Dianna  Farrell

Dianna Farrell

1613619300

How to Create OU's, Users, and Groups on Windows Server 2019 Active Directory

Learn how to create OU’s, Users, and Groups on Windows Server 2019 Active Directory.

In this Step By Step Tutorial we cover the following topics:

  • Browse through Active Directory Users and Computers
  • Create a new OU
  • Create a sub OU in the new OU
  • Create new users in the sub OU
  • Show various default groups
  • Add users in the groups
  • Limit the computers a user can logon to
  • Limit logon hours for a user in Windows Active Directory
  • Reset a user’s password in Windows Active Directory
  • Unlock or enable an account in Active Directory

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How to Create OU's, Users, and Groups on Windows Server 2019 Active Directory
Easter  Deckow

Easter Deckow

1655630160

PyTumblr: A Python Tumblr API v2 Client

PyTumblr

Installation

Install via pip:

$ pip install pytumblr

Install from source:

$ git clone https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr.git
$ cd pytumblr
$ python setup.py install

Usage

Create a client

A pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:

client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient(
    '<consumer_key>',
    '<consumer_secret>',
    '<oauth_token>',
    '<oauth_secret>',
)

client.info() # Grabs the current user information

Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:

  1. The built-in interactive_console.py tool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
  2. The Tumblr API console at https://api.tumblr.com/console
  3. Get sample login code at https://api.tumblr.com/console/calls/user/info

Supported Methods

User Methods

client.info() # get information about the authenticating user
client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user
client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user
client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user

client.follow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # follow a blog
client.unfollow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # unfollow a blog

client.like(id, reblogkey) # like a post
client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post

Blog Methods

client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog
client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog
client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog
client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog
client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog
client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows
client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog
client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog

Post Methods

Creating posts

PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.

The default supported types are described below.

  • state - a string, the state of the post. Supported types are published, draft, queue, private
  • tags - a list, a list of strings that you want tagged on the post. eg: ["testing", "magic", "1"]
  • tweet - a string, the string of the customized tweet you want. eg: "Man I love my mega awesome post!"
  • date - a string, the customized GMT that you want
  • format - a string, the format that your post is in. Support types are html or markdown
  • slug - a string, the slug for the url of the post you want

We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.

Creating a photo post

Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload

#Creates a photo post using a source URL
client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    source="https://68.media.tumblr.com/b965fbb2e501610a29d80ffb6fb3e1ad/tumblr_n55vdeTse11rn1906o1_500.jpg")

#Creates a photo post using a local filepath
client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]",
                    data="/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg")

#Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths
client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown",
                    data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"],
                    caption="## Mega sweet kittens")

Creating a text post

Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html

#Creating a text post
client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")

Creating a quote post

Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported

#Creating a quote post
client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")

Creating a link post

  • title - a string, the title of post that you want. Supports HTML entities.
  • url - a string, the url that you want to create a link post for.
  • description - a string, the desciption of the link that you have
#Create a link post
client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="https://duckduckgo.com",
                   description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")

Creating a chat post

Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)

#Create a chat post
chat = """John: Testing can be fun!
Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you.
John: Aw.
"""
client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])

Creating an audio post

Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr

#Creating an audio file
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3")

#lets use soundcloud!
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="https://soundcloud.com/skrillex/sets/recess")

Creating a video post

Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload

#Creating an upload from YouTube
client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.",
                    embed="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40pUYLacrj4")

#Creating a video post from local file
client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/blah.mov")

Editing a post

Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.

client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated")
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")

Reblogging a Post

Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.

client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")

Deleting a post

Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id

client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(

A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):

client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)

Getting notes for a post

In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')

The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])

Tagged Methods

# get posts with a given tag
client.tagged(tag, **params)

Using the interactive console

This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).

You'll need pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:

$ python interactive-console.py

and away you go! Tokens are stored in ~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.

Running tests

The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:

python setup.py test

Author: tumblr
Source Code: https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr
License: Apache-2.0 license

#python #api 

Tamale  Moses

Tamale Moses

1669003576

Exploring Mutable and Immutable in Python

In this Python article, let's learn about Mutable and Immutable in Python. 

Mutable and Immutable in Python

Mutable is a fancy way of saying that the internal state of the object is changed/mutated. So, the simplest definition is: An object whose internal state can be changed is mutable. On the other hand, immutable doesn’t allow any change in the object once it has been created.

Both of these states are integral to Python data structure. If you want to become more knowledgeable in the entire Python Data Structure, take this free course which covers multiple data structures in Python including tuple data structure which is immutable. You will also receive a certificate on completion which is sure to add value to your portfolio.

Mutable Definition

Mutable is when something is changeable or has the ability to change. In Python, ‘mutable’ is the ability of objects to change their values. These are often the objects that store a collection of data.

Immutable Definition

Immutable is the when no change is possible over time. In Python, if the value of an object cannot be changed over time, then it is known as immutable. Once created, the value of these objects is permanent.

List of Mutable and Immutable objects

Objects of built-in type that are mutable are:

  • Lists
  • Sets
  • Dictionaries
  • User-Defined Classes (It purely depends upon the user to define the characteristics) 

Objects of built-in type that are immutable are:

  • Numbers (Integer, Rational, Float, Decimal, Complex & Booleans)
  • Strings
  • Tuples
  • Frozen Sets
  • User-Defined Classes (It purely depends upon the user to define the characteristics)

Object mutability is one of the characteristics that makes Python a dynamically typed language. Though Mutable and Immutable in Python is a very basic concept, it can at times be a little confusing due to the intransitive nature of immutability.

Objects in Python

In Python, everything is treated as an object. Every object has these three attributes:

  • Identity – This refers to the address that the object refers to in the computer’s memory.
  • Type – This refers to the kind of object that is created. For example- integer, list, string etc. 
  • Value – This refers to the value stored by the object. For example – List=[1,2,3] would hold the numbers 1,2 and 3

While ID and Type cannot be changed once it’s created, values can be changed for Mutable objects.

Check out this free python certificate course to get started with Python.

Mutable Objects in Python

I believe, rather than diving deep into the theory aspects of mutable and immutable in Python, a simple code would be the best way to depict what it means in Python. Hence, let us discuss the below code step-by-step:

#Creating a list which contains name of Indian cities  

cities = [‘Delhi’, ‘Mumbai’, ‘Kolkata’]

# Printing the elements from the list cities, separated by a comma & space

for city in cities:
		print(city, end=’, ’)

Output [1]: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(cities)))

Output [2]: 0x1691d7de8c8

#Adding a new city to the list cities

cities.append(‘Chennai’)

#Printing the elements from the list cities, separated by a comma & space 

for city in cities:
	print(city, end=’, ’)

Output [3]: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(cities)))

Output [4]: 0x1691d7de8c8

The above example shows us that we were able to change the internal state of the object ‘cities’ by adding one more city ‘Chennai’ to it, yet, the memory address of the object did not change. This confirms that we did not create a new object, rather, the same object was changed or mutated. Hence, we can say that the object which is a type of list with reference variable name ‘cities’ is a MUTABLE OBJECT.

