Noah Saunders

Noah Saunders

1593740340

Unicode in Python

Python’s Unicode support is strong and robust, but it takes some time to master. There are several different ways of encoding Unicode, but the default in Python 3 is UTF-8. Python stores data as either a string or a byte. You’ll practice with encode() and decode(), which allow you to convert between the two.

Click here to learn more: https://realpython.com/courses/python-unicode/

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Unicode in Python

Python String Methods Explained with Examples

Python has a set of built-in methods that you can use on strings.

Note: All string methods returns new values. They do not change the original string.

MethodDescription
capitalize()Converts the first character to upper case
casefold()Converts string into lower case
center()Returns a centered string
count()Returns the number of times a specified value occurs in a string
encode()Returns an encoded version of the string
endswith()Returns true if the string ends with the specified value
expandtabs()Sets the tab size of the string
find()Searches the string for a specified value and returns the position of where it was found
format()Formats specified values in a string
format_map()Formats specified values in a string
index()Searches the string for a specified value and returns the position of where it was found
isalnum()Returns True if all characters in the string are alphanumeric
isalpha()Returns True if all characters in the string are in the alphabet
isascii()Returns True if all characters in the string are ascii characters
isdecimal()Returns True if all characters in the string are decimals
isdigit()Returns True if all characters in the string are digits
isidentifier()Returns True if the string is an identifier
islower()Returns True if all characters in the string are lower case
isnumeric()Returns True if all characters in the string are numeric
isprintable()Returns True if all characters in the string are printable
isspace()Returns True if all characters in the string are whitespaces
istitle()Returns True if the string follows the rules of a title
isupper()Returns True if all characters in the string are upper case
join()Converts the elements of an iterable into a string
ljust()Returns a left justified version of the string
lower()Converts a string into lower case
lstrip()Returns a left trim version of the string
maketrans()Returns a translation table to be used in translations
partition()Returns a tuple where the string is parted into three parts
replace()Returns a string where a specified value is replaced with a specified value
rfind()Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found
rindex()Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found
rjust()Returns a right justified version of the string
rpartition()Returns a tuple where the string is parted into three parts
rsplit()Splits the string at the specified separator, and returns a list
rstrip()Returns a right trim version of the string
split()Splits the string at the specified separator, and returns a list
splitlines()Splits the string at line breaks and returns a list
startswith()Returns true if the string starts with the specified value
strip()Returns a trimmed version of the string
swapcase()Swaps cases, lower case becomes upper case and vice versa
title()Converts the first character of each word to upper case
translate()Returns a translated string
upper()Converts a string into upper case
zfill()Fills the string with a specified number of 0 values at the beginning

 


Python String capitalize() Method

Example

Upper case the first letter in this sentence:

txt = "hello, and welcome to my world."

x = txt.capitalize()

print (x)

Definition and Usage

The capitalize() method returns a string where the first character is upper case, and the rest is lower case.

Syntax

string.capitalize()

Parameter Values

No parameters

More Examples

Example

The first character is converted to upper case, and the rest are converted to lower case:

txt = "python is FUN!"

x = txt.capitalize()

print (x)

Example

See what happens if the first character is a number:

txt = "36 is my age."

x = txt.capitalize()

print (x)

Python String casefold() Method

Example

Make the string lower case:

txt = "Hello, And Welcome To My World!"

x = txt.casefold()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The casefold() method returns a string where all the characters are lower case.

This method is similar to the lower() method, but the casefold() method is stronger, more aggressive, meaning that it will convert more characters into lower case, and will find more matches when comparing two strings and both are converted using the casefold() method.

Syntax

string.casefold()

Parameter Values

No parameters


Python String center() Method

Example

Print the word "banana", taking up the space of 20 characters, with "banana" in the middle:

txt = "banana"

x = txt.center(20)

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The center() method will center align the string, using a specified character (space is default) as the fill character.

Syntax

string.center(length, character)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
lengthRequired. The length of the returned string
characterOptional. The character to fill the missing space on each side. Default is " " (space)

More Examples

Example

Using the letter "O" as the padding character:

txt = "banana"

x = txt.center(20, "O")

print(x)

Python String count() Method

Example

Return the number of times the value "apple" appears in the string:

txt = "I love apples, apple are my favorite fruit"

x = txt.count("apple")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The count() method returns the number of times a specified value appears in the string.

