Vuex and Redux. Here are the differences.

Vuex and Redux. Here are the differences.

<strong>I created the same app with Vuex and Redux. Here are the differences.</strong>

I created the same app with Vuex and Redux. Here are the differences.

I have been using Vue and React for quite sometime now.

I learnt Vue + Vuex before React. I had a feeling that Redux would be very similar to Vuex. But I soon realized that it wasn’t as straight forward as Vuex and it does things differently (though both are inspired from Flux Architecture).

It’s a natural tendency to compare the features of one framework to a previously learnt framework or library, while learning the new one. That gives an easy way to understand and remember because we know how it works in the other.

So here is an article about comparing how Vuex and Redux do the same things in different ways.

Note: I am not comparing the core frameworks, I am concentrating only on features of Vuex and Redux*. If you’re interested in comparing Vue and React, I recommend you check* this article out by Sunil Sandhu.

The HTML

The markup of both applications are exactly the same for now, later we’ll use directives in Vue and Render functions in React to modify them.

html-template

<section>
  <h1>TO DO LIST</h1>
  <div class="todoapp">
    <header class="header">
      <input class="new-todo"
        autofocus autocomplete="off"
        placeholder="What's on your Mind?">
    </header>
    <section class="main">
      <ul class="todo-list">
        <li>
          <div class="view">
            <input class="toggle" type="checkbox">
            <label> Placeholder TEXT </label>
            <button class="destroy"></button>
          </div>
        </li>
      </ul>
    </section>
  </div>
</section>

Getting Started

Let’s first show you how to start using these state management libraries and their basic boilerplate code.

Vuex

Vuex is tightly coupled with VueJS hence there is less boilerplate code for Vuex to get started with.reen frameborder=“0”>

index.js

import Vue from 'vue'
import App from './App.vue'
import store from './store'
import './main.css';
Vue.config.productionTip = false

new Vue({
  store,
  render: h => h(App)
}).$mount('#app')

Redux

Redux is framework agnostic, It is not specific to React. Hence we need to import few other libraries for it to work.

main.js

import React from 'react';
import ReactDOM from 'react-dom';
import App from './components/App';
import { Provider } from 'react-redux';
import { createStore } from 'redux';
import reducer from './reducers';

const store = createStore(
    reducer
    );

ReactDOM.render(<Provider store={store}><App /></Provider>, document.getElementById('root'));

Store and State

Both Vuex and Redux have a single store object which maintains all the application state variables, Let’s see how to create state variables in store.

How Vuex does it

Vuex state is mutable, hence we can directly create state variables and assign values to them.

store.js

import Vue from 'vue';
import Vuex from 'vuex';

Vue.use(Vuex)

export default new Vuex.Store({
  state: {
    todos: []
  }
});

How Redux does it

Redux uses Reducers, whichare pure functions that take the previous state and action, and return the next state. we’ll talk more about this below.

**reducer.js **

var initialState = [];
const todos = (state = initialState, action) => {
  
};

export default todos;

Using these states in our application

Now that we were able to create a state with one TODO item hardcoded, Let’s see how we can use this in our application.

How Vuex does it

Vue has a mapState() helper function to map the states from our Vuex store to our components. These mapped variables can then be accessed directly like normal state variables, though we cannot modify these variables directly.

App.vue

<script>
import { mapState } from 'vuex';
export default {
  name: 'app',
  computed: {
    ...mapGetters(['completedList']),
    ...mapState({
      todoList: state => state.todos
    })
   }
  }
  </script>

store.js

export default new Vuex.Store({
  state: {
    todos: []
  },
  getters: {
    completedList(state) {
      return state.todos.filter(todos => todos.completed === true);
    }
  }
})

If we need to perform some operation on our state variables and get the computed value to use in various components, we can make use of Vuex’s getters by using this in our template:

<li v-for="(item, index) in todoList" 
  :key="item.id" 
  :class="{ completed: item.completed}"
>

How Redux does it

Redux has mapStateToProps() method which is passed to a higher order component connect provided by react-redux library. These states are now accessible as props in our component.

//component
import { connect } from 'react-redux';
const mapStateToProps = (state) => {
  return { todos: state };
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps)(App);

Redux doesn’t provide any similar feature to getters, we can write our own utility methods in a separate file and import them wherever necessary by using this in the template:

renderList() {
return this.props.todos.map(item => {
  return (
    <li key={item.id}
      className={"todo " + (item.completed ? "completed" : "")}
      onClick={() => this.props.toggleCompletion(item.id)}>
    </li>
  )
})
}

Modifying the State

A state variable should not be modified directly. We use special methods to modify/update them so that it can be tracked properly.

