Cristian Vasta

Cristian Vasta


Full-stack ReactJS app focused on streamlining employee shift management


Full-stack ReactJS app focused on streamlining employee shift management and customer relations.

General Info

Infomation is subject to change because of a future planned effort to provide a more intitive way of starting the project for the first time

After Cloning

If you trying to start a development build please modify the environment variables and the server config-file which holds variables like database host addresses and ldap host, root passwords …etc (More on this below)

Running a local development build

To run a development build for contributing or testing whether your config settings are correct can be done by running the following commands.

  • npm install (If you haven’t already)

  • npm start &

    This will start the local react developed server on localhost:3000

  • node Server/server.js

    This will start the backend server for which the proxy is already set up

Deploying a production build with docker

Deploying a production build with docker is very easy. First thing you need to do is confirm that the exposed http port in the dockerFile is the same as in server.js.

Server.js - Changing the http port

let server = https.createServer(sslOptions, app);
server.listen(443, () => {
    console.log("server starting on port : " + 443)

Server.js - Changing Certificate

const sslOptions = {
    key: fs.readFileSync(__dirname + '/ssl/selfsigned.key'),
    cert: fs.readFileSync(__dirname + '/ssl/selfsigned.crt');

once all config editing is finished we need to build the production version of our react build.

  • npm run build

This will turn our React development files into static js chunks which can be found in the newly created directory build. Next we need to modify our server to statically serve the build folder.

Server.js - Switch to serving static files

    app.use(express.static(path.join(__dirname, '../build')));
    app.get('/*', function(req, res) {
        res.sendFile(path.join(__dirname, '../build', 'index.html'));

more info can be found here

you can now start your docker container. Run the docker container which will start 3 services the Mysql Database and the Node/express server, and adminer with the following command.

  • docker-compose up --build

Contribution Details

Environment Setup for Team Members

Before getting into any setup it is highly suggested that new team members take a look at all of the references and coding standards. References can be found in: References/ and programming standards can be found in: Standards/

IDE Setup

We decided on using Visual Studio Code (VS Code) as our IDE. To use the built in terminal (CTRL+~) we used git bash for windows versions and a regular bash terminal for Unix environments. The following standards should be followed:

  • Tab spacing set to 4
  • CRLF line endings
  • UTF-8 character set
  • Block Comments Package/Extension should be installed
Example of Block Comment Format

This will provide universal comments for functions

    * @param {type} parameter
    * ...

Within this IDE we also used a Pair programming feature that should be utilized as much as possible: VS Code Live Share. To set up Live Share it must be installed as an extension in VS Code. This feature allows for real time pair programming.

Cloning from Github

To clone the project from Github the following commands should be used from the terminal:

git clone

This command will copy the public project in a directory in your current working directory.

Add Server Configuration File

This file is store locally by a team member as it contains sensitive passwords for ldap and smtp. You will have get this file from a teammate You will need to place this file in Server/. This file is very important as it is imported by many modules throughout the server to provide easy access to database,ldap-auth,smtp configs.

Notice that this file is just a JS file that exports JS objects.

Installing All Project Dependencies

We need to make sure we have Node 8+ installed in the environment. To do so go to the following link for instructions for your OS: Install Guide

Before we install dependencies we need to make sure that the npm package manager has up to date packages. Run npm update -g npm to update Npm. This will update the underlining program to grab the most up to date packages.

This will install all the project dependencies that are referenced in package.json npm install

Notice now a node_modules directory will now appear in the root directory. This directory contains all the API’s for the dependencies that we just installed. This directory also should never be pushed to the the remote repository as this file is really large.

All new dependencies need to be spiked and reviewed by all team members before they can be merged and used throughout the project.

Installing MySQL

To install MySQL version 5.11 go to the following link: Install Guide

Setting up a superuser in Mysql

A super user in MySQL is necessary to create the appropriate Tables needed by the project. To create a superuser in MySQL follow this guide: MySQL Guide

or run these commands in a unix terminal. If on windows then use the Mysql Command Line Program and skip to command 2.

mysql -u root -p

Notice that you will be prompted for a password. This is the password that was set when mysql was installed.

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

Setting up MySQL Tables

  • A database will need to be created that is called nodemysql. This can be done with the following command in MySQL within a terminal:

    CREATE DATABASE nodemysql;

  • Next, locate the sqldump.sql file within the server directory. Run the following:

    mysql -u root -p nodemysql < sqldump.sql.