Syntax

string.count(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. A String. The string to value to search for
startOptional. An Integer. The position to start the search. Default is 0
endOptional. An Integer. The position to end the search. Default is the end of the string

More Examples

Example

Search from position 10 to 24:

txt = "I love apples, apple are my favorite fruit"

x = txt.count("apple", 10, 24)

print(x

Python String encode() Method

Example

UTF-8 encode the string:

txt = "My name is Ståle"

x = txt.encode()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The encode() method encodes the string, using the specified encoding. If no encoding is specified, UTF-8 will be used.

Syntax

string.encode(encoding=encoding, errors=errors)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
encodingOptional. A String specifying the encoding to use. Default is UTF-8
errors

Optional. A String specifying the error method. Legal values are:
 

'backslashreplace'- uses a backslash instead of the character that could not be encoded
'ignore'- ignores the characters that cannot be encoded
'namereplace'- replaces the character with a text explaining the character
'strict'- Default, raises an error on failure
'replace'- replaces the character with a questionmark
'xmlcharrefreplace'- replaces the character with an xml character

More Examples

Example

These examples uses ascii encoding, and a character that cannot be encoded, showing the result with different errors:

txt = "My name is Ståle"

print(txt.encode(encoding="ascii",errors="backslashreplace"))
print(txt.encode(encoding="ascii",errors="ignore"))
print(txt.encode(encoding="ascii",errors="namereplace"))
print(txt.encode(encoding="ascii",errors="replace"))
print(txt.encode(encoding="ascii",errors="xmlcharrefreplace"))

Python String endswith() Method

Example

Check if the string ends with a punctuation sign (.):

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.endswith(".")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The endswith() method returns True if the string ends with the specified value, otherwise False.

Syntax

string.endswith(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to check if the string ends with
startOptional. An Integer specifying at which position to start the search
endOptional. An Integer specifying at which position to end the search

More Examples

Example

Check if the string ends with the phrase "my world.":

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.endswith("my world.")

print(x)

Example

Check if position 5 to 11 ends with the phrase "my world.":

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.endswith("my world.", 5, 11)

print(x)

Python String expandtabs() Method

Example

Set the tab size to 2 whitespaces:

txt = "H\te\tl\tl\to"

x =  txt.expandtabs(2)

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The expandtabs() method sets the tab size to the specified number of whitespaces.

Syntax

string.expandtabs(tabsize)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
tabsizeOptional. A number specifying the tabsize. Default tabsize is 8

More Examples

Example

See the result using different tab sizes:

txt = "H\te\tl\tl\to"

print(txt)
print(txt.expandtabs())
print(txt.expandtabs(2))
print(txt.expandtabs(4))
print(txt.expandtabs(10))

Python String find() Method

Example

Where in the text is the word "welcome"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.find("welcome")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The find() method finds the first occurrence of the specified value.

The find() method returns -1 if the value is not found.

The find() method is almost the same as the index() method, the only difference is that the index() method raises an exception if the value is not found. (See example below)

Syntax

string.find(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to search for
startOptional. Where to start the search. Default is 0
endOptional. Where to end the search. Default is to the end of the string

More Examples

Example

Where in the text is the first occurrence of the letter "e"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.find("e")

print(x)

Example

Where in the text is the first occurrence of the letter "e" when you only search between position 5 and 10?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.find("e", 5, 10)

print(x)

Example

If the value is not found, the find() method returns -1, but the index() method will raise an exception:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

print(txt.find("q"))
print(txt.index("q"))

Python String format() Method

Example

Insert the price inside the placeholder, the price should be in fixed point, two-decimal format:

txt = "For only {price:.2f} dollars!"
print(txt.format(price = 49))

Definition and Usage

The format() method formats the specified value(s) and insert them inside the string's placeholder.

The placeholder is defined using curly brackets: {}. Read more about the placeholders in the Placeholder section below.

The format() method returns the formatted string.

Syntax

string.format(value1, value2...)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
value1, value2...Required. One or more values that should be formatted and inserted in the string.