Let us now discuss the term IMMUTABLE. Considering that we understood what mutable stands for, it is obvious that the definition of immutable will have ‘NOT’ included in it. Here is the simplest definition of immutable– An object whose internal state can NOT be changed is IMMUTABLE.

Again, if you try and concentrate on different error messages, you have encountered, thrown by the respective IDE; you use you would be able to identify the immutable objects in Python. For instance, consider the below code & associated error message with it, while trying to change the value of a Tuple at index 0. 

#Creating a Tuple with variable name ‘foo’

foo = (1, 2)

#Changing the index[0] value from 1 to 3

foo[0] = 3
	
TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment 

Immutable Objects in Python

Once again, a simple code would be the best way to depict what immutable stands for. Hence, let us discuss the below code step-by-step:

#Creating a Tuple which contains English name of weekdays

weekdays = ‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’

# Printing the elements of tuple weekdays

print(weekdays)

Output [1]:  (‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’)

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(weekdays)))

Output [2]: 0x1691cc35090

#tuples are immutable, so you cannot add new elements, hence, using merge of tuples with the # + operator to add a new imaginary day in the tuple ‘weekdays’

weekdays  +=  ‘Pythonday’,

#Printing the elements of tuple weekdays

print(weekdays)

Output [3]: (‘Sunday’, ‘Monday’, ‘Tuesday’, ‘Wednesday’, ‘Thursday’, ‘Friday’, ‘Saturday’, ‘Pythonday’)

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(weekdays)))

Output [4]: 0x1691cc8ad68

This above example shows that we were able to use the same variable name that is referencing an object which is a type of tuple with seven elements in it. However, the ID or the memory location of the old & new tuple is not the same. We were not able to change the internal state of the object ‘weekdays’. The Python program manager created a new object in the memory address and the variable name ‘weekdays’ started referencing the new object with eight elements in it.  Hence, we can say that the object which is a type of tuple with reference variable name ‘weekdays’ is an IMMUTABLE OBJECT.

Also Read: Understanding the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) in Python

Where can you use mutable and immutable objects:

Mutable objects can be used where you want to allow for any updates. For example, you have a list of employee names in your organizations, and that needs to be updated every time a new member is hired. You can create a mutable list, and it can be updated easily.

Immutability offers a lot of useful applications to different sensitive tasks we do in a network centred environment where we allow for parallel processing. By creating immutable objects, you seal the values and ensure that no threads can invoke overwrite/update to your data. This is also useful in situations where you would like to write a piece of code that cannot be modified. For example, a debug code that attempts to find the value of an immutable object.

Watch outs:  Non transitive nature of Immutability:

OK! Now we do understand what mutable & immutable objects in Python are. Let’s go ahead and discuss the combination of these two and explore the possibilities. Let’s discuss, as to how will it behave if you have an immutable object which contains the mutable object(s)? Or vice versa? Let us again use a code to understand this behaviour–

#creating a tuple (immutable object) which contains 2 lists(mutable) as it’s elements

#The elements (lists) contains the name, age & gender 

person = (['Ayaan', 5, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the tuple

print(person)

Output [1]: (['Ayaan', 5, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(person)))

Output [2]: 0x1691ef47f88

#Changing the age for the 1st element. Selecting 1st element of tuple by using indexing [0] then 2nd element of the list by using indexing [1] and assigning a new value for age as 4

person[0][1] = 4

#printing the updated tuple

print(person)

Output [3]: (['Ayaan', 4, 'Male'], ['Aaradhya', 8, 'Female'])

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(person)))

Output [4]: 0x1691ef47f88

In the above code, you can see that the object ‘person’ is immutable since it is a type of tuple. However, it has two lists as it’s elements, and we can change the state of lists (lists being mutable). So, here we did not change the object reference inside the Tuple, but the referenced object was mutated.

Also Read: Real-Time Object Detection Using TensorFlow

Same way, let’s explore how it will behave if you have a mutable object which contains an immutable object? Let us again use a code to understand the behaviour–

#creating a list (mutable object) which contains tuples(immutable) as it’s elements

list1 = [(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the list

print(list1)

Output [1]: [(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(list1)))

Output [2]: 0x1691d5b13c8	

#changing object reference at index 0

list1[0] = (7, 8, 9)

#printing the list

Output [3]: [(7, 8, 9), (4, 5, 6)]

#printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(list1)))

Output [4]: 0x1691d5b13c8

As an individual, it completely depends upon you and your requirements as to what kind of data structure you would like to create with a combination of mutable & immutable objects. I hope that this information will help you while deciding the type of object you would like to select going forward.

Before I end our discussion on IMMUTABILITY, allow me to use the word ‘CAVITE’ when we discuss the String and Integers. There is an exception, and you may see some surprising results while checking the truthiness for immutability. For instance:
#creating an object of integer type with value 10 and reference variable name ‘x’ 

x = 10
 

#printing the value of ‘x’

print(x)

Output [1]: 10

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(x)))

Output [2]: 0x538fb560

#creating an object of integer type with value 10 and reference variable name ‘y’

y = 10

#printing the value of ‘y’

print(y)

Output [3]: 10

#Printing the location of the object created in the memory address in hexadecimal format

print(hex(id(y)))

Output [4]: 0x538fb560

As per our discussion and understanding, so far, the memory address for x & y should have been different, since, 10 is an instance of Integer class which is immutable. However, as shown in the above code, it has the same memory address. This is not something that we expected. It seems that what we have understood and discussed, has an exception as well.

Quick checkPython Data Structures

Immutability of Tuple

Tuples are immutable and hence cannot have any changes in them once they are created in Python. This is because they support the same sequence operations as strings. We all know that strings are immutable. The index operator will select an element from a tuple just like in a string. Hence, they are immutable.

Exceptions in immutability

Like all, there are exceptions in the immutability in python too. Not all immutable objects are really mutable. This will lead to a lot of doubts in your mind. Let us just take an example to understand this.

Consider a tuple ‘tup’.

Now, if we consider tuple tup = (‘GreatLearning’,[4,3,1,2]) ;

We see that the tuple has elements of different data types. The first element here is a string which as we all know is immutable in nature. The second element is a list which we all know is mutable. Now, we all know that the tuple itself is an immutable data type. It cannot change its contents. But, the list inside it can change its contents. So, the value of the Immutable objects cannot be changed but its constituent objects can. change its value.

FAQs

1. Difference between mutable vs immutable in Python?

Mutable ObjectImmutable Object
State of the object can be modified after it is created.State of the object can’t be modified once it is created.
They are not thread safe.They are thread safe
Mutable classes are not final.It is important to make the class final before creating an immutable object.