  • The tables should now be set up.

Programming Standards

The following Programming Standards must be followed by all Team Members:

General Standards

Naming Conventions
  • All function names and local variables must use the camelCase naming convention e.g. function doSomething()
  • All class names and global variables must have the first character capitalized eg class Solution{...}
  • Constants should be named in all capital letters e.g CONSTDATA
  • Try to avoid digits within variable names
  • All names should be descriptive and meaningful and represent what that variable or function is doing. e.g. function addTwoInts(a, b) rather than function add(a, b)
  • All functions should be visible within one viewing window at standard zoom in visual studio code
    • If a function is larger than this it should be split into smaller functions
  • Variables should not be one character other than indexing variables
Indentation and Characters
  • Tab spacing set to 4
  • CRLF line endings
  • UTF-8 character set
  • Block Comments Package/Extension should be installed in visual studio code
  • Use of white space should be as follows:
    • Use a space after a comma when separating function arguments e.g. function doSomething(arg1, arg2)
    • Every nested block of code should be one indent further than the previous

ReactJS Standards

  • Try to follow all of ReactJS Design Principles. These can be found at the following link: Design Principles
  • Any react component that doesn’t rely on multiple states should be a simple React component function
  • All React Components functions/classes definitions should start and follow with a capitalized first character for each word
  • Components should have a relatively small foot printing. Meaning they should one not be very large and too solve or implement a small feature (see nested Components)
Nested Components

Nested components should be used rather than passing in jsx through props in most cases ex.

  • What not to do
    <TwoColumn left = {[<div>LEFT SIDE</div>]} right = {[<div>Right</div>]} />
  • What should be used
        <div>LEFT SIDE</div>
        <div>RIGHT SIDE</div>
React Function Component

Here is an example of what a ES6 React component function should look like. All react component functions and inner class functions follow ES6 syntax.

  • return JSX only
    let Frame = (props) => {
        let {name,lastname} = props
        return (
React Class Component

Here is an example of what a React Class Component should look like.

    class Frame extends React.Component{

            //state goes here
            this.state = {
        render() return();
Props Destruction

Prop Destructuring is the process of converting a js object’s inner hash table key value pairs into individual local scoped variables. Prop Destructuring should be used always when there are > 1 number of props. This allows props to be referenced by name rather than using the root reference from props first. This process has little impact on performance and is mainly used for readability.

Prop Destruction in React Functions

    let Frame = (props) => {
        //Props Destructuring
        let {name,lastname} = props
        return (

Prop Destruction in React Classes

The process is almost the same as React functions, but instead of destructing to individual variables we just append the hash table from the props object to the class’s inner hash table.

Prop destructuring in React classes should only be done in the constructor of the class in question. It also should be the first thing that is done in the constructor to prevent from future errors from a function using pre-destruction references.

    class Frame extends React.Component{

            /*  [Props Destructuring]
            * - this | Frame reference
            * - {props} | Outer Destruction
            * - ['props'] | stealing the hash table

            return <div>{this.lastname}</div>

No DOM element should be referenced out side of the React API. Document.getElementBy... should not be used at all as it interferes with the React API. All element references should be done using React refs in components. (overkill example below)

    class Frame extends React.Component{

   = React.CreateRef();

            this.clickLink = this.clickLink.bind(this);

        clickLink = () => {

                <div onClick = {()=>{this.clickLink()}}>
                    <a href = "" ref = {}>

Notice that a reference is attached to the anchor tag and that reference is used to simulate a click on the anchor when the outside div is ‘clicked’

Rendering Inline Conditional Statements

Any conditional statements in the render method should only compare changing state values and not any other global variables

    Class Frame extends React.Component{
            let state = this.state;
            //One if
            {state.somevalue === 1 &&
                <div>Render Option 1</div>

            //If else
            {state.somevalue === 2 ? 
                <div>Render Option 2</div>
                <div>Not 2</div>

            //nested if else
            ? null 
            : ( !this.state.closed ? 
                    this.animateMenu(this.links,"up") : this.animateMenu(this.links,"down")
React Styling

Follows the normal CSS styling conventions Styles that are local to a component should be implemented as javascript object styling. In line style in the jsx block

Javascript Object Styling define all the styling in the render method of the class component or use css modules

        const divStyle = {

        return (
            <div style = {divStyle}/>

Inlining to not use

        return (
            <div style = {"background-color:#333"}/>

Correct Inlining to use

use camel case js style

        return (
            <div style = {{backgroundColor:"#333"}}/>

ES6+ and Babel

All JS based code in both the backend and in the React frontend should follow and use all ES6 Concepts. See: ES6 Reference