The values are either a list of values separated by commas, a key=value list, or a combination of both.

The values can be of any data type.

The Placeholders

The placeholders can be identified using named indexes {price}, numbered indexes {0}, or even empty placeholders {}.

Example

Using different placeholder values:

txt1 = "My name is {fname}, I'm {age}".format(fname = "John", age = 36)
txt2 = "My name is {0}, I'm {1}".format("John",36)
txt3 = "My name is {}, I'm {}".format("John",36)

Formatting Types

Inside the placeholders you can add a formatting type to format the result:

:<

Try it

Left aligns the result (within the available space)
:>

Try it

Right aligns the result (within the available space)
:^

Try it

Center aligns the result (within the available space)
:=

Try it

Places the sign to the left most position
:+

Try it

Use a plus sign to indicate if the result is positive or negative
:-

Try it

Use a minus sign for negative values only

Try it

Use a space to insert an extra space before positive numbers (and a minus sign before negative numbers)
:,

Try it

Use a comma as a thousand separator
:_

Try it

Use a underscore as a thousand separator
:b

Try it

Binary format
:c Converts the value into the corresponding unicode character
:d

Try it

Decimal format
:e

Try it

Scientific format, with a lower case e
:E

Try it

Scientific format, with an upper case E
:f

Try it

Fix point number format
:F

Try it

Fix point number format, in uppercase format (show inf and nan as INF and NAN)
:g General format
:G General format (using a upper case E for scientific notations)
:o

Try it

Octal format
:x

Try it

Hex format, lower case
:X

Try it

Hex format, upper case
:n Number format
:%

Try it

Percentage format

Python String index() Method

Example

Where in the text is the word "welcome"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.index("welcome")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The index() method finds the first occurrence of the specified value.

The index() method raises an exception if the value is not found.

The index() method is almost the same as the find() method, the only difference is that the find() method returns -1 if the value is not found. (See example below)

Syntax

string.index(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to search for
startOptional. Where to start the search. Default is 0
endOptional. Where to end the search. Default is to the end of the string

More Examples

Example

Where in the text is the first occurrence of the letter "e"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.index("e")

print(x)

Example

Where in the text is the first occurrence of the letter "e" when you only search between position 5 and 10?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.index("e", 5, 10)

print(x)

Example

If the value is not found, the find() method returns -1, but the index() method will raise an exception:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

print(txt.find("q"))
print(txt.index("q"))

Python String isalnum() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are alphanumeric:

txt = "Company12"

x = txt.isalnum()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isalnum() method returns True if all the characters are alphanumeric, meaning alphabet letter (a-z) and numbers (0-9).

Example of characters that are not alphanumeric: (space)!#%&? etc.

Syntax

string.isalnum()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the text is alphanumeric:

txt = "Company 12"

x = txt.isalnum()

print(x)

Python String isalpha() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are letters:

txt = "CompanyX"

x = txt.isalpha()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isalpha() method returns True if all the characters are alphabet letters (a-z).

Example of characters that are not alphabet letters: (space)!#%&? etc.

Syntax

string.isalpha()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the text is alphabetic:

txt = "Company10"

x = txt.isalpha()

print(x)

Python String isascii() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are ascii characters:

txt = "Company123"

x = txt.isascii()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isascii() method returns True if all the characters are ascii characters  (a-z).

Check our ASCII Reference.

Syntax

string.isascii()

Parameter Values

No parameters.


Python String isdecimal() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the unicode object are decimals:

txt = "\u0033" #unicode for 3

x = txt.isdecimal()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isdecimal() method returns True if all the characters are decimals (0-9).

This method is used on unicode objects.

Syntax

string.isdecimal()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the unicode are decimals:

a = "\u0030" #unicode for 0
b = "\u0047" #unicode for G

print(a.isdecimal())
print(b.isdecimal())

Python String isdigit() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are digits:

txt = "50800"

x = txt.isdigit()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isdigit() method returns True if all the characters are digits, otherwise False.

Exponents, like ², are also considered to be a digit.

