alfa.mailbox.trash.page(params[:page]).per(9)

You can take a look at the full documentation for Mailboxer in rubydoc.info.

Do you want to test Mailboxer?

Thanks to Roman Kushnir (@RKushnir) you can test Mailboxer with this sample app.

I need a GUI!

If you need a GUI you should take a look at these links:


Author: mailboxer
Source code: https://github.com/mailboxer/mailboxer
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

The Best Way to Build a Chatbot in 2021

A useful tool several businesses implement for answering questions that potential customers may have is a chatbot. Many programming languages give web designers several ways on how to make a chatbot for their websites. They are capable of answering basic questions for visitors and offer innovation for businesses.

With the help of programming languages, it is possible to create a chatbot from the ground up to satisfy someone’s needs.

Plan Out the Chatbot’s Purpose

Before building a chatbot, it is ideal for web designers to determine how it will function on a website. Several chatbot duties center around fulfilling customers’ needs and questions or compiling and optimizing data via transactions.

Some benefits of implementing chatbots include:

  • Generating leads for marketing products and services
  • Improve work capacity when employees cannot answer questions or during non-business hours
  • Reducing errors while providing accurate information to customers or visitors
  • Meeting customer demands through instant communication
  • Alerting customers about their online transactions

Some programmers may choose to design a chatbox to function through predefined answers based on the questions customers may input or function by adapting and learning via human input.

#chatbots #latest news #the best way to build a chatbot in 2021 #build #build a chatbot #best way to build a chatbot