Such Concepts that should be followed are [Spreading Syntax (Array and Object referencing), Arrow Functions,, Arrays.filter]

Spread Syntax Example - from:

function sum(x, y, z) {
  return x + y + z;

const numbers = [1, 2, 3];

// expected output: 6

console.log(sum.apply(null, numbers));
// expected output: 6

JavaScript Array Filtering Example - from:

function isPositive(value) {
  return value > 0;

var filtered = [112, 52, 0, -1, 944].filter(isPositive);

//JavaScript Arrow Function Example
var filtered = [112, 52, 0, -1, 944].filter(x =>{return x > 0});


Output: [112, 52, 944]


All code in the backend should follow all the programming standards listed above in ES6.

Any backend service should be ideally separated as a child processes

  • The main thread is reserved for REST API Requests
  • A child process should only use a small amount of resources

CSS Standards

  • Always try to provide fallback properties for older browsers if they are known to be available
  • Do not use comments unless the rule specified is unclear at first glance e.g. Some kind of workaround
  • Put spaces before { in rule declarations
  • Use either hex color codes like #000 or rgba()
  • Follow each CSS rule with a line of whitespace e.g.
  • Use camelCase for all rule names
  • Use a space after every : inside a rule

Putting these all together will yield the following:

#item1 {
    color: #333

.selectedItem {
    color: #fff;
    display: block;

.testingClass {
    border-radius: 5px;
    background-color: rgba(255,0,0,0.3);   

Version Control Standards and Guidelines

Below are all the respected standards and guidelines that must be followed through out the development of this project. The standards and guidelines will explain the proper ways to use git throughout all the know procedures that the team uses. It’s Important that every team member follows these to ensure the code base has no concurrency issues with commits …etc

Git Usage

Git was chosen as the Version Control tool for this project. This will allow the team to create separate branches for new features, testing and also allow for easy viewing of the file differences which is used as a tool for code review before any merges are made to the merge restricted branches. The online hosting service Github was also chosen for the hosting of the project files for the team. The team public repo can be found at the following link: OIT-CX Github. (See General Commands for retrieving the project)

  • Merge Restricted Branch : A branch that only allows commits from the lead contributor or contributor’s

Starting Commands

To initialize the Repository use one of the two commands can be used

git init \

git remote add origin \

git pull origin master \


To directly cloning the repository, use this command

git clone

Branching & Merging


When starting a new feature or sub-feature, a branch can be created from the testing branch or a from a sub branch from testing.

  • Sub-feature branching is not required, but is used throughout the project.

  • Feature branching from the testing branch is required.

Branching from testing

git checkout testing

git branch <branchname>

Branching from sub branch

git checkout <subbranch>

git branch <branchname>


  • Before any code can be merged to master the following must be done

    • All server and frontend side tests should all pass

    • All code has to be development and pushed to the testing branch before the code can be pushed to the master branch

    • All code should go through a code review with another team member (see code review section)

  • A sub-feature branch is only allowed to be merged back up to the root feature branch. No Higher

  • A feature branch is only allowed to be merged to testing. No Higher

Merging to master

Testing branch merging will be handled by the lead contributor’s via Github pull requests from team members


lead contributor’s can merge after code review by the following commands

    git checkout master

    git merge testing

Merging to testing

    git checkout testing

    git merge <feature-branch-name>


All commits should

  • have small file differences and only contain file differences that relate to the context of the commit that is bring created.
  • have a detailed message or paragraph that explain the insertions and deletions. follow this guide for writing commit messages

Don’t directly push to the master branch This practice allows for possible inconsistencies throughout the code base and could result in merge conflicts or cause bugs because the new changes caused tests to fail.

Pushing to Branches

git add -A 

# short message
git commit -m "message"

# or

# paragraph message
git commit 

git push <remote> <branch-name>


If any code is pushed to the Master branch without being reviewed and tested (both unit and system tests), that push will be reverted and the project will be taken back to the most recent stable version. The code that follows will perform a rollback:

git push -f origin last_known_good_commit:branch_name

To revert an individual commit that was either made by mistake or incorrect, perform the following:

git revert <commit hash>

Code Review

Before any major changes the team will need to engage in a short Pair Programming review session This can be done either in person, or in real time using Visual Studio Code Live Share. We opted for this since the team is small

  • In this code review the tests for the project will be ran before the code review starts.