2. What are the mutable and immutable data types in Python?

  • Some mutable data types in Python are:

list, dictionary, set, user-defined classes.

  • Some immutable data types are: 

int, float, decimal, bool, string, tuple, range.

3. Are lists mutable in Python?

Lists in Python are mutable data types as the elements of the list can be modified, individual elements can be replaced, and the order of elements can be changed even after the list has been created.
(Examples related to lists have been discussed earlier in this blog.)

4. Why are tuples called immutable types?

Tuple and list data structures are very similar, but one big difference between the data types is that lists are mutable, whereas tuples are immutable. The reason for the tuple’s immutability is that once the elements are added to the tuple and the tuple has been created; it remains unchanged.

A programmer would always prefer building a code that can be reused instead of making the whole data object again. Still, even though tuples are immutable, like lists, they can contain any Python object, including mutable objects.

5. Are sets mutable in Python?

A set is an iterable unordered collection of data type which can be used to perform mathematical operations (like union, intersection, difference etc.). Every element in a set is unique and immutable, i.e. no duplicate values should be there, and the values can’t be changed. However, we can add or remove items from the set as the set itself is mutable.

6. Are strings mutable in Python?

Strings are not mutable in Python. Strings are a immutable data types which means that its value cannot be updated.

Join Great Learning Academy’s free online courses and upgrade your skills today.


Original article source at: https://www.mygreatlearning.com

#python 

LaravelS: Glue for using Swoole in Laravel Or Lumen

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

 _                               _  _____ 
| |                             | |/ ____|
| |     __ _ _ __ __ ___   _____| | (___  
| |    / _` | '__/ _` \ \ / / _ \ |\___ \ 
| |___| (_| | | | (_| |\ V /  __/ |____) |
|______\__,_|_|  \__,_| \_/ \___|_|_____/ 

中文文档

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
  • Http
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

  1. Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.
// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],
  1. Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.
// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test

Alternatives

Sponsor

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Gitee

Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s 
License: MIT License

#php #laravel #http 

Daniel  Hughes

Daniel Hughes

1649214000

LaravelS: Glue for using Swoole in Laravel Or Lumen.

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

中文文档

Table of Contents

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5292,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestUdpSocket::class,
    ],
],
  • Http
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5293,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestHttp::class,
    ],
],
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '0.0.0.0',
        'port'     => 5294,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,
        'settings' => [
            'open_http_protocol'      => true,
            'open_websocket_protocol' => true,
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestWebSocket::class,
    ],
],

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

  1. Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.
// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],
  1. Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.
// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Route::get('/debug-memory-leak', function () {
    global $previous;
    $current = memory_get_usage();
    $stats = [
        'prev_mem' => $previous,
        'curr_mem' => $current,
        'diff_mem' => $current - $previous,
    ];
    $previous = $current;
    return $stats;
});

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test


Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s
License: MIT License

#laravel #php 

Veronica  Roob

Veronica Roob

1648869960

LaravelS: An Out-Of-The-Box Adapter Between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen

 _                               _  _____ 
| |                             | |/ ____|
| |     __ _ _ __ __ ___   _____| | (___  
| |    / _` | '__/ _` \ \ / / _ \ |\___ \ 
| |___| (_| | | | (_| |\ V /  __/ |____) |
|______\__,_|_|  \__,_| \_/ \___|_|_____/ 
                                           

🚀 LaravelS is an out-of-the-box adapter between Swoole and Laravel/Lumen.

Please Watch this repository to get the latest updates.

中文文档

Features

Built-in Http/WebSocket server

Multi-port mixed protocol

Custom process

Memory resident

Asynchronous event listening

Asynchronous task queue

Millisecond cron job

Common Components

Gracefully reload

Automatically reload after modifying code

Support Laravel/Lumen both, good compatibility

Simple & Out of the box

Benchmark

Which is the fastest web framework?

TechEmpower Framework Benchmarks

Requirements

DependencyRequirement
PHP>= 5.5.9 Recommend PHP7+
Swoole>= 1.7.19 No longer support PHP5 since 2.0.12 Recommend 4.5.0+
Laravel/Lumen>= 5.1 Recommend 8.0+

Install

1.Require package via Composer(packagist).

composer require "hhxsv5/laravel-s:~3.7.0" -vvv
# Make sure that your composer.lock file is under the VCS

2.Register service provider(pick one of two).

Laravel: in config/app.php file, Laravel 5.5+ supports package discovery automatically, you should skip this step

'providers' => [
    //...
    Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class,
],

Lumen: in bootstrap/app.php file

$app->register(Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelSServiceProvider::class);

3.Publish configuration and binaries.

After upgrading LaravelS, you need to republish; click here to see the change notes of each version.

php artisan laravels publish
# Configuration: config/laravels.php
# Binary: bin/laravels bin/fswatch bin/inotify

4.Change config/laravels.php: listen_ip, listen_port, refer Settings.

5.Performance tuning

Adjust kernel parameters

Number of Workers: LaravelS uses Swoole's Synchronous IO mode, the larger the worker_num setting, the better the concurrency performance, but it will cause more memory usage and process switching overhead. If one request takes 100ms, in order to provide 1000QPS concurrency, at least 100 Worker processes need to be configured. The calculation method is: worker_num = 1000QPS/(1s/1ms) = 100, so incremental pressure testing is needed to calculate the best worker_num.

Number of Task Workers

Run

Please read the notices carefully before running, Important notices(IMPORTANT).

  • Commands: php bin/laravels {start|stop|restart|reload|info|help}.
CommandDescription
startStart LaravelS, list the processes by "ps -ef|grep laravels"
stopStop LaravelS, and trigger the method onStop of Custom process
restartRestart LaravelS: Stop gracefully before starting; The service is unavailable until startup is complete
reloadReload all Task/Worker/Timer processes which contain your business codes, and trigger the method onReload of Custom process, CANNOT reload Master/Manger processes. After modifying config/laravels.php, you only have to call restart to restart
infoDisplay component version information
helpDisplay help information
  • Boot options for the commands start and restart.
OptionDescription
-d|--daemonizeRun as a daemon, this option will override the swoole.daemonize setting in laravels.php
-e|--envThe environment the command should run under, such as --env=testing will use the configuration file .env.testing firstly, this feature requires Laravel 5.2+
-i|--ignoreIgnore checking PID file of Master process
-x|--x-versionThe version(branch) of the current project, stored in $_ENV/$_SERVER, access via $_ENV['X_VERSION'] $_SERVER['X_VERSION'] $request->server->get('X_VERSION')
  • Runtime files: start will automatically execute php artisan laravels config and generate these files, developers generally don't need to pay attention to them, it's recommended to add them to .gitignore.
FileDescription
storage/laravels.confLaravelS's runtime configuration file
storage/laravels.pidPID file of Master process
storage/laravels-timer-process.pidPID file of the Timer process
storage/laravels-custom-processes.pidPID file of all custom processes

Deploy

It is recommended to supervise the main process through Supervisord, the premise is without option -d and to set swoole.daemonize to false.

