Sentiment Analysis of a book through Unsupervised Learning

Getting Started

In this tutorial, I will show you how to apply sentiment analysis to the text contained into a book through an Unsupervised Learning (UL) technique, based on the AFINN lexicon. This tutorial exploits the afinn Python package, which is available only for English and Danish. If your text is written into a different language, you could translate it before in English and use the afinn package.

This notebook applies sentiment analysis the Saint Augustine Confessions, which can be downloaded from the Gutemberg Project Page. The masterpiece is split in 13 books (or chapters). We have stored each book into a different file, named number.text (e.g. 1.txt and 2.txt). Each line of every file contains just one sentence.

You can download the code from my Github repository: https://github.com/alod83/papers/tree/master/aiucd2021

First of all import the Afinn class from the afinn package.

from afinn import Afinn

Then create a new Afinn object, by specifying the used language.

afinn = Afinn(language=’en’)

Calculate the Sentiment

Use the score give by Afinn to calculate the sentiment

The afinn object contains a method, called score(), which receives a sentence as input and returns a score as output. The score may be either positive, negative or neutral. We calculate the score of a book, simply by summing all the scores of all the sentence of that book. We define three variables> pos, neg and neutral, which store respectively the sum of all the positive, negative and neutral scores of all the sentences of a book.

Firstly, we define three indexes, which will be used after.

pos_index = []
neg_index = []
neutral_index = []

We open the file corresponding to each book through the open() function, we read all the lines through the function file.readlines() and for each line, we calculate the score.

Then, we can define three indexes to calculate the sentiment of a book: the positive sentiment index (pi), the negative sentiment index (ni) and the neutral sentiment index (nui). The pi of a book corresponds to the number of positive sentences in a book divided per the total number of sentences of the book. Similarly, we can calculate the ni and nui of a book.

for book in range(1,14):
    file = open('sources/' + str(book) + '.txt')
    lines = file.readlines()
    pos = 0
    neg = 0
    neutral = 0

    for line in lines:
        score = int(afinn.score(line))

        if score > 0:
            pos += 1
        elif score < 0:
            neg += 1
        else:
            neutral += 1

    n = len(lines)
    pos_index.append(pos / n)
    neg_index.append(neg / n)
    neutral_index.append(neutral / n)

#unsupervised-learning #sentiment-analysis #book-analysis #text-analysis #data-science

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Sentiment Analysis of a book through Unsupervised Learning

Sentiment Analysis of a book through Unsupervised Learning

Getting Started

In this tutorial, I will show you how to apply sentiment analysis to the text contained into a book through an Unsupervised Learning (UL) technique, based on the AFINN lexicon. This tutorial exploits the afinn Python package, which is available only for English and Danish. If your text is written into a different language, you could translate it before in English and use the afinn package.

This notebook applies sentiment analysis the Saint Augustine Confessions, which can be downloaded from the Gutemberg Project Page. The masterpiece is split in 13 books (or chapters). We have stored each book into a different file, named number.text (e.g. 1.txt and 2.txt). Each line of every file contains just one sentence.

You can download the code from my Github repository: https://github.com/alod83/papers/tree/master/aiucd2021

First of all import the Afinn class from the afinn package.

from afinn import Afinn

Then create a new Afinn object, by specifying the used language.

afinn = Afinn(language=’en’)

Calculate the Sentiment

Use the score give by Afinn to calculate the sentiment

The afinn object contains a method, called score(), which receives a sentence as input and returns a score as output. The score may be either positive, negative or neutral. We calculate the score of a book, simply by summing all the scores of all the sentence of that book. We define three variables> pos, neg and neutral, which store respectively the sum of all the positive, negative and neutral scores of all the sentences of a book.

Firstly, we define three indexes, which will be used after.

pos_index = []
neg_index = []
neutral_index = []

We open the file corresponding to each book through the open() function, we read all the lines through the function file.readlines() and for each line, we calculate the score.

Then, we can define three indexes to calculate the sentiment of a book: the positive sentiment index (pi), the negative sentiment index (ni) and the neutral sentiment index (nui). The pi of a book corresponds to the number of positive sentences in a book divided per the total number of sentences of the book. Similarly, we can calculate the ni and nui of a book.

for book in range(1,14):
    file = open('sources/' + str(book) + '.txt')
    lines = file.readlines()
    pos = 0
    neg = 0
    neutral = 0

    for line in lines:
        score = int(afinn.score(line))

        if score > 0:
            pos += 1
        elif score < 0:
            neg += 1
        else:
            neutral += 1

    n = len(lines)
    pos_index.append(pos / n)
    neg_index.append(neg / n)
    neutral_index.append(neutral / n)

#unsupervised-learning #sentiment-analysis #book-analysis #text-analysis #data-science

Sofia  Maggio

Sofia Maggio

1626077565

Sentiment Analysis in Python using Machine Learning

Sentiment analysis or opinion mining is a simple task of understanding the emotions of the writer of a particular text. What was the intent of the writer when writing a certain thing?