Syntax

string.isdigit()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are digits:

a = "\u0030" #unicode for 0
b = "\u00B2" #unicode for ²

print(a.isdigit())
print(b.isdigit())

Python String isidentifier() Method

Example

Check if the string is a valid identifier:

txt = "Demo"

x = txt.isidentifier()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isidentifier() method returns True if the string is a valid identifier, otherwise False.

A string is considered a valid identifier if it only contains alphanumeric letters (a-z) and (0-9), or underscores (_). A valid identifier cannot start with a number, or contain any spaces.

Syntax

string.isidentifier()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if the strings are valid identifiers:

a = "MyFolder"
b = "Demo002"
c = "2bring"
d = "my demo"

print(a.isidentifier())
print(b.isidentifier())
print(c.isidentifier())
print(d.isidentifier())

Python String islower() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are in lower case:

txt = "hello world!"

x = txt.islower()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The islower() method returns True if all the characters are in lower case, otherwise False.

Numbers, symbols and spaces are not checked, only alphabet characters.

Syntax

string.islower()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the texts are in lower case:

a = "Hello world!"
b = "hello 123"
c = "mynameisPeter"

print(a.islower())
print(b.islower())
print(c.islower())

Python String isnumeric() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are numeric:

txt = "565543"

x = txt.isnumeric()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isnumeric() method returns True if all the characters are numeric (0-9), otherwise False.

Exponents, like ² and ¾ are also considered to be numeric values.

"-1" and "1.5" are NOT considered numeric values, because all the characters in the string must be numeric, and the - and the . are not.

Syntax

string.isnumeric()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if the characters are numeric:

a = "\u0030" #unicode for 0
b = "\u00B2" #unicode for &sup2;
c = "10km2"
d = "-1"
e = "1.5"

print(a.isnumeric())
print(b.isnumeric())
print(c.isnumeric())
print(d.isnumeric())
print(e.isnumeric())

Python String isprintable() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are printable:

txt = "Hello! Are you #1?"

x = txt.isprintable()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isprintable() method returns True if all the characters are printable, otherwise False.

Example of none printable character can be carriage return and line feed.

Syntax

string.isprintable()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are printable:

txt = "Hello!\nAre you #1?"

x = txt.isprintable()

print(x)

Python String isspace() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are whitespaces:

txt = "   "

x = txt.isspace()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isspace() method returns True if all the characters in a string are whitespaces, otherwise False.

Syntax

string.isspace()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are whitespaces:

txt = "   s   "

x = txt.isspace()

print(x)

Python String istitle() Method

Example

Check if each word start with an upper case letter:

txt = "Hello, And Welcome To My World!"

x = txt.istitle()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The istitle() method returns True if all words in a text start with a upper case letter, AND the rest of the word are lower case letters, otherwise False.

Symbols and numbers are ignored.

Syntax

string.istitle()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if each word start with an upper case letter:

a = "HELLO, AND WELCOME TO MY WORLD"
b = "Hello"
c = "22 Names"
d = "This Is %'!?"

print(a.istitle())
print(b.istitle())
print(c.istitle())
print(d.istitle())

Python String isupper() Method

Example

Check if all the characters in the text are in upper case:

txt = "THIS IS NOW!"

x = txt.isupper()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The isupper() method returns True if all the characters are in upper case, otherwise False.

Numbers, symbols and spaces are not checked, only alphabet characters.

Syntax

string.isupper()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Check if all the characters in the texts are in upper case:

a = "Hello World!"
b = "hello 123"
c = "MY NAME IS PETER"

print(a.isupper())
print(b.isupper())
print(c.isupper())

Python String join() Method

Example

Join all items in a tuple into a string, using a hash character as separator:

myTuple = ("John", "Peter", "Vicky")

x = "#".join(myTuple)

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The join() method takes all items in an iterable and joins them into one string.

A string must be specified as the separator.

Syntax

string.join(iterable)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
iterableRequired. Any iterable object where all the returned values are strings

More Examples

Example

Join all items in a dictionary into a string, using the word "TEST" as separator:

myDict = {"name": "John", "country": "Norway"}
mySeparator = "TEST"

x = mySeparator.join(myDict)

print(x)

Python String ljust() Method

Example

Return a 20 characters long, left justified version of the word "banana":

txt = "banana"

x = txt.ljust(20)

print(x, "is my favorite fruit.")