[program:laravel-s-test]
directory=/var/www/laravel-s-test
command=/usr/local/bin/php bin/laravels start -i
numprocs=1
autostart=true
autorestart=true
startretries=3
user=www-data
redirect_stderr=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/%(program_name)s.log

Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Demo.

gzip on;
gzip_min_length 1024;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;
gzip_disable "msie6";
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 120s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        # "swoole" is the upstream
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

Cooperate with Apache

LoadModule proxy_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy.so
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_balancer.so
LoadModule lbmethod_byrequests_module /yourpath/modules/mod_lbmethod_byrequests.so
LoadModule proxy_http_module /yourpath/modules/mod_proxy_http.so
LoadModule slotmem_shm_module /yourpath/modules/mod_slotmem_shm.so
LoadModule rewrite_module /yourpath/modules/mod_rewrite.so
LoadModule remoteip_module /yourpath/modules/mod_remoteip.so
LoadModule deflate_module /yourpath/modules/mod_deflate.so

<IfModule deflate_module>
    SetOutputFilter DEFLATE
    DeflateCompressionLevel 2
    AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/javascript application/json application/javascript application/x-javascript application/xml application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml
</IfModule>

<VirtualHost *:80>
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    ServerName www.laravels.com
    ServerAdmin hhxsv5@sina.com

    DocumentRoot /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm
    <Directory "/">
        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted
    </Directory>

    RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For

    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy balancer://laravels>  
        BalancerMember http://192.168.1.1:5200 loadfactor=7
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.2:5200 loadfactor=3
        #BalancerMember http://192.168.1.3:5200 loadfactor=1 status=+H
        ProxySet lbmethod=byrequests
    </Proxy>
    #ProxyPass / balancer://laravels/
    #ProxyPassReverse / balancer://laravels/

    # Apache handles the static resources, LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{DOCUMENT_ROOT}%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ balancer://laravels%{REQUEST_URI} [P,L]

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/www.laravels.com.access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Enable WebSocket server

The Listening address of WebSocket Sever is the same as Http Server.

1.Create WebSocket Handler class, and implement interface WebSocketHandlerInterface.The instant is automatically instantiated when start, you do not need to manually create it.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\Http\Response;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
/**
 * @see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server
 */
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    // Declare constructor without parameters
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    // public function onHandShake(Request $request, Response $response)
    // {
           // Custom handshake: https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-websocket-server-on-handshake
           // The onOpen event will be triggered automatically after a successful handshake
    // }
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // Before the onOpen event is triggered, the HTTP request to establish the WebSocket has passed the Laravel route,
        // so Laravel's Request, Auth information are readable, Session is readable and writable, but only in the onOpen event.
        // \Log::info('New WebSocket connection', [$request->fd, request()->all(), session()->getId(), session('xxx'), session(['yyy' => time()])]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($request->fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS');
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // \Log::info('Received message', [$frame->fd, $frame->data, $frame->opcode, $frame->finish]);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $server->push($frame->fd, date('Y-m-d H:i:s'));
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Modify config/laravels.php.

// ...
'websocket'      => [
    'enable'  => true, // Note: set enable to true
    'handler' => \App\Services\WebSocketService::class,
],
'swoole'         => [
    //...
    // Must set dispatch_mode in (2, 4, 5), see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
],
// ...

3.Use SwooleTable to bind FD & UserId, optional, Swoole Table Demo. Also you can use the other global storage services, like Redis/Memcached/MySQL, but be careful that FD will be possible conflicting between multiple Swoole Servers.

4.Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended)

Refer WebSocket Proxy

map $http_upgrade $connection_upgrade {
    default upgrade;
    ''      close;
}
upstream swoole {
    # Connect IP:Port
    server 127.0.0.1:5200 weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    # Connect UnixSocket Stream file, tips: put the socket file in the /dev/shm directory to get better performance
    #server unix:/yourpath/laravel-s-test/storage/laravels.sock weight=5 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.1:5200 weight=3 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
    #server 192.168.1.2:5200 backup;
    keepalive 16;
}
server {
    listen 80;
    # Don't forget to bind the host
    server_name laravels.com;
    root /yourpath/laravel-s-test/public;
    access_log /yourpath/log/nginx/$server_name.access.log  main;
    autoindex off;
    index index.html index.htm;
    # Nginx handles the static resources(recommend enabling gzip), LaravelS handles the dynamic resource.
    location / {
        try_files $uri @laravels;
    }
    # Response 404 directly when request the PHP file, to avoid exposing public/*.php
    #location ~* \.php$ {
    #    return 404;
    #}
    # Http and WebSocket are concomitant, Nginx identifies them by "location"
    # !!! The location of WebSocket is "/ws"
    # Javascript: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://laravels.com/ws");
    location =/ws {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout: Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds; At the same time, this close behavior is also affected by heartbeat setting of Swoole.
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_set_header Upgrade $http_upgrade;
        proxy_set_header Connection $connection_upgrade;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
    location @laravels {
        # proxy_connect_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_send_timeout 60s;
        # proxy_read_timeout 60s;
        proxy_http_version 1.1;
        proxy_set_header Connection "";
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-PORT $remote_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
        proxy_set_header Scheme $scheme;
        proxy_set_header Server-Protocol $server_protocol;
        proxy_set_header Server-Name $server_name;
        proxy_set_header Server-Addr $server_addr;
        proxy_set_header Server-Port $server_port;
        proxy_pass http://swoole;
    }
}

5.Heartbeat setting

Heartbeat setting of Swoole

// config/laravels.php
'swoole' => [
    //...
    // All connections are traversed every 60 seconds. If a connection does not send any data to the server within 600 seconds, the connection will be forced to close.
    'heartbeat_idle_time'      => 600,
    'heartbeat_check_interval' => 60,
    //...
],

Proxy read timeout of Nginx

# Nginx will close the connection if the proxied server does not send data to Nginx in 60 seconds
proxy_read_timeout 60s;

6.Push data in controller

namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function push()
    {
        $fd = 1; // Find fd by userId from a map [userId=>fd].
        /**@var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        $success = $swoole->push($fd, 'Push data to fd#1 in Controller');
        var_dump($success);
    }
}

Listen events

System events

Usually, you can reset/destroy some global/static variables, or change the current Request/Response object.

laravels.received_request After LaravelS parsed Swoole\Http\Request to Illuminate\Http\Request, before Laravel's Kernel handles this request.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.received_request', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, $app) {
    $req->query->set('get_key', 'hhxsv5');// Change query of request
    $req->request->set('post_key', 'hhxsv5'); // Change post of request
});

laravels.generated_response After Laravel's Kernel handled the request, before LaravelS parses Illuminate\Http\Response to Swoole\Http\Response.