How Vuex does it

The only way to actually change state in a Vuex store is by committing a mutation. Vuex mutations are very similar to events; each mutation has a string type and a handler. The handler function is where we perform actual state modifications, and it will receive the state as the first argument.

//store.js
mutations: {
    addItem(state, payload) {
      state.todos.push({id:GLOBAL_ID++, title: payload, completed:   false});
    },
    togglecompletion(state, id) {
      state.todos.forEach( item => {
        if(item.id === id) 
          item.completed = !item.completed;
      })
    },
    removeItem(state, index) {
      state.todos.splice(index, 1);
    }
  }

Mutations also take payload as an optional second argument, If we have to pass more data then we can either send array or objects in payload.

How Redux does it

In Redux the state modification methods are also written in reducers.

//reducer/index.js
const todos = (state = initialState, action) => {
  switch (action.type) {
    case "ADD_ITEM":
      return [
        ...state,
        {
          id: GLOBAL_ID++,
          title: action.title,
          completed: false
        }
      ];
    case "TOGGLE_COMPLETION":
      console.log('action', action);
      return state.map(todo =>
        todo.id === action.id ? { ...todo, completed: !todo.completed } : todo
      );
    case "REMOVE_ITEM":
      return state.filter(todo => todo.id !== action.id);
    default:
      return state;
  }
};


Reducers maintain both state and their modification methods, These methods are called by dispatching actions. These actions also take payload to send data from our application to our Redux store. (Remember, in Redux states are immutable)

//actions/index.js
let nextTodoId = 0;
export const addItem = title => {
  return {
    type: "ADD_ITEM",
    id: nextTodoId++,
    title
  };
};
export const toggleCompletion = id => {
  return {
    type: "TOGGLE_COMPLETION",
    id
  };
};
export const removeItem = id => {
  return {
    type: "REMOVE_ITEM",
    id
  }
};

We also create a new file to store all our actions, This is not a compulsion but it makes our code look more organized. Rather than doing it in the later part of the code, let’s do that now.

Modifying the State from our Components

How Vuex does it

Vuex provides a helper method mapMutations() to access our mutations in the components.

methods: {
 ...mapMutations([
  'addItem', 
  'togglecompletion',
  'removeItem',
 ])
}

After mapping, these methods can then be accessed like normal component methods by using these mutations in our component:

<button class="destroy" @click.stop="removeTodo(index)"></button>
removeTodo: function(index) {
  this.removeItem(index);
}

How Redux does it

Similar to mapStateToProps() Redux provides us with another helper called mapDispatchToProps() passed to our HOC.

const mapDispatcherstoProps = dispatch =>  {
  return {
    toggleCompletion: (id) => dispatch(toggleCompletion(id)),
    removeItem: (id) => dispatch(removeItem(id)),
    addItem: (title)=> dispatch(addItem(title)),
    addItemFromWeb: ()=> dispatch(addItemFromWeb())   
  }
}
export default connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatcherstoProps)(App);

This method gets dispatch as an argument, this dispatch method is used to commit our actions. These actions are now mapped to local methods which are available through props, as such:

<button className="destroy" 
    onClick={() => this.props.removeItem(item.id)}
/>

Now our TO DO LIST App is completely functional, we can add items, check completed items and remove items.

Making Async Calls

Expanding our TO DO LIST application, let’s say we want to load the list for a user stored in the server, we cannot make a call to the server directly from our Vuex mutations or Redux actions as they are synchronous methods. We need special ways to achieve this.

How Vuex does it

Mutations are pure synchronous functions, we cannot cause side effects in our mutations. To make Async calls, Vuex has actions. Actions are similar to mutations but instead of mutating the state, actions commit mutations.

//store.js
actions: {
    addItemFromWeb(context) {
      axios.get('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos/1')
      .then((response) => {
        console.log(response);
        context.commit('addItem', response.data.title)
      })
      .catch((error) => console.log(error));
    }
  }

In the above example, we make use of axios library to make HTTP call.

To use these actions in our components, Vuex provides us with mapActions() helper method.

<button @click="addItemFromWeb"> Async Add </button>
methods: {
    ...mapActions([
      'addItemFromWeb'
    ])
}

How Redux does it

Redux does not provide any out of the box solution as Vuex does, hence we need Middlewares to make Async calls.