Pushing to Testing

All team members are allowed to push to the testing branch and everything lower without a code review.

  • Features when completed and tested should then be pushed to the master branch after a code review

Allow the guide for pushing to branches in (Commits)

Jest Testing Standards for OIT-CX

The following guidelines and standards below will explain how, when, and where Server tests and React Component tests are conducted using

  • Jest
  • jest-dom
  • React Testing Library
  • React Test Render

Unit Testing

Unit Tests need to be conducted for every finish Non-Static Html React component and every function should ideally should have a Jest t associated to it.

Unit Testing with Jest
  • All tests need to be in the directory named __tests__ This folder name will allow jest to automatically find unit tests. Alternately, tests can have the file extension prefix `.t.jshich will also allow jest to spot tests.
  • Example Jest t file name would be the following `spiketest1.t.js- The testing file should have the same file name prefix as the file that is being tested
  • The testing file should not contain tests that are from unrelated files
Defining a Suite

A suite in Jest is simply a category name for all the tests in that suite and is denoted by the keyword describe

  • For Testing React Components the suite name should be the component name
  • For Testing normal functions the suite name should be the function name
  • A suite should contain all the tests that are directly related to the element/function/class that is being tested
    describe(('suite name'), () => {
        it('should ...', () => {
Defining a Test

A t in Jest can be denoted by it or t. Jest tests can be done by using an expect combined with a matcher. Jest provides a whole list of matchers that t general logic conditions all the way up to DOM lookups. These Jest Assertions can be done by using the expect() with the element or value that are going to match. then

  • The it keyword should be used
  • The t name should start with “Should …” as it provides a nice way of making sure unit t descriptions are easy to understand.

Example Test with Jest

    const functions = {
        add: (num1, num2) => num1 + num2

    describe('Add', () => {
        it('Should Add 2 + 2 to get 4', () => {

        it('Should Add 5 + 5 to not get 11', _ => {

Running Jest Unit Tests

The Jest unit tests can be ran using the command jest. Jest then takes a path to where you tests are found jest path/to/tests.

jest spikes

To run the unit tests for the frontend you run

npm t

this will run all the tests in the src directory, which holds all the react components.

System Testing

  • System testing is automated through Jest by using a global call of jest. This can be done with the following command:

    jest (in the root directory)

  • This will search through the entire directory of the project and find any file with the extension `.t.jsThe output will show the number of tests that were found and ran along with the number of them that passed.

  • Snapshots can also be created for components using Jest (more on this later). All snapshots will also be ran using the jest command.

Coverage Testing

  • We use jest to automatically generate coverage reports using the following command:
    npm t -- --coverage
Test Suites: 2 passed, 2 total
Tests:       2 passed, 2 total
 PASS  src/__tests__/JestSpike1.t..js
 PASS  src/__tests__/App.t
File      |  % Stmts | % Branch |  % Funcs |  % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
All files |        0 |        0 |        0 |        0 |                   |

Test Suites: 2 passed, 2 total
Tests:       2 passed, 2 total
Snapshots:   0 total
Time:        6.146s

References - Testing components using snapshots in React with Jest

Coding standards and guidelines </br>

CKAN CSS Standards </br>

CKAN JavaScript Standards</br>

ES6+ Programming Reference </br>

React Code Standards Guide </br>

JavaScript Spread Syntax</br>

JavaScript Array Filter</br>

Git Commands / Tutorial</br>

Git Commit Messages Guide</br>

Download Details:

Author: JoeManto

Source Code:

#react #reactjs #javascript

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Full-stack ReactJS app focused on streamlining employee shift management
Aria Barnes

Aria Barnes


Is Full-Stack Developer A Vaccine For Startups?

There's a wise old saying: "Working with a full stack developer can lead to better technology solutions." And in recent years, this saying has proven to be true for many startups.

In the last few years, we have heard a lot about full-stack developers.

We know that a full-stack developer is a person who has complete knowledge of the different layers involved in application development. Whether you are dealing with the front or back end or working in the business layer, they take care of everything with ease.

But did you wonder why a full-stack developer is so important for a startup? 

This blog will answer all such queries. So let's get started.

The Demand for Full-Stack Developers

As per a development report published recently, it was seen that there had been a 206% increase in demand for full-stack developers from 2018 to 2020. This is because more companies seek multifaceted skills. 