// Edit file `app/Providers/EventServiceProvider.php`, add the following code into method `boot`
// If no variable $events, you can also call Facade \Event::listen(). 
$events->listen('laravels.generated_response', function (\Illuminate\Http\Request $req, \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response $rsp, $app) {
    $rsp->headers->set('header-key', 'hhxsv5');// Change header of response
});

Customized asynchronous events

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of asynchronous event processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create event class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
class TestEvent extends Event
{
    protected $listeners = [
        // Listener list
        TestListener1::class,
        // TestListener2::class,
    ];
    private $data;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    public function getData()
    {
        return $this->data;
    }
}

2.Create listener class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Listener;
class TestListener1 extends Listener
{
    /**
     * @var TestEvent
     */
    protected $event;
    
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->event->getData()]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
        // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
        $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
        var_dump($ret);
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

3.Fire event.

// Create instance of event and fire it, "fire" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Event;
$event = new TestEvent('event data');
// $event->delay(10); // Delay 10 seconds to fire event
// $event->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$success = Event::fire($event);
var_dump($success);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Asynchronous task queue

This feature depends on AsyncTask of Swoole, your need to set swoole.task_worker_num in config/laravels.php firstly. The performance of task processing is influenced by number of Swoole task process, you need to set task_worker_num appropriately.

1.Create task class.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
class TestTask extends Task
{
    private $data;
    private $result;
    public function __construct($data)
    {
        $this->data = $data;
    }
    // The logic of task handling, run in task process, CAN NOT deliver task
    public function handle()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':handle start', [$this->data]);
        sleep(2);// Simulate the slow codes
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
        $this->result = 'the result of ' . $this->data;
    }
    // Optional, finish event, the logic of after task handling, run in worker process, CAN deliver task 
    public function finish()
    {
        \Log::info(__CLASS__ . ':finish start', [$this->result]);
        Task::deliver(new TestTask2('task2 data')); // Deliver the other task
    }
}

2.Deliver task.

// Create instance of TestTask and deliver it, "deliver" is asynchronous.
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
$task = new TestTask('task data');
// $task->delay(3);// delay 3 seconds to deliver task
// $task->setTries(3); // When an error occurs, try 3 times in total
$ret = Task::deliver($task);
var_dump($ret);// Return true if sucess, otherwise false

Millisecond cron job

Wrapper cron job base on Swoole's Millisecond Timer, replace Linux Crontab.

1.Create cron job class.

namespace App\Jobs\Timer;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Timer\CronJob;
class TestCronJob extends CronJob
{
    protected $i = 0;
    // !!! The `interval` and `isImmediate` of cron job can be configured in two ways(pick one of two): one is to overload the corresponding method, and the other is to pass parameters when registering cron job.
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: begin
    public function interval()
    {
        return 1000;// Run every 1000ms
    }
    public function isImmediate()
    {
        return false;// Whether to trigger `run` immediately after setting up
    }
    // --- Override the corresponding method to return the configuration: end
    public function run()
    {
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['start', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
        // do something
        // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
        Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1 Coroutine will be automatically created for run().
        $this->i++;
        \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['end', $this->i, microtime(true)]);

        if ($this->i >= 10) { // Run 10 times only
            \Log::info(__METHOD__, ['stop', $this->i, microtime(true)]);
            $this->stop(); // Stop this cron job, but it will run again after restart/reload.
            // Deliver task in CronJob, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
        }
        // The exceptions thrown here will be caught by the upper layer and recorded in the Swoole log. Developers need to try/catch manually.
    }
}

2.Register cron job.

// Register cron jobs in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'timer'          => [
        'enable' => true, // Enable Timer
        'jobs'   => [ // The list of cron job
            // Enable LaravelScheduleJob to run `php artisan schedule:run` every 1 minute, replace Linux Crontab
            // \Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob::class,
            // Two ways to configure parameters:
            // [\App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, [1000, true]], // Pass in parameters when registering
            \App\Jobs\Timer\TestCronJob::class, // Override the corresponding method to return the configuration
        ],
        'max_wait_time' => 5, // Max waiting time of reloading
        // Enable the global lock to ensure that only one instance starts the timer when deploying multiple instances. This feature depends on Redis, please see https://laravel.com/docs/7.x/redis
        'global_lock'     => false,
        'global_lock_key' => config('app.name', 'Laravel'),
    ],
    // ...
];

3.Note: it will launch multiple timers when build the server cluster, so you need to make sure that launch one timer only to avoid running repetitive task.

4.LaravelS v3.4.0 starts to support the hot restart [Reload] Timer process. After LaravelS receives the SIGUSR1 signal, it waits for max_wait_time(default 5) seconds to end the process, then the Manager process will pull up the Timer process again.

5.If you only need to use minute-level scheduled tasks, it is recommended to enable Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\LaravelScheduleJob instead of Linux Crontab, so that you can follow the coding habits of Laravel task scheduling and configure Kernel.

// app/Console/Kernel.php
protected function schedule(Schedule $schedule)
{
    // runInBackground() will start a new child process to execute the task. This is asynchronous and will not affect the execution timing of other tasks.
    $schedule->command(TestCommand::class)->runInBackground()->everyMinute();
}

Automatically reload after modifying code

Via inotify, support Linux only.

1.Install inotify extension.

2.Turn on the switch in Settings.

3.Notice: Modify the file only in Linux to receive the file change events. It's recommended to use the latest Docker. Vagrant Solution.

Via fswatch, support OS X/Linux/Windows.

1.Install fswatch.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/fswatch
# Watch app directory
./bin/fswatch ./app

Via inotifywait, support Linux.

1.Install inotify-tools.

2.Run command in your project root directory.

# Watch current directory
./bin/inotify
# Watch app directory
./bin/inotify ./app

When the above methods does not work, the ultimate solution: set max_request=1,worker_num=1, so that Worker process will restart after processing a request. The performance of this method is very poor, so only development environment use.

Get the instance of SwooleServer in your project

/**
 * $swoole is the instance of `Swoole\WebSocket\Server` if enable WebSocket server, otherwise `Swoole\Http\Server`
 * @var \Swoole\WebSocket\Server|\Swoole\Http\Server $swoole
 */
$swoole = app('swoole');
var_dump($swoole->stats());
$swoole->push($fd, 'Push WebSocket message');

Use SwooleTable

1.Define Table, support multiple.

All defined tables will be created before Swoole starting.