To achieve this we use a middleware called redux-thunk. This middleware is very simple it checks whether the action is a function. If it is, then that function is invoked with dispatch. If not, the reducers are called directly.

import { applyMiddleware } from 'redux';
import thunk from 'redux-thunk';
const store = createStore(
   reducer,
   applyMiddleware(thunk),
);

Now in actions.js we create our async function:

export const addItemFromWeb = () => {
    return dispatch => {
        axios.get('https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/todos/1')
        .then((response) =>{
            console.log(response);
            dispatch(addItem(response.data.title));
        })
        .catch((error) => {
            console.log(error);
        })
    }
}

Application Management and Scaling

As our application grows we would have more states to manage, we cannot have a single store.js file for Vuex or a single reducer.js file for Redux, we need to modularise our application.

How Vuex does it

Vuex allows us to divide our store into modules. Each module can contain its own state, mutations, actions, getters, and even nested modules.

const moduleA = {
  state: { ... },
  mutations: { ... },
  actions: { ... },
  getters: { ... }
}

const moduleB = {
  state: { ... },
  mutations: { ... },
  actions: { ... }
}

const store = new Vuex.Store({
  modules: {
    a: moduleA,
    b: moduleB
  }
})

store.state.a // -> `moduleA`'s state
store.state.b // -> `moduleB`'s state

Inside a module’s mutations and getters, the first argument received will be the module’s local state.

How Redux does it

We can split our root reducer into multiple reducers and then combine them together. Each reducer will be responsible for managing the states within them.

import { combineReducers } from 'redux' 
import todos from './todos' 
import counter from './counter'
  
let reducers = combineReducers({
todo: todos,
ctr: counter
})
const store = createStore(reducer);
ReactDOM.render(<Provider store={store}><App /></Provider>, document.getElementById('root'));

Redux library provides us with a feature called combineReducers to combine all our reducers into a single reducer. (Note that we cannot directly access the states present in one reducer in another) data required for a reducer should be passed by the component through actions.

Conclusion

We compared two very popular state management libraries, both inspired by Flux architecture, both have the same end goal but takes a different path to achieve it.

I hope that you have found this useful. If so, be sure to leave lots of claps! 👏

Demo App links

Vuex TODO Github

Redux TODO Github

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What are the differences between the various JavaScript frameworks? E.g. Vue.js, Angular.js, React.js

What are the differences? Do they each have specific use contexts?

What are the differences? Do they each have specific use contexts?

Ember.js vs Vue.js - Which is JavaScript Framework Works Better for You

Ember.js vs Vue.js - Which is JavaScript Framework Works Better for You

In this article we will discuss full details and comparison of both Ember.js and Vue.js

JavaScript was initially created to work for web applications. But today they have become the favorite of mobile app developers. Most of the developers prefer to work with frameworks based on JavaScript. It simplifies coding. You can use JavaScript with almost any framework.

The use of a particular framework will decide how easy and fast it is to create the app. So, you must choose the best one suited for the app that you are planning to build. You must make a wise choice so that you benefit in the end. Among the crowded market, two of the frameworks stand out. We will make a comparison between Ember.js and Vue.js.

Why Do You Select A Particular Framework?

Before we start comparing the two frameworks, we should understand the factors that lead to the choice of a framework. Each developer chooses a framework before he or she goes to work on an app. Let us see the reasons for the selection.

● The codes must be easy to understand and transparent.

● The framework should give the maximum power with the least amount of coding.

● The framework should provide a well laid out structure to work on.

● Does the framework support an in-built router or an external plug-in router?

● The framework should be able to transfer more data on a full page-load so that it becomes a single-page app. A single-page app is more beneficial for the application.

● In single page architectures if there is a need for users to share links to sub-screens within the interface, then the framework should have the capacity to route based on the URL.

● A tighter template option can help in enabling two-way binding.

● The framework should not conflict any third-party library.

● Testing the codes inside the framework should be easy.

● The framework should provide the HTTP client service for AJAX calls

● The documentation is essential. It should be complete and up-to-date.

● The framework should be compatible with the latest version of the browser.

● The framework has to fulfill the above conditions for easy construction of the app. You must ensure that the framework you choose meets the conditions.

Vue.js Explained

Developers are always looking at new frameworks to build their apps. The main requirements are speed and low cost. The framework should be easy to use by even new developers. You should be able to use it at low cost. Other considerations are about simple coding, proper documentation, etc.

Vue.js combines a lot of good when it comes to software language for web app development. The architecture of Vue.js is easy to put in use. The apps developed using Vue.js are easy to integrate with new apps.

Vue.js is a very lightweight framework. It makes it fast to download. It is also much faster than other frameworks. The single-file component nature of the framework is also beneficial. The size has made it very popular.

You can further decrease weight. With Vue.js you can separate the template-to-virtual DOM and compiler. You can only deploy the minified and zipped interpreter which is only 12 KB. You can compile the templates in your machine.