We use various natural language processing (NLP) and text analysis tools to figure out what could be subjective information. We need to identify, extract and quantify such details from the text for easier classification and working with the data.

But why do we need sentiment analysis?

Sentiment analysis serves as a fundamental aspect of dealing with customers on online portals and websites for the companies. They do this all the time to classify a comment as a query, complaint, suggestion, opinion, or just love for a product. This way they can easily sort through the comments or questions and prioritize what they need to handle first and even order them in a way that looks better. Companies sometimes even try to delete content that has a negative sentiment attached to it.

It is an easy way to understand and analyze public reception and perception of different ideas and concepts, or a newly launched product, maybe an event or a government policy.

Emotion understanding and sentiment analysis play a huge role in collaborative filtering based recommendation systems. Grouping together people who have similar reactions to a certain product and showing them related products. Like recommending movies to people by grouping them with others that have similar perceptions for a certain show or movie.

Lastly, they are also used for spam filtering and removing unwanted content.

How does sentiment analysis work?

NLP or natural language processing is the basic concept on which sentiment analysis is built upon. Natural language processing is a superclass of sentiment analysis that deals with understanding all kinds of things from a piece of text.

NLP is the branch of AI dealing with texts, giving machines the ability to understand and derive from the text. For tasks such as virtual assistant, query solving, creating and maintaining human-like conversations, summarizing texts, spam detection, sentiment analysis, etc. it includes everything from counting the number of words to a machine writing a story, indistinguishable from human texts.

Sentiment analysis can be classified into various categories based on various criteria. Depending upon the scope it can be classified into document-level sentiment analysis, sentence level sentiment analysis, and sub sentence level or phrase level sentiment analysis.

Also, a very common classification is based on what needs to be done with the data or the reason for sentiment analysis. Examples of which are

  • Simple classification of text into positive, negative or neutral. It may also advance into fine grained answers like very positive or moderately positive.
  • Aspect-based sentiment analysis- where we figure out the sentiment along with a specific aspect it is related to. Like identifying sentiments regarding various aspects or parts of a car in user reviews, identifying what feature or aspect was appreciated or disliked.
  • The sentiment along with an action associated with it. Like mails written to customer support. Understanding if it is a query or complaint or suggestion etc

Based on what needs to be done and what kind of data we need to work with there are two major methods of tackling this problem.

  • Matching rules based sentiment analysis: There is a predefined list of words for each type of sentiment needed and then the text or document is matched with the lists. The algorithm then determines which type of words or which sentiment is more prevalent in it.
  • This type of rule based sentiment analysis is easy to implement, but lacks flexibility and does not account for context.
  • Automatic sentiment analysis: They are mostly based on supervised machine learning algorithms and are actually very useful in understanding complicated texts. Algorithms in this category include support vector machine, linear regression, rnn, and its types. This is what we are gonna explore and learn more about.

In this machine learning project, we will use recurrent neural network for sentiment analysis in python.

#machine learning tutorials #machine learning project #machine learning sentiment analysis #python sentiment analysis #sentiment analysis

Michael  Hamill

Michael Hamill

1617327135

How To Read 43 Machine Learning Books in a Year

The Garrison (armies of militia) of libraries worldwide offer millions of books, such as the Library of Congress in D.C. has over 162 million books, and the New York Public library carries around 53 million books. So many books, so little time in a human’s life.

A number of people have asked me through several of my channels and conferences — how to find time to read books, and what can be done to read more books each month. Some audiences even feel that 43 machine learning books in a year are insufficient, and want more.

I keep discovering new material every day on top of the antiquated books, which still offer good concepts. To get started, I would suggest disconnecting from Netflix, Amazon Video, and regular TV channels. The more you watch any of this stuff, the more you wouldn’t be finding time to read the books.

In 2020, I had managed to read more than 96,120 pieces of books, eBooks, articles, averaging 267 pieces of books, eBooks, research papers, or articles per day. However, on average, people might have read 10 to 30 machine learning books in a year.