Full-stack developers or a full-stack development company are able to take care of all the development needs of your project. So whether it's front-end or back-end development or enterprise layer development, they are competent to work on everything. You can always hire full-stack developers for your business needs.

What can a Full-Stack Developer Do?

In terms of software development, there are front-end developers and back-end developers. Front-end developers create the interface, while backend developers design the software. 

A full-stack developer can do everything. They take care of application design, server-side scripting, client-side coding, coding, administration, database creation, and any other project development needs.

The following are the responsibilities of a full stack developer that you hire:

  • Manage web development

  • Code applications and programs

  • Solve problems

  • Coordinate with other team members and developers

  • Think about testing techniques for web applications

In short, a full-stack developer has a strong understanding of the technologies that determine how a website looks, functions, and functions. The said developer must have a working knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, CSS, PHP, Angular, Ruby, MySQL, Node, MongoDB, Apache, etc. The knowledge to work with animations and design will add a bonus point to a candidate's portfolio.

Over time, the skills required for full-stack development have expanded and evolved. Long ago, the LAMP stack included Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP. It is more than MEAN and beyond today. 

Currently, a typical mean stack development service provides developers who can perform front-end development using JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and other JS frameworks; for the backend, they use Express and Node, and for databases, they follow MySQL and MongoDB.

Top Reasons to Hire Full-Stack Developers

  • Effective troubleshooting

When hiring a full-stack developer, companies are always looking for candidates who are capable of solving a problem. Full-stack developers are competent to handle all aspects of the project. They prove to be a practical solution for startups that are not willing to spend more money on many developers.

  • Wide range of technology skills

The main reason companies choose full-stack developers for their projects is their potential rather than their knowledge. Over time, companies teach them the skills they want them to have. In this way, in a few years, they learn different technological skills as the company expands.

  • Executive and management skills

Companies like to have people with business experience on board. A full-stack developer has the knowledge and expertise to work on the front-end, backend, and media architecture layers. This means that they are capable of performing better than an individual front-end or backend developer.

  • Economic

As full-stack developers can develop all aspects of a project, it is not necessary to form a team of experts. They will easily handle the project without help from anyone. This will save the right amount of money for the recruiting team.

  • Faster development process

Full-stack developers know different technologies, tools, and techniques. This means that when they take the project, they will be able to complete it faster. They will spend less time discussing and collaborating with the team on the project.

Benefits of Full-Stack Developers for Startups and Small Businesses

  • Established developers

Full-stack developers have enough experience to create outstanding features for the final product, which will be able to excite the market. They have the ability to build a complete product from scratch. If you want to gain some benefits from your product, you will have to collaborate with these experts. Remember that not all developers are capable of handling the project from a 360-degree perspective.

  • Versatility

A full-stack developer is able to work equally well on the front-end and the backend of a website or application. Front-end developers write code using JavaScript, HTML, and CSS, which are able to control the appearance of the solution and how it interacts with the browser and users. Backend developers write code that connects the website or application with other content management systems. A full-stack developer is capable of handling both tasks. They are focused on meeting customer expectations and finding solutions on their own.


  • Vast experience

Full-stack developers take on different web projects. This has helped them gain in-depth knowledge of various technologies and the experience to find quick solutions in web and application development. Such understanding and knowledge improve the performance of the project and its reception in the market.

  • The largest photograph

The main advantage of choosing a full-stack developer for your project is that they will come up with the complete structure of the project and offer their valuable input to the project as needed. Their services go beyond project development to maintain and optimize existing solutions.

  • Upgrades

Web design plays a crucial role in whether most people love or reject a website. Full-stack developers will make sure that the website is pretty user-friendly. They keep up with trends and technological innovations. To make sure their clients get the best interactive and responsive website, the developers implement intelligent features in their projects.

  • Troubleshooting issues

Full-stack developers have complete knowledge and experience of the different stages and aspects of website development. They are skilled enough to identify problems that may arise during the development of the project. They will propose long-term solutions to ensure that the website or application works optimally based on their findings.

  • All-inclusive

In addition to leading your web project and enabling enhancements to it, full-stack developers move to the level of representing your product to stakeholders or your company at conferences. They can move quickly from one operation to another with ease, streamlining the development process.

  • Economic

If you are on a tight budget but want to create a fantastic website, then you should consider hiring full developers for the job. You can even think about having a remote full-stack developer for the project. As such, a developer is capable of handling all aspects of project development; you won't have to hire different people for the job. This will save you a lot of money.