Note: In the result, there are actually 14 whitespaces to the right of the word banana.

Definition and Usage

The ljust() method will left align the string, using a specified character (space is default) as the fill character.

Syntax

string.ljust(length, character)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
lengthRequired. The length of the returned string
characterOptional. A character to fill the missing space (to the right of the string). Default is " " (space).

More Examples

Example

Using the letter "O" as the padding character:

txt = "banana"

x = txt.ljust(20, "O")

print(x)

Python String lower() Method

Example

Lower case the string:

txt = "Hello my FRIENDS"

x = txt.lower()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The lower() method returns a string where all characters are lower case.

 Symbols and Numbers are ignored.

Syntax

string.lower()

Parameter Values

No parameters


Python String lstrip() Method

Example

Remove spaces to the left of the string:

txt = "     banana     "

x = txt.lstrip()

print("of all fruits", x, "is my favorite")

Definition and Usage

The lstrip() method removes any leading characters (space is the default leading character to remove)

Syntax

string.lstrip(characters)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
charactersOptional. A set of characters to remove as leading characters

More Examples

Example

Remove the leading characters:

txt = ",,,,,ssaaww.....banana"

x = txt.lstrip(",.asw")

print(x)

Python String maketrans() Method

Example

Create a mapping table, and use it in the translate() method to replace any "S" characters with a "P" character:

txt = "Hello Sam!"
mytable = txt.maketrans("S", "P")
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Definition and Usage

The maketrans() method returns a mapping table that can be used with the translate() method to replace specified characters.

Syntax

string.maketrans(x, y, z)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
xRequired. If only one parameter is specified, this has to be a dictionary describing how to perform the replace. If two or more parameters are specified, this parameter has to be a string specifying the characters you want to replace.
yOptional. A string with the same length as parameter x. Each character in the first parameter will be replaced with the corresponding character in this string.
zOptional. A string describing which characters to remove from the original string.

More Examples

Example

Use a mapping table to replace many characters:

txt = "Hi Sam!"
x = "mSa"
y = "eJo"
mytable = txt.maketrans(x, y)
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Example

The third parameter in the mapping table describes characters that you want to remove from the string:

txt = "Good night Sam!"
x = "mSa"
y = "eJo"
z = "odnght"
mytable = txt.maketrans(x, y, z)
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Example

The maketrans() method itself returns a dictionary describing each replacement, in unicode:

txt = "Good night Sam!"
x = "mSa"
y = "eJo"
z = "odnght"
print(txt.maketrans(x, y, z))

Python String partition() Method

Example

Search for the word "bananas", and return a tuple with three elements:

1 - everything before the "match"
2 - the "match"
3 - everything after the "match"

txt = "I could eat bananas all day"

x = txt.partition("bananas")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The partition() method searches for a specified string, and splits the string into a tuple containing three elements.

The first element contains the part before the specified string.

The second element contains the specified string.

The third element contains the part after the string.

Note: This method searches for the first occurrence of the specified string.

Syntax

string.partition(value)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The string to search for

More Examples

Example

If the specified value is not found, the partition() method returns a tuple containing: 1 - the whole string, 2 - an empty string, 3 - an empty string:

txt = "I could eat bananas all day"

x = txt.partition("apples")

print(x)

Python String replace() Method

Example

Replace the word "bananas":

txt = "I like bananas"

x = txt.replace("bananas", "apples")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The replace() method replaces a specified phrase with another specified phrase.

Note: All occurrences of the specified phrase will be replaced, if nothing else is specified.

Syntax

string.replace(oldvalue, newvalue, count)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
oldvalueRequired. The string to search for
newvalueRequired. The string to replace the old value with
countOptional. A number specifying how many occurrences of the old value you want to replace. Default is all occurrences

More Examples

Example

Replace all occurrence of the word "one":

txt = "one one was a race horse, two two was one too."

x = txt.replace("one", "three")

print(x)

Example

Replace the two first occurrence of the word "one":

txt = "one one was a race horse, two two was one too."

x = txt.replace("one", "three", 2)

print(x)

Python String rfind() Method

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the string "casa"?:

txt = "Mi casa, su casa."

x = txt.rfind("casa")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The rfind() method finds the last occurrence of the specified value.