#free machine learning books #garrison platoon of machine learning books #machine learning #machine learning books made free #reading machine learning books

Mia  Marquardt

Mia Marquardt

1624077346

Sentiment Analysis with TensorFlow Hub

In this article, I explained sentiment analysis with TensorFlow Hub using the IMDB dataset.

While performing data analysis, the model is trained with the training data and then inference on new data according to this trained model.

Model training is a difficult process. A large amount of labeling and computing power is required to train a model from scratch. For example, thousands of hours of GPU were run to train the NASNet model developed in 2017.

Fortunately, there are pre-trained models we can use for analysis such as text or image classification. These trained models are also available in libraries such as TensorFlow. To use these models, all you have to do is call these models and apply them to your datasets.

You may not get good results by applying these models directly to your datasets. Because these models are trained on certain data. For example, you want to classify pictures of dogs and cats. You want to use the ResNet model. ResNet is trained to classify thousands of images. You can only classify dog ​​and cat images by customizing the last layers of this model.

For more information on basic image classification, you can read the following blog post.

#machine-learning #sentiment-analysis #deep-learning #artificial-intelligence #tensorflow-hub #sentiment analysis with tensorflow hub

Elton  Bogan

Elton Bogan

1604091840

Supervised Learning vs Unsupervised Learning

Note from Towards Data Science’s editors:_ While we allow independent authors to publish articles in accordance with our rules and guidelines, we do not endorse each author’s contribution. You should not rely on an author’s works without seeking professional advice. See our Reader Terms for details._

Nowadays, nearly everything in our lives can be quantified by data. Whether it involves search engine results, social media usage, weather trackers, cars, or sports, data is always being collected to enhance our quality of life. How do we get from all this raw data to improve the level of performance? This article will introduce us to the tools and techniques developed to make sense of unstructured data and discover hidden patterns. Specifically, the main topics that are covered are:

1. Supervised & Unsupervised Learning and the main techniques corresponding to each one (Classification and Clustering, respectively).

2. An in-depth look at the K-Means algorithm

Goals

1. Understanding the many different techniques used to discover patterns in a set of data

2. In-depth understanding of the K-Means algorithm

1.1 Unsupervised and supervised learning

In unsupervised learning, we are trying to discover hidden patterns in data, when we don’t have any labels. We will go through what hidden patterns are and what labels are, and we will go through real data examples.

What is unsupervised learning?

First, let’s step back to what learning even means. In machine learning in statistics, we are typically trying to find hidden patterns in data. Ideally, we want these hidden patterns to help us in some way. For instance, to help us understand some scientific results, to improve our user experience, or to help us maximize profit in some investment. Supervised learning is when we learn from data, but we have labels for all the data we have seen so far. Unsupervised learning is when we learn from data, but we don’t have any labels.

Let’s use an example of an email. In general, it can be hard to keep our inbox in check. We get many e-mails every day and a big problem is spam. In fact, it would be an even bigger problem if e-mail providers, like Gmail, were not so effective at keeping spam out of our inboxes. But how do they know whether a particular e-mail is a spam or not? This is our first example of a machine learning problem.

Every machine learning problem has a data set, which is a collection of data points that help us learn. Your data set will be all the e-mails that are sent over a month. Each data point will be a single e-mail. Whenever you get an e-mail, you can quickly tell whether it’s spam. You might hit a button to label any particular e-mail as spam or not spam. Now you can imagine that each of your data points has one of two labels, spam or not spam. In the future, you will keep getting emails, but you won’t know in advance which label it should have, spam or not spam. The machine learning problem is to predict whether a new label for a new email is spam or not spam. This means that we want to predict the label of the next email. If our machine learning algorithm works, it can put all the spam in a separate folder. This spam problem is an example of supervised learning. You can imagine a teacher, or supervisor, telling you the label of each data point, which is whether each e-mail is spam or not spam. The supervisor might be able to tell us whether the labels we predicted were correct.

So what is unsupervised learning? Let’s try another example of a machine learning problem. Imagine you are looking at your emails, and realize you got too many emails. It would be helpful if you could read all the emails that are on the same topic at the same time. So, you might run a machine learning algorithm that groups together similar emails. After you have run your machine learning algorithm, you find that there are natural groups of emails in your inbox. This is an example of an unsupervised learning problem. You did not have any labels because no labels were made for each email, which means there is no supervisor.

#reinforcement-learning #supervised-learning #unsupervised-learning #k-means-clustering #machine-learning