  • Delivery time

It will be easy for developers to share responsibilities among the team and coordinate with each other for better project progress. This will result in faster delivery of the project.

  • Project ownership

When you hire full-stack developers for your project, you can be sure that they will take care of everything. Such a developer will be able to develop MVP from start to finish. If you hire a full-stack developer in the middle of the project, even then, you'll find a way to join the flow seamlessly. Such a developer will work towards quality control of the design project.



Summing Up

So these were the advantages of hiring a full-stack developer. I hope you have noted the changes that a full-stack developer can bring to the table and in your company. However, working with a full-stack developer is the best way to work with a top full-stack development company in India.

It is a good idea that full-stack development companies bring to your projects are phenomenal and groundbreaking due to the expertise and experience that full-stack development companies bring to your projects.

If you have any other queries or suggestions, feel free to comment below.

Original source

#full stack developers #hire full stack developers #full stack development #mean stack development service #hire full stack developer india #hire full stack developer

Hire Full Stack Developers

If you are looking for a full-stack mobile developer for your web or mobile app development needs?

Hire Full Stack Developers to develop any type of web, mobile, or desktop applications from start-to-end. full-stack programmers know their way around different tiers of software development, servers, databases, APIs, MVC, and hosting environments among others.

Contact us:

#hire full stack developers #full stack developers #full-stack programmers #full-stack development #full-stack

Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes


Best Electric Bikes and Scooters for Rental Business or Campus Facility

The electric scooter revolution has caught on super-fast taking many cities across the globe by storm. eScooters, a renovated version of old-school scooters now turned into electric vehicles are an environmentally friendly solution to current on-demand commute problems. They work on engines, like cars, enabling short traveling distances without hassle. The result is that these groundbreaking electric machines can now provide faster transport for less — cheaper than Uber and faster than Metro.

Since they are durable, fast, easy to operate and maintain, and are more convenient to park compared to four-wheelers, the eScooters trend has and continues to spike interest as a promising growth area. Several companies and universities are increasingly setting up shop to provide eScooter services realizing a would-be profitable business model and a ready customer base that is university students or residents in need of faster and cheap travel going about their business in school, town, and other surrounding areas.

Electric Scooters Trends and Statistics

In many countries including the U.S., Canada, Mexico, U.K., Germany, France, China, Japan, India, Brazil and Mexico and more, a growing number of eScooter users both locals and tourists can now be seen effortlessly passing lines of drivers stuck in the endless and unmoving traffic.

A recent report by McKinsey revealed that the E-Scooter industry will be worth― $200 billion to $300 billion in the United States, $100 billion to $150 billion in Europe, and $30 billion to $50 billion in China in 2030. The e-Scooter revenue model will also spike and is projected to rise by more than 20% amounting to approximately $5 billion.

And, with a necessity to move people away from high carbon prints, traffic and congestion issues brought about by car-centric transport systems in cities, more and more city planners are developing more bike/scooter lanes and adopting zero-emission plans. This is the force behind the booming electric scooter market and the numbers will only go higher and higher.

Companies that have taken advantage of the growing eScooter trend develop an appthat allows them to provide efficient eScooter services. Such an app enables them to be able to locate bike pick-up and drop points through fully integrated google maps.

List of Best Electric Bikes for Rental Business or Campus Facility 2020:

It’s clear that e scooters will increasingly become more common and the e-scooter business model will continue to grab the attention of manufacturers, investors, entrepreneurs. All this should go ahead with a quest to know what are some of the best electric bikes in the market especially for anyone who would want to get started in the electric bikes/scooters rental business.

We have done a comprehensive list of the best electric bikes! Each bike has been reviewed in depth and includes a full list of specs and a photo.

Billy eBike


To start us off is the Billy eBike, a powerful go-anywhere urban electric bike that’s specially designed to offer an exciting ride like no other whether you want to ride to the grocery store, cafe, work or school. The Billy eBike comes in 4 color options – Billy Blue, Polished aluminium, Artic white, and Stealth black.

Price: $2490

Available countries

Available in the USA, Europe, Asia, South Africa and Australia.This item ships from the USA. Buyers are therefore responsible for any taxes and/or customs duties incurred once it arrives in your country.