The rfind() method returns -1 if the value is not found.

The rfind() method is almost the same as the rindex() method. See example below.

Syntax

string.rfind(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to search for
startOptional. Where to start the search. Default is 0
endOptional. Where to end the search. Default is to the end of the string

More Examples

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the letter "e"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.rfind("e")

print(x)

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the letter "e" when you only search between position 5 and 10?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.rfind("e", 5, 10)

print(x)

Example

If the value is not found, the rfind() method returns -1, but the rindex() method will raise an exception:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

print(txt.rfind("q"))
print(txt.rindex("q"))

Python String rindex() Method

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the string "casa"?:

txt = "Mi casa, su casa."

x = txt.rindex("casa")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The rindex() method finds the last occurrence of the specified value.

The rindex() method raises an exception if the value is not found.

The rindex() method is almost the same as the rfind() method. See example below.

Syntax

string.rindex(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to search for
startOptional. Where to start the search. Default is 0
endOptional. Where to end the search. Default is to the end of the string

More Examples

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the letter "e"?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.rindex("e")

print(x)

Example

Where in the text is the last occurrence of the letter "e" when you only search between position 5 and 10?:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.rindex("e", 5, 10)

print(x)

Example

If the value is not found, the rfind() method returns -1, but the rindex() method will raise an exception:

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

print(txt.rfind("q"))
print(txt.rindex("q"))

Python String rjust() Method

Example

Return a 20 characters long, right justified version of the word "banana":

txt = "banana"

x = txt.rjust(20)

print(x, "is my favorite fruit.")

Note: In the result, there are actually 14 whitespaces to the left of the word banana.

Definition and Usage

The rjust() method will right align the string, using a specified character (space is default) as the fill character.

Syntax

string.rjust(length, character)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
lengthRequired. The length of the returned string
characterOptional. A character to fill the missing space (to the left of the string). Default is " " (space).

More Examples

Example

Using the letter "O" as the padding character:

txt = "banana"

x = txt.rjust(20, "O")

print(x)

Python String rpartition() Method

Example

Search for the last occurrence of the word "bananas", and return a tuple with three elements:

1 - everything before the "match"
2 - the "match"
3 - everything after the "match"

txt = "I could eat bananas all day, bananas are my favorite fruit"

x = txt.rpartition("bananas")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The rpartition() method searches for the last occurrence of a specified string, and splits the string into a tuple containing three elements.

The first element contains the part before the specified string.

The second element contains the specified string.

The third element contains the part after the string.

Syntax

string.rpartition(value)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The string to search for

More Examples

Example

If the specified value is not found, the rpartition() method returns a tuple containing: 1 - an empty string, 2 - an empty string, 3 - the whole string:

txt = "I could eat bananas all day, bananas are my favorite fruit"

x = txt.rpartition("apples")

print(x)

Python String rsplit() Method

Example

Split a string into a list, using comma, followed by a space (, ) as the separator:

txt = "apple, banana, cherry"

x = txt.rsplit(", ")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The rsplit() method splits a string into a list, starting from the right.

If no "max" is specified, this method will return the same as the split() method.

Note: When maxsplit is specified, the list will contain the specified number of elements plus one.

Syntax

string.rsplit(separator, maxsplit)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
separatorOptional. Specifies the separator to use when splitting the string. By default any whitespace is a separator
maxsplitOptional. Specifies how many splits to do. Default value is -1, which is "all occurrences"

More Examples

Example

Split the string into a list with maximum 2 items:

txt = "apple, banana, cherry"

# setting the maxsplit parameter to 1, will return a list with 2 elements!
x = txt.rsplit(", ", 1)

print(x)

Python String rstrip() Method

Example

Remove any white spaces at the end of the string:

txt = "     banana     "

x = txt.rstrip()

print("of all fruits", x, "is my favorite")

Definition and Usage

The rstrip() method removes any trailing characters (characters at the end a string), space is the default trailing character to remove.

