TCP/IP is a model for describing how communication across networks typically occurs from the application layer of a source machine (HTTP), through to the physical layer, through to the destination machine and an application layer on that machine receiving a packet.
TCP/IP uses IP addresses to communicate between a source and destination host across a network.
A TCP packet walks into a bar and says, “I’d like a beer.”
The bartender replies, “You want a beer?”
The TCP packet replies, “Yes, I’d like a beer.”
In simple terms, an IP address is a number identifying a device on a network.
There are two forms of IP address — IPv4 and IPv6.
IPv4 address usage is still the most commonly used — this is despite the creation of IPv6 in 1998 as a means to address the [inevitable future shortfall of IPv4 addresses]
In this article, I won’t focus on it, but you can learn more about IPv6 below:
IPv4 addresses are divided into 4 octets of bits and represented in dot-decimal notation.
The four octets of bits have the following possible ranges:
[0 - 255].[0 - 255].[0 - 255].[0 - 255]
An example IP address can be found below (this one is for OpenDNS):
An IP address can be converted to a binary form, and this often happens when working with IP addresses. Here’s the above IP address in binary form:
The best thing about IPv4 jokes is that you can tell them 254 times before they’re exhausted.
Yes. Across the 2³² possible IPv4 addresses, we have the following reserved ranges:
10.0.0.0 — 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 — 172.31.255.255
According to [RFC-1918], each of these ranges (including the loopback address range —
_127.X.X.X_), are reserved for private use only — that means they can’t be allocated for public use over the public internet.
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Talking about inspiration in the networking industry, nothing more than Autonomous Driving Network (ADN). You may hear about this and wondering what this is about, and does it have anything to do with autonomous driving vehicles? Your guess is right; the ADN concept is derived from or inspired by the rapid development of the autonomous driving car in recent years.
Driverless Car of the Future, the advertisement for “America’s Electric Light and Power Companies,” Saturday Evening Post, the 1950s.
The vision of autonomous driving has been around for more than 70 years. But engineers continuously make attempts to achieve the idea without too much success. The concept stayed as a fiction for a long time. In 2004, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) organized the Grand Challenge for autonomous vehicles for teams to compete for the grand prize of $1 million. I remembered watching TV and saw those competing vehicles, behaved like driven by drunk man, had a really tough time to drive by itself. I thought that autonomous driving vision would still have a long way to go. To my surprise, the next year, 2005, Stanford University’s vehicles autonomously drove 131 miles in California’s Mojave desert without a scratch and took the $1 million Grand Challenge prize. How was that possible? Later I learned that the secret ingredient to make this possible was using the latest ML (Machine Learning) enabled AI (Artificial Intelligent ) technology.
Since then, AI technologies advanced rapidly and been implemented in all verticals. Around the 2016 time frame, the concept of Autonomous Driving Network started to emerge by combining AI and network to achieve network operational autonomy. The automation concept is nothing new in the networking industry; network operations are continually being automated here and there. But this time, ADN is beyond automating mundane tasks; it reaches a whole new level. With the help of AI technologies and other critical ingredients advancement like SDN (Software Defined Network), autonomous networking has a great chance from a vision to future reality.
In this article, we will examine some critical components of the ADN, current landscape, and factors that are important for ADN to be a success.
At the current stage, there are different terminologies to describe ADN vision by various organizations.
Even though slightly different terminologies, the industry is moving towards some common terms and consensus called autonomous networks, e.g. TMF, ETSI, ITU-T, GSMA. The core vision includes business and network aspects. The autonomous network delivers the “hyper-loop” from business requirements all the way to network and device layers.
On the network layer, it contains the below critical aspects:
On top of those, these capabilities need to be across multiple services, multiple domains, and the entire lifecycle(TMF, 2019).
No doubt, this is the most ambitious goal that the networking industry has ever aimed at. It has been described as the “end-state” and“ultimate goal” of networking evolution. This is not just a vision on PPT, the networking industry already on the move toward the goal.
David Wang, Huawei’s Executive Director of the Board and President of Products & Solutions, said in his 2018 Ultra-Broadband Forum(UBBF) keynote speech. (David W. 2018):
“In a fully connected and intelligent era, autonomous driving is becoming a reality. Industries like automotive, aerospace, and manufacturing are modernizing and renewing themselves by introducing autonomous technologies. However, the telecom sector is facing a major structural problem: Networks are growing year by year, but OPEX is growing faster than revenue. What’s more, it takes 100 times more effort for telecom operators to maintain their networks than OTT players. Therefore, it’s imperative that telecom operators build autonomous driving networks.”
Juniper CEO Rami Rahim said in his keynote at the company’s virtual AI event: (CRN, 2020)
“The goal now is a self-driving network. The call to action is to embrace the change. We can all benefit from putting more time into higher-layer activities, like keeping distributors out of the business. The future, I truly believe, is about getting the network out of the way. It is time for the infrastructure to take a back seat to the self-driving network.”
If you asked me this question 15 years ago, my answer would be “no chance” as I could not imagine an autonomous driving vehicle was possible then. But now, the vision is not far-fetch anymore not only because of ML/AI technology rapid advancement but other key building blocks are made significant progress, just name a few key building blocks:
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Matic Network is getting lots of attraction amidst the blockchain game developers. This is because, their competition has stepped away from the gaming scene. Matic - as a general purpose platform, capable of creating all types of DApps, and have already build 60+ DApps on Matic Network.
As a result Matic Network is busy gaining a lots of new gaming partners. They have already been integrated into many gaming DApps.
Key reasons why DApps chooses Matic Network
If you have an idea to build your own Gaming DApp - you could benefit from matic network’s high-speed, low-fee infrastructure and our assistance to transform your DApp from a great idea into a successful DApp business.
Being a Predominant DApp Game Development Company, GamesDApp helps you to Build DApp Game on matic network and also expertize in developing various popular games on the blockchain network using smart contract.
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The main objective of XOXO Network Clone Script is to make the registration process more simple and quick. In order to join the network, the user has to pay the entry fee 0.1ETH and then download either the Trust Wallet or the Meta Mask. After downloading the safe wallet, the user has to integrate it by adding the amount in ETH. Then he/she can follow the referral link which is sent by the existing user. After completing the registration process, the user can start referring others to the network. The user will receive rewards in the form of a commission instantly whenever anyone joins in the network with their referral link.
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In this video, I’m going over 7 things you NEED to know before buying your first rental or investment property in 2021. Watch this video in full to have less stress, make more money, and know how to leverage real estate to your advantage.
I own a real estate brokerage in California and have been in the industry for close to 4 years now. These are my insights on real estate investing.
From investing in multiunits in the right locations, to understanding the tax benefits, to running the numbers to make sure an investment makes sense, there are so many things any new real estate investor should know. If you want to start real estate investing and get your first rental property in 2021, this is the video for you.
There is a lot of opportunity in real estate, and as a real estate investor you need to know what the benefits are (to save on taxes) and how you can maximize the profit of your rental. These are the things I wish I knew before buying my first rental at the age of 25 - it would have saved me a lot of time and money.
I’m super excited for you! There are deals everywhere and as long as you know how to identify these deals, allocate resources correctly, and find the right tenants, you will do well. This is a long term way to build cash flow and generational wealth, for those who do it correctly.
Happy real estate investing! I’m rooting for all of you. Let’s buy some units in 2021! If you’re a hustler, make sure to hit that like button and subscribe for more content like this - I make a ton of content about personal finance, investing, and entrepreneurship.
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