  • Control – Ride with confidence with our ultra-wide BMX bars and a hyper-responsive twist throttle.
  • Stealth- Ride like a ninja with our Gates carbon drive that’s as smooth as butter and maintenance-free.
  • Drive – Ride further with our high torque fat bike motor, giving a better climbing performance.
  • Accelerate – Ride quicker with our 20-inch lightweight cutout rims for improved acceleration.
  • Customize – Ride your own way with 5 levels of power control. Each level determines power and speed.
  • Flickable – Ride harder with our BMX /MotoX inspired geometry and lightweight aluminum package


  • Maximum speed: 20 mph (32 km/h)
  • Range per charge: 41 miles (66 km)
  • Maximum Power: 500W
  • Motor type: Fat Bike Motor: Bafang RM G060.500.DC
  • Load capacity: 300lbs (136kg)
  • Battery type: 13.6Ah Samsung lithium-ion,
  • Battery capacity: On/off-bike charging available
  • Weight: w/o batt. 48.5lbs (22kg), w/ batt. 54lbs (24.5kg)
  • Front Suspension: Fully adjustable air shock, preload/compression damping /lockout
  • Rear Suspension: spring, preload adjustment
  • Built-in GPS

Why Should You Buy This?

  • Riding fun and excitement
  • Better climbing ability and faster acceleration.
  • Ride with confidence
  • Billy folds for convenient storage and transportation.
  • Shorty levers connect to disc brakes ensuring you stop on a dime
  • belt drives are maintenance-free and clean (no oil or lubrication needed)

**Who Should Ride Billy? **

Both new and experienced riders

**Where to Buy? **Local distributors or ships from the USA.

Genze 200 series e-Bike


Featuring a sleek and lightweight aluminum frame design, the 200-Series ebike takes your riding experience to greater heights. Available in both black and white this ebike comes with a connected app, which allows you to plan activities, map distances and routes while also allowing connections with fellow riders.

Price: $2099.00

Available countries

The Genze 200 series e-Bike is available at GenZe retail locations across the U.S or online via website. Customers from outside the US can ship the product while incurring the relevant charges.


  • 2 Frame Options
  • 2 Sizes
  • Integrated/Removable Battery
  • Throttle and Pedal Assist Ride Modes
  • Integrated LCD Display
  • Connected App
  • 24 month warranty
  • GPS navigation
  • Bluetooth connectivity


  • Maximum speed: 20 mph with throttle
  • Range per charge: 15-18 miles w/ throttle and 30-50 miles w/ pedal assist
  • Charging time: 3.5 hours
  • Motor type: Brushless Rear Hub Motor
  • Gears: Microshift Thumb Shifter
  • Battery type: Removable Samsung 36V, 9.6AH Li-Ion battery pack
  • Battery capacity: 36V and 350 Wh
  • Weight: 46 pounds
  • Derailleur: 8-speed Shimano
  • Brakes: Dual classic
  • Wheels: 26 x 20 inches
  • Frame: 16, and 18 inches
  • Operating Mode: Analog mode 5 levels of Pedal Assist Thrott­le Mode

Norco from eBikestore


The Norco VLT S2 is a front suspension e-Bike with solid components alongside the reliable Bosch Performance Line Power systems that offer precise pedal assistance during any riding situation.

Price: $2,699.00

Available countries

This item is available via the various Norco bikes international distributors.


  • VLT aluminum frame- for stiffness and wheel security.
  • Bosch e-bike system – for their reliability and performance.
  • E-bike components – for added durability.
  • Hydraulic disc brakes – offer riders more stopping power for safety and control at higher speeds.
  • Practical design features – to add convenience and versatility.


  • Maximum speed: KMC X9 9spd
  • Motor type: Bosch Active Line
  • Gears: Shimano Altus RD-M2000, SGS, 9 Speed
  • Battery type: Power Pack 400
  • Battery capacity: 396Wh
  • Suspension: SR Suntour suspension fork
  • Frame: Norco VLT, Aluminum, 12x142mm TA Dropouts

Bodo EV


Manufactured by Bodo Vehicle Group Limited, the Bodo EV is specially designed for strong power and extraordinary long service to facilitate super amazing rides. The Bodo Vehicle Company is a striking top in electric vehicles brand field in China and across the globe. Their Bodo EV will no doubt provide your riders with high-level riding satisfaction owing to its high-quality design, strength, breaking stability and speed.

Price: $799

Available countries

This item ships from China with buyers bearing the shipping costs and other variables prior to delivery.