// in file "config/laravels.php"
[
    // ...
    'swoole_tables'  => [
        // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
        'ws' => [// The Key is table name, will add suffix "Table" to avoid naming conflicts. Here defined a table named "wsTable"
            'size'   => 102400,// The max size
            'column' => [// Define the columns
                ['name' => 'value', 'type' => \Swoole\Table::TYPE_INT, 'size' => 8],
            ],
        ],
        //...Define the other tables
    ],
    // ...
];

2.Access Table: all table instances will be bound on SwooleServer, access by app('swoole')->xxxTable.

namespace App\Services;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\WebSocketHandlerInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Request;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Frame;
use Swoole\WebSocket\Server;
class WebSocketService implements WebSocketHandlerInterface
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Table $wsTable */
    private $wsTable;
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->wsTable = app('swoole')->wsTable;
    }
    // Scene:bind UserId & FD in WebSocket
    public function onOpen(Server $server, Request $request)
    {
        // var_dump(app('swoole') === $server);// The same instance
        /**
         * Get the currently logged in user
         * This feature requires that the path to establish a WebSocket connection go through middleware such as Authenticate.
         * E.g:
         * Browser side: var ws = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:5200/ws");
         * Then the /ws route in Laravel needs to add the middleware like Authenticate.
         * Route::get('/ws', function () {
         *     // Respond any content with status code 200
         *     return 'websocket';
         * })->middleware(['auth']);
         */
        // $user = Auth::user();
        // $userId = $user ? $user->id : 0; // 0 means a guest user who is not logged in
        $userId = mt_rand(1000, 10000);
        // if (!$userId) {
        //     // Disconnect the connections of unlogged users
        //     $server->disconnect($request->fd);
        //     return;
        // }
        $this->wsTable->set('uid:' . $userId, ['value' => $request->fd]);// Bind map uid to fd
        $this->wsTable->set('fd:' . $request->fd, ['value' => $userId]);// Bind map fd to uid
        $server->push($request->fd, "Welcome to LaravelS #{$request->fd}");
    }
    public function onMessage(Server $server, Frame $frame)
    {
        // Broadcast
        foreach ($this->wsTable as $key => $row) {
            if (strpos($key, 'uid:') === 0 && $server->isEstablished($row['value'])) {
                $content = sprintf('Broadcast: new message "%s" from #%d', $frame->data, $frame->fd);
                $server->push($row['value'], $content);
            }
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        $uid = $this->wsTable->get('fd:' . $fd);
        if ($uid !== false) {
            $this->wsTable->del('uid:' . $uid['value']); // Unbind uid map
        }
        $this->wsTable->del('fd:' . $fd);// Unbind fd map
        $server->push($fd, "Goodbye #{$fd}");
    }
}

Multi-port mixed protocol

For more information, please refer to Swoole Server AddListener

To make our main server support more protocols not just Http and WebSocket, we bring the feature multi-port mixed protocol of Swoole in LaravelS and name it Socket. Now, you can build TCP/UDP applications easily on top of Laravel.

Create Socket handler class, and extend Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\{TcpSocket|UdpSocket|Http|WebSocket}.

namespace App\Sockets;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Socket\TcpSocket;
use Swoole\Server;
class TestTcpSocket extends TcpSocket
{
    public function onConnect(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('New TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Welcome to LaravelS.');
    }
    public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
    {
        \Log::info('Received data', [$fd, $data]);
        $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: ' . $data);
        if ($data === "quit\r\n") {
            $server->send($fd, 'LaravelS: bye' . PHP_EOL);
            $server->close($fd);
        }
    }
    public function onClose(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId)
    {
        \Log::info('Close TCP connection', [$fd]);
        $server->send($fd, 'Goodbye');
    }
}

These Socket connections share the same worker processes with your HTTP/WebSocket connections. So it won't be a problem at all if you want to deliver tasks, use SwooleTable, even Laravel components such as DB, Eloquent and so on. At the same time, you can access Swoole\Server\Port object directly by member property swoolePort.

public function onReceive(Server $server, $fd, $reactorId, $data)
{
    $port = $this->swoolePort; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object
}
namespace App\Http\Controllers;
class TestController extends Controller
{
    public function test()
    {
        /**@var \Swoole\Http\Server|\Swoole\WebSocket\Server $swoole */
        $swoole = app('swoole');
        // $swoole->ports: Traverse all Port objects, https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/multiple-ports
        $port = $swoole->ports[0]; // Get the `Swoole\Server\Port` object, $port[0] is the port of the main server
        foreach ($port->connections as $fd) { // Traverse all connections
            // $swoole->send($fd, 'Send tcp message');
            // if($swoole->isEstablished($fd)) {
            //     $swoole->push($fd, 'Send websocket message');
            // }
        }
    }
}

Register Sockets.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
//...
'sockets' => [
    [
        'host'     => '127.0.0.1',
        'port'     => 5291,
        'type'     => SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP,// Socket type: SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP/SWOOLE_SOCK_TCP6/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP/SWOOLE_SOCK_UDP6/SWOOLE_UNIX_DGRAM/SWOOLE_UNIX_STREAM
        'settings' => [// Swoole settings:https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server-methods#swoole_server-addlistener
            'open_eof_check' => true,
            'package_eof'    => "\r\n",
        ],
        'handler'  => \App\Sockets\TestTcpSocket::class,
        'enable'   => true, // whether to enable, default true
    ],
],

About the heartbeat configuration, it can only be set on the main server and cannot be configured on Socket, but the Socket inherits the heartbeat configuration of the main server.

For TCP socket, onConnect and onClose events will be blocked when dispatch_mode of Swoole is 1/3, so if you want to unblock these two events please set dispatch_mode to 2/4/5.

'swoole' => [
    //...
    'dispatch_mode' => 2,
    //...
];

Test.

TCP: telnet 127.0.0.1 5291

UDP: [Linux] echo "Hello LaravelS" > /dev/udp/127.0.0.1/5292

Register example of other protocols.

  • UDP
  • Http
  • WebSocket: The main server must turn on WebSocket, that is, set websocket.enable to true.

Coroutine

Swoole Coroutine

Warning: The order of code execution in the coroutine is out of order. The data of the request level should be isolated by the coroutine ID. However, there are many singleton and static attributes in Laravel/Lumen, the data between different requests will affect each other, it's Unsafe. For example, the database connection is a singleton, the same database connection shares the same PDO resource. This is fine in the synchronous blocking mode, but it does not work in the asynchronous coroutine mode. Each query needs to create different connections and maintain IO state of different connections, which requires a connection pool.

DO NOT enable the coroutine, only the custom process can use the coroutine.

Custom process

Support developers to create special work processes for monitoring, reporting, or other special tasks. Refer addProcess.