Syntax

string.rstrip(characters)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
charactersOptional. A set of characters to remove as trailing characters

More Examples

Example

Remove the trailing characters if they are commas, s, q, or w:

txt = "banana,,,,,ssqqqww....."

x = txt.rstrip(",.qsw")

print(x)

Python String split() Method

Example

Split a string into a list where each word is a list item:

txt = "welcome to the jungle"

x = txt.split()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The split() method splits a string into a list.

You can specify the separator, default separator is any whitespace.

Note: When maxsplit is specified, the list will contain the specified number of elements plus one.

Syntax

string.split(separator, maxsplit)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
separatorOptional. Specifies the separator to use when splitting the string. By default any whitespace is a separator
maxsplitOptional. Specifies how many splits to do. Default value is -1, which is "all occurrences"

More Examples

Example

Split the string, using comma, followed by a space, as a separator:

txt = "hello, my name is Peter, I am 26 years old"

x = txt.split(", ")

print(x)

Example

Use a hash character as a separator:

txt = "apple#banana#cherry#orange"

x = txt.split("#")

print(x)

Example

Split the string into a list with max 2 items:

txt = "apple#banana#cherry#orange"

# setting the maxsplit parameter to 1, will return a list with 2 elements!
x = txt.split("#", 1)

print(x)

Python String splitlines() Method

Example

Split a string into a list where each line is a list item:

txt = "Thank you for the music\nWelcome to the jungle"

x = txt.splitlines()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The splitlines() method splits a string into a list. The splitting is done at line breaks.

Syntax

string.splitlines(keeplinebreaks)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
keeplinebreaksOptional. Specifies if the line breaks should be included (True), or not (False). Default value is False

More Examples

Example

Split the string, but keep the line breaks:

txt = "Thank you for the music\nWelcome to the jungle"

x = txt.splitlines(True)

print(x)

Python String startswith() Method

Example

Check if the string starts with "Hello":

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.startswith("Hello")

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The startswith() method returns True if the string starts with the specified value, otherwise False.

Syntax

string.startswith(value, start, end)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
valueRequired. The value to check if the string starts with
startOptional. An Integer specifying at which position to start the search
endOptional. An Integer specifying at which position to end the search

More Examples

Example

Check if position 7 to 20 starts with the characters "wel":

txt = "Hello, welcome to my world."

x = txt.startswith("wel", 7, 20)

print(x)

Python String strip() Method

Example

Remove spaces at the beginning and at the end of the string:

txt = "     banana     "

x = txt.strip()

print("of all fruits", x, "is my favorite")

Definition and Usage

The strip() method removes any leading (spaces at the beginning) and trailing (spaces at the end) characters (space is the default leading character to remove)

Syntax

string.strip(characters)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
charactersOptional. A set of characters to remove as leading/trailing characters

More Examples

Example

Remove the leading and trailing characters:

txt = ",,,,,rrttgg.....banana....rrr"

x = txt.strip(",.grt")

print(x)

Python String swapcase() Method

Example

Make the lower case letters upper case and the upper case letters lower case:

txt = "Hello My Name Is PETER"

x = txt.swapcase()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The swapcase() method returns a string where all the upper case letters are lower case and vice versa.

Syntax

string.swapcase()

Parameter Values

No parameters.


Python String title() Method

Example

Make the first letter in each word upper case:

txt = "Welcome to my world"

x = txt.title()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The title() method returns a string where the first character in every word is upper case. Like a header, or a title.

If the word contains a number or a symbol, the first letter after that will be converted to upper case.

Syntax

string.title()

Parameter Values

No parameters.

More Examples

Example

Make the first letter in each word upper case:

txt = "Welcome to my 2nd world"

x = txt.title()

print(x)

Example

Note that the first letter after a non-alphabet letter is converted into a upper case letter:

txt = "hello b2b2b2 and 3g3g3g"

x = txt.title()

print(x)

Python String translate() Method

Example

Replace any "S" characters with a "P" character:

#use a dictionary with ascii codes to replace 83 (S) with 80 (P):
mydict = {83:  80}
txt = "Hello Sam!"
print(txt.translate(mydict))

Definition and Usage

The translate() method returns a string where some specified characters are replaced with the character described in a dictionary, or in a mapping table.