  • Reliable
  • Environment friendly
  • Comfortable riding
  • Fashionable
  • Economical
  • Durable – long service life
  • Braking stability
  • LED lighting technology


  • Maximum speed: 45km/h
  • Range per charge: 50km per person
  • Charging time: 8 hours
  • Maximum Power: 3000W
  • Motor type: Brushless DC Motor
  • Load capacity: 100kg
  • Battery type: Lead-acid battery
  • Battery capacity: 60V 20AH
  • Weight: w/o battery 47kg

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Carmen  Grimes

Carmen Grimes


How to start an electric scooter facility/fleet in a university campus/IT park

Are you leading an organization that has a large campus, e.g., a large university? You are probably thinking of introducing an electric scooter/bicycle fleet on the campus, and why wouldn’t you?

Introducing micro-mobility in your campus with the help of such a fleet would help the people on the campus significantly. People would save money since they don’t need to use a car for a short distance. Your campus will see a drastic reduction in congestion, moreover, its carbon footprint will reduce.

Micro-mobility is relatively new though and you would need help. You would need to select an appropriate fleet of vehicles. The people on your campus would need to find electric scooters or electric bikes for commuting, and you need to provide a solution for this.

To be more specific, you need a short-term electric bike rental app. With such an app, you will be able to easily offer micro-mobility to the people on the campus. We at Devathon have built Autorent exactly for this.

What does Autorent do and how can it help you? How does it enable you to introduce micro-mobility on your campus? We explain these in this article, however, we will touch upon a few basics first.

Micro-mobility: What it is


You are probably thinking about micro-mobility relatively recently, aren’t you? A few relevant insights about it could help you to better appreciate its importance.

Micro-mobility is a new trend in transportation, and it uses vehicles that are considerably smaller than cars. Electric scooters (e-scooters) and electric bikes (e-bikes) are the most popular forms of micro-mobility, however, there are also e-unicycles and e-skateboards.

You might have already seen e-scooters, which are kick scooters that come with a motor. Thanks to its motor, an e-scooter can achieve a speed of up to 20 km/h. On the other hand, e-bikes are popular in China and Japan, and they come with a motor, and you can reach a speed of 40 km/h.

You obviously can’t use these vehicles for very long commutes, however, what if you need to travel a short distance? Even if you have a reasonable public transport facility in the city, it might not cover the route you need to take. Take the example of a large university campus. Such a campus is often at a considerable distance from the central business district of the city where it’s located. While public transport facilities may serve the central business district, they wouldn’t serve this large campus. Currently, many people drive their cars even for short distances.

As you know, that brings its own set of challenges. Vehicular traffic adds significantly to pollution, moreover, finding a parking spot can be hard in crowded urban districts.

Well, you can reduce your carbon footprint if you use an electric car. However, electric cars are still new, and many countries are still building the necessary infrastructure for them. Your large campus might not have the necessary infrastructure for them either. Presently, electric cars don’t represent a viable option in most geographies.

As a result, you need to buy and maintain a car even if your commute is short. In addition to dealing with parking problems, you need to spend significantly on your car.

All of these factors have combined to make people sit up and think seriously about cars. Many people are now seriously considering whether a car is really the best option even if they have to commute only a short distance.

This is where micro-mobility enters the picture. When you commute a short distance regularly, e-scooters or e-bikes are viable options. You limit your carbon footprints and you cut costs!

Businesses have seen this shift in thinking, and e-scooter companies like Lime and Bird have entered this field in a big way. They let you rent e-scooters by the minute. On the other hand, start-ups like Jump and Lyft have entered the e-bike market.

Think of your campus now! The people there might need to travel short distances within the campus, and e-scooters can really help them.

How micro-mobility can benefit you


What advantages can you get from micro-mobility? Let’s take a deeper look into this question.

Micro-mobility can offer several advantages to the people on your campus, e.g.:

  • Affordability: Shared e-scooters are cheaper than other mass transportation options. Remember that the people on your campus will use them on a shared basis, and they will pay for their short commutes only. Well, depending on your operating model, you might even let them use shared e-scooters or e-bikes for free!
  • Convenience: Users don’t need to worry about finding parking spots for shared e-scooters since these are small. They can easily travel from point A to point B on your campus with the help of these e-scooters.
  • Environmentally sustainable: Shared e-scooters reduce the carbon footprint, moreover, they decongest the roads. Statistics from the pilot programs in cities like Portland and Denver showimpressive gains around this key aspect.
  • Safety: This one’s obvious, isn’t it? When people on your campus use small e-scooters or e-bikes instead of cars, the problem of overspeeding will disappear. you will see fewer accidents.

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