Create Proccess class, implements CustomProcessInterface.

namespace App\Processes;
use App\Tasks\TestTask;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Process\CustomProcessInterface;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Task\Task;
use Swoole\Coroutine;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
use Swoole\Process;
class TestProcess implements CustomProcessInterface
{
    /**
     * @var bool Quit tag for Reload updates
     */
    private static $quit = false;

    public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // The callback method cannot exit. Once exited, Manager process will automatically create the process 
        while (!self::$quit) {
            \Log::info('Test process: running');
            // sleep(1); // Swoole < 2.1
            Coroutine::sleep(1); // Swoole>=2.1: Coroutine & Runtime will be automatically enabled for callback().
             // Deliver task in custom process, but NOT support callback finish() of task.
            // Note: Modify task_ipc_mode to 1 or 2 in config/laravels.php, see https://www.swoole.co.uk/docs/modules/swoole-server/configuration
            $ret = Task::deliver(new TestTask('task data'));
            var_dump($ret);
            // The upper layer will catch the exception thrown in the callback and record it in the Swoole log, and then this process will exit. The Manager process will re-create the process after 3 seconds, so developers need to try/catch to catch the exception by themselves to avoid frequent process creation.
            // throw new \Exception('an exception');
        }
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.4.0 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onReload(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: reloading');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
    // Requirements: LaravelS >= v3.7.4 & callback() must be async non-blocking program.
    public static function onStop(Server $swoole, Process $process)
    {
        // Stop the process...
        // Then end process
        \Log::info('Test process: stopping');
        self::$quit = true;
        // $process->exit(0); // Force exit process
    }
}

Register TestProcess.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
// ...
'processes' => [
    'test' => [ // Key name is process name
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false, // Whether redirect stdin/stdout, true or false
        'pipe'     => 0,     // The type of pipeline, 0: no pipeline 1: SOCK_STREAM 2: SOCK_DGRAM
        'enable'   => true,  // Whether to enable, default true
        //'num'    => 3   // To create multiple processes of this class, default is 1
        //'queue'    => [ // Enable message queue as inter-process communication, configure empty array means use default parameters
        //    'msg_key'  => 0,    // The key of the message queue. Default: ftok(__FILE__, 1).
        //    'mode'     => 2,    // Communication mode, default is 2, which means contention mode
        //    'capacity' => 8192, // The length of a single message, is limited by the operating system kernel parameters. The default is 8192, and the maximum is 65536
        //],
        //'restart_interval' => 5, // After the process exits abnormally, how many seconds to wait before restarting the process, default 5 seconds
    ],
],

Note: The callback() cannot quit. If quit, the Manager process will re-create the process.

Example: Write data to a custom process.

// config/laravels.php
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
],
// app/Processes/TestProcess.php
public static function callback(Server $swoole, Process $process)
{
    while ($data = $process->read()) {
        \Log::info('TestProcess: read data', [$data]);
        $process->write('TestProcess: ' . $data);
    }
}
// app/Http/Controllers/TestController.php
public function testProcessWrite()
{
    /**@var \Swoole\Process $process */
    $process = app('swoole')->customProcesses['test'];
    $process->write('TestController: write data' . time());
    var_dump($process->read());
}

Common components

Apollo

LaravelS will pull the Apollo configuration and write it to the .env file when starting. At the same time, LaravelS will start the custom process apollo to monitor the configuration and automatically reload when the configuration changes.

Enable Apollo: add --enable-apollo and Apollo parameters to the startup parameters.

php bin/laravels start --enable-apollo --apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080 --apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST

Support hot updates(optional).

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),
// When there are other custom process configurations
'processes' => [
    'test' => [
        'class'    => \App\Processes\TestProcess::class,
        'redirect' => false,
        'pipe'     => 1,
    ],
    // ...
] + Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Apollo\Process::getDefinition(),

List of available parameters.

ParameterDescriptionDefaultDemo
apollo-serverApollo server URL---apollo-server=http://127.0.0.1:8080
apollo-app-idApollo APP ID---apollo-app-id=LARAVEL-S-TEST
apollo-namespacesThe namespace to which the APP belongs, support specify the multipleapplication--apollo-namespaces=application --apollo-namespaces=env
apollo-clusterThe cluster to which the APP belongsdefault--apollo-cluster=default
apollo-client-ipIP of current instance, can also be used for grayscale publishingLocal intranet IP--apollo-client-ip=10.2.1.83
apollo-pull-timeoutTimeout time(seconds) when pulling configuration5--apollo-pull-timeout=5
apollo-backup-old-envWhether to backup the old configuration file when updating the configuration file .envfalse--apollo-backup-old-env

Prometheus

Support Prometheus monitoring and alarm, Grafana visually view monitoring metrics. Please refer to Docker Compose for the environment construction of Prometheus and Grafana.

Require extension APCu >= 5.0.0, please install it by pecl install apcu.

Copy the configuration file prometheus.php to the config directory of your project. Modify the configuration as appropriate.

# Execute commands in the project root directory
cp vendor/hhxsv5/laravel-s/config/prometheus.php config/

If your project is Lumen, you also need to manually load the configuration $app->configure('prometheus'); in bootstrap/app.php.

Configure global middleware: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\RequestMiddleware::class. In order to count the request time consumption as accurately as possible, RequestMiddleware must be the first global middleware, which needs to be placed in front of other middleware.

Register ServiceProvider: Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\ServiceProvider::class.

Configure the CollectorProcess in config/laravels.php to collect the metrics of Swoole Worker/Task/Timer processes regularly.

'processes' => Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\CollectorProcess::getDefinition(),

Create the route to output metrics.

use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Components\Prometheus\Exporter;

Route::get('/actuator/prometheus', function () {
    $result = app(Exporter::class)->render();
    return response($result, 200, ['Content-Type' => Exporter::REDNER_MIME_TYPE]);
});

Complete the configuration of Prometheus and start it.

global:
  scrape_interval: 5s
  scrape_timeout: 5s
  evaluation_interval: 30s
scrape_configs:
- job_name: laravel-s-test
  honor_timestamps: true
  metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
  scheme: http
  follow_redirects: true
  static_configs:
  - targets:
    - 127.0.0.1:5200 # The ip and port of the monitored service
# Dynamically discovered using one of the supported service-discovery mechanisms
# https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#scrape_config
# - job_name: laravels-eureka
#   honor_timestamps: true
#   scrape_interval: 5s
#   metrics_path: /actuator/prometheus
#   scheme: http
#   follow_redirects: true
  # eureka_sd_configs:
  # - server: http://127.0.0.1:8080/eureka
  #   follow_redirects: true
  #   refresh_interval: 5s

Start Grafana, then import panel json.