Use the maketrans() method to create a mapping table.

If a character is not specified in the dictionary/table, the character will not be replaced.

If you use a dictionary, you must use ascii codes instead of characters.

Syntax

string.translate(table)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
tableRequired. Either a dictionary, or a mapping table describing how to perform the replace

More Examples

Example

Use a mapping table to replace "S" with "P":

txt = "Hello Sam!"
mytable = txt.maketrans("S", "P")
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Example

Use a mapping table to replace many characters:

txt = "Hi Sam!"
x = "mSa"
y = "eJo"
mytable = txt.maketrans(x, y)
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Example

The third parameter in the mapping table describes characters that you want to remove from the string:

txt = "Good night Sam!"
x = "mSa"
y = "eJo"
z = "odnght"
mytable = txt.maketrans(x, y, z)
print(txt.translate(mytable))

Example

The same example as above, but using a dictionary instead of a mapping table:

txt = "Good night Sam!"
mydict = {109: 101, 83: 74, 97: 111, 111: None, 100: None, 110: None, 103: None, 104: None, 116: None}
print(txt.translate(mydict))

Python String upper() Method

Example

Upper case the string:

txt = "Hello my friends"

x = txt.upper()

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The upper() method returns a string where all characters are in upper case.

 Symbols and Numbers are ignored.

Syntax

string.upper()

Parameter Values

No parameters


Python String zfill() Method

Example

Fill the string with zeros until it is 10 characters long:

txt = "50"

x = txt.zfill(10)

print(x)

Definition and Usage

The zfill() method adds zeros (0) at the beginning of the string, until it reaches the specified length.

If the value of the len parameter is less than the length of the string, no filling is done.

Syntax

string.zfill(len)

Parameter Values

ParameterDescription
lenRequired. A number specifying the desired length of the string

More Examples

Example

Fill the strings with zeros until they are 10 characters long:

a = "hello"
b = "welcome to the jungle"
c = "10.000"

print(a.zfill(10))
print(b.zfill(10))
print(c.zfill(10))

#python #programming #developer 

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619510796

Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt

1626775355

Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas. 

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities. 

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly. 

5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps 

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks 

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions. 

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events. 

Simple to read and compose 

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building. 

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties. 

Utilized by the best 

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player. 

Massive community support 

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions. 

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking. 

Progressive applications 

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.

Summary

Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential. 

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

Art  Lind

Art Lind

1602968400

Python Tricks Every Developer Should Know

Python is awesome, it’s one of the easiest languages with simple and intuitive syntax but wait, have you ever thought that there might ways to write your python code simpler?

In this tutorial, you’re going to learn a variety of Python tricks that you can use to write your Python code in a more readable and efficient way like a pro.

Let’s get started

Swapping value in Python

Instead of creating a temporary variable to hold the value of the one while swapping, you can do this instead

>>> FirstName = "kalebu"
>>> LastName = "Jordan"
>>> FirstName, LastName = LastName, FirstName 
>>> print(FirstName, LastName)
('Jordan', 'kalebu')

#python #python-programming #python3 #python-tutorials #learn-python #python-tips #python-skills #python-development

Art  Lind

Art Lind

1602666000

How to Remove all Duplicate Files on your Drive via Python

Today you’re going to learn how to use Python programming in a way that can ultimately save a lot of space on your drive by removing all the duplicates.

Intro

In many situations you may find yourself having duplicates files on your disk and but when it comes to tracking and checking them manually it can tedious.

Heres a solution

Instead of tracking throughout your disk to see if there is a duplicate, you can automate the process using coding, by writing a program to recursively track through the disk and remove all the found duplicates and that’s what this article is about.

But How do we do it?

If we were to read the whole file and then compare it to the rest of the files recursively through the given directory it will take a very long time, then how do we do it?

The answer is hashing, with hashing can generate a given string of letters and numbers which act as the identity of a given file and if we find any other file with the same identity we gonna delete it.

There’s a variety of hashing algorithms out there such as

  • md5
  • sha1
  • sha224, sha256, sha384 and sha512

#python-programming #python-tutorials #learn-python #python-project #python3 #python #python-skills #python-tips