Grafana Dashboard

Other features

Configure Swoole events

Supported events:

EventInterfaceWhen happened
ServerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterfaceOccurs when the Master process is starting, this event should not handle complex business logic, and can only do some simple work of initialization.
ServerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStopInterfaceOccurs when the server exits normally, CANNOT use async or coroutine related APIs in this event.
WorkerStartHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process is started, and the Laravel initialization has been completed.
WorkerStopHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStopInterfaceOccurs after the Worker/Task process exits normally
WorkerErrorHhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerErrorInterfaceOccurs when an exception or fatal error occurs in the Worker/Task process

1.Create an event class to implement the corresponding interface.

namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\ServerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Atomic;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class ServerStartEvent implements ServerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server)
    {
        // Initialize a global counter (available across processes)
        $server->atomicCount = new Atomic(2233);

        // Invoked in controller: app('swoole')->atomicCount->get();
    }
}
namespace App\Events;
use Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Swoole\Events\WorkerStartInterface;
use Swoole\Http\Server;
class WorkerStartEvent implements WorkerStartInterface
{
    public function __construct()
    {
    }
    public function handle(Server $server, $workerId)
    {
        // Initialize a database connection pool
        // DatabaseConnectionPool::init();
    }
}

2.Configuration.

// Edit `config/laravels.php`
'event_handlers' => [
    'ServerStart' => [\App\Events\ServerStartEvent::class], // Trigger events in array order
    'WorkerStart' => [\App\Events\WorkerStartEvent::class],
],

Serverless

Alibaba Cloud Function Compute

Function Compute.

1.Modify bootstrap/app.php and set the storage directory. Because the project directory is read-only, the /tmp directory can only be read and written.

$app->useStoragePath(env('APP_STORAGE_PATH', '/tmp/storage'));

2.Create a shell script laravels_bootstrap and grant executable permission.

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set +e

# Create storage-related directories
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/app/public
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/cache
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/sessions
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/testing
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/framework/views
mkdir -p /tmp/storage/logs

# Set the environment variable APP_STORAGE_PATH, please make sure it's the same as APP_STORAGE_PATH in .env
export APP_STORAGE_PATH=/tmp/storage

# Start LaravelS
php bin/laravels start

3.Configure template.xml.

ROSTemplateFormatVersion: '2015-09-01'
Transform: 'Aliyun::Serverless-2018-04-03'
Resources:
  laravel-s-demo:
    Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Service'
    Properties:
      Description: 'LaravelS Demo for Serverless'
    fc-laravel-s:
      Type: 'Aliyun::Serverless::Function'
      Properties:
        Handler: laravels.handler
        Runtime: custom
        MemorySize: 512
        Timeout: 30
        CodeUri: ./
        InstanceConcurrency: 10
        EnvironmentVariables:
          BOOTSTRAP_FILE: laravels_bootstrap

Important notices

Singleton Issue

Under FPM mode, singleton instances will be instantiated and recycled in every request, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>recycled instance.

Under Swoole Server, All singleton instances will be held in memory, different lifetime from FPM, request start=>instantiate instance=>request end=>do not recycle singleton instance. So need developer to maintain status of singleton instances in every request.

Common solutions:

Write a XxxCleaner class to clean up the singleton object state. This class implements the interface Hhxsv5\LaravelS\Illuminate\Cleaners\CleanerInterface and then registers it in cleaners of laravels.php.

Reset status of singleton instances by Middleware.

Re-register ServiceProvider, add XxxServiceProvider into register_providers of file laravels.php. So that reinitialize singleton instances in every request Refer.

Cleaners

Configuration cleaners.

Known issues

Known issues: a package of known issues and solutions.

Debugging method

Logging; if you want to output to the console, you can use stderr, Log::channel('stderr')->debug('debug message').

Laravel Dump Server(Laravel 5.7 has been integrated by default).

Read request

Read request by Illuminate\Http\Request Object, $_ENV is readable, $_SERVER is partially readable, CANNOT USE $_GET/$_POST/$_FILES/$_COOKIE/$_REQUEST/$_SESSION/$GLOBALS.

public function form(\Illuminate\Http\Request $request)
{
    $name = $request->input('name');
    $all = $request->all();
    $sessionId = $request->cookie('sessionId');
    $photo = $request->file('photo');
    // Call getContent() to get the raw POST body, instead of file_get_contents('php://input')
    $rawContent = $request->getContent();
    //...
}

Output response

Respond by Illuminate\Http\Response Object, compatible with echo/vardump()/print_r(),CANNOT USE functions dd()/exit()/die()/header()/setcookie()/http_response_code().

public function json()
{
    return response()->json(['time' => time()])->header('header1', 'value1')->withCookie('c1', 'v1');
}

Persistent connection

Singleton connection will be resident in memory, it is recommended to turn on persistent connection for better performance.

Database connection, it will reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect.

// config/database.php
'connections' => [
    'my_conn' => [
        'driver'    => 'mysql',
        'host'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'port'      => env('DB_MY_CONN_PORT', 3306),
        'database'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_DATABASE', 'forge'),
        'username'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_USERNAME', 'forge'),
        'password'  => env('DB_MY_CONN_PASSWORD', ''),
        'charset'   => 'utf8mb4',
        'collation' => 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci',
        'prefix'    => '',
        'strict'    => false,
        'options'   => [
            // Enable persistent connection
            \PDO::ATTR_PERSISTENT => true,
        ],
    ],
],

Redis connection, it won't reconnect automatically immediately after disconnect, and will throw an exception about lost connection, reconnect next time. You need to make sure that SELECT DB correctly before operating Redis every time.

// config/database.php
'redis' => [
    'client' => env('REDIS_CLIENT', 'phpredis'), // It is recommended to use phpredis for better performance.
    'default' => [
        'host'       => env('REDIS_HOST', 'localhost'),
        'password'   => env('REDIS_PASSWORD', null),
        'port'       => env('REDIS_PORT', 6379),
        'database'   => 0,
        'persistent' => true, // Enable persistent connection
    ],
],

About memory leaks

Avoid using global variables. If necessary, please clean or reset them manually.

Infinitely appending element into static/global variable will lead to OOM(Out of Memory).

class Test
{
    public static $array = [];
    public static $string = '';
}

// Controller
public function test(Request $req)
{
    // Out of Memory
    Test::$array[] = $req->input('param1');
    Test::$string .= $req->input('param2');
}

Memory leak detection method

Modify config/laravels.php: worker_num=1, max_request=1000000, remember to change it back after test;

Add routing /debug-memory-leak without route middleware to observe the memory changes of the Worker process;

Start LaravelS and request /debug-memory-leak until diff_mem is less than or equal to zero; if diff_mem is always greater than zero, it means that there may be a memory leak in Global Middleware or Laravel Framework;

After completing Step 3, alternately request the business routes and /debug-memory-leak (It is recommended to use ab/wrk to make a large number of requests for business routes), the initial increase in memory is normal. After a large number of requests for the business routes, if diff_mem is always greater than zero and curr_mem continues to increase, there is a high probability of memory leak; If curr_mem always changes within a certain range and does not continue to increase, there is a low probability of memory leak.

If you still can't solve it, max_request is the last guarantee.

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Linux kernel parameter adjustment

Pressure test

Pressure test

Alternatives

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License

MIT

Author: hhxsv5
Source Code: https://github.com/hhxsv5/laravel-s
License: MIT License

#php #laravel