Another significant advantage of Vue.js is that it can integrate easily with existing applications created with JavaScript. It will make it easy for using this framework to make changes to applications already present.

Vue.js also integrates easily with other front-end libraries. You can plug in another library and make up for any deficiency in this framework. This feature makes this tool a versatile one.

Vue.js uses the method of rendering on the streaming-side server. You can render your component and get a readable stream. You can then send this to the HTTP server. It makes the server highly responsive. Your users will get the rendered content very quickly.

Vue.js is very SEO friendly. As the framework supports server-side rendering, the views are rendered directly on the server. The search engines list these.

But the most important thing for you is the ease with which you can learn Vue.js. The structure is elementary. Even new developers will find it easy to use it to build their apps. This framework helps in developing both small and large templates. It helps to save a lot of time.

You can go back and check your errors very easily. You can travel back and inspect all the states apart from testing your components. It is another important feature as far as any developer is concerned.

Vue.js also has very detailed documentation. It helps in writing your applications very quickly. You can build a web page or app with the basic knowledge of HTML or JavaScript.

● Vue.js has pure architecture. It helps in integration with other apps

● Vue.js is lightweight and fast. It can be made lighter by deploying only the interpreter

● You can separate the compiler and the template-to-virtual DOM.

● Due to smooth integration, you can use this to make changes to existing apps

● To make up for any shortfall, you can plug-in any library and makeup.

● As Vue.js uses streaming-side server rendering, your users can get quick responses.

● The server-side rendering also helps in being ranked higher by search engines.

● It has a simple structure. Easy to use for any new developer

● You can go back and check and correct your errors.

● You can check all the existing states.

● Detail documentation also helps build the web page or application very quickly.

Ember.js Decoded

Ember.js is an MVVM model framework. It is open-source software. This platform is mostly used for creating complex multi-page applications. It maintains up-to-date features without discarding any of the old features.

With this framework, you have to follow the architecture of the framework strictly. The JS framework is very tightly organized. It reduces the flexibility that other frameworks might offer.

There is a very refined and developed control system for its platforms and tools. You can integrate it with the new version with the tools provided. There is strict guidance about avoiding outdated APIs.

You can understand Ember’s APIs easily. They are also easy to work. You can make use of highly complex functionalities simply and straightforwardly.

The performance is better as similar jobs are processed together. It creates batches of similar bindings and DOM updates to improve the performance. It means that the browser needs to process them in one go. It will avoid recomputing for each task, wasting a lot of time.

You can write the codes in a simple manner and modules. You can use any of Ember’s APIs. It is possible due to the presence of Promises everywhere.

Ember comes with a well-written guide. The API is recorded in a useful manner. It is a front-end framework that is loaded. Ember has a router, pipeline, services, etc. of its own.

The basis for views, controllers, models, and framework is the Ember Object Model. All components come from the same objects. The framework is firm and steady. The reason is that all elements have similar jobs and characteristics.

Ember has made the general application, organization, and structure clear so that you don’t make any mistakes. You will have no chance to complicate the application unnecessarily. If you have to go out of the defined limits, you will have to force your way out.

The language used for templating in Embers is Handlebars. This language helps Embers to keep its logic out of view. The clean syntax of Handlebars makes it easy for you to read and understand the templates. Handlebar templates are faster to load.

Another advantage you gain from Handlebar is that you don’t have to update your template every time you add or remove data from the page. It will be done automatically by the language itself.

A community that is continually improving the framework supports Ember. They are updating the framework with the latest technology. They also make sure that backward compatibility is possible.

● Ember.js is an open-source MVVM model framework suitable for complex multiple-page applications.

● It offers both the latest and old features.

● It has a very tightly structured framework which doesn’t offer much flexibility

● A very refined control system helps you to integrate with new versions without any problem.

● There is strict guidance about avoiding outdated API versions.

● Ember’s APIs help you to use complex functionalities in a simple manner

● There is no recomputing for each task as the framework allows the browser to do similar functions together.

● Promises allow you to write modular and straightforward code using any API of Ember.js.

● Ember.js is a fully loaded, front-end framework.

● The framework is stable because all components have the same functionalities and properties.

● It has well-defined limitations which will prevent your complicating your application

● Handlebars, the language used by Ember.js allows you to read and understand templates easily. It also helps to load the templates faster.

● Handlebars will ensure to update the template every time you add or remove data.

● Ember.js has an active community that updates the framework regularly and facilitates backward compatibility.

A Comparison Between Ember.js And Vue.js

This article intends to compare the features of both frameworks. Let us see how the characteristics of these frameworks compare. It will help you to make use of the right framework for your web application.

When you need a modern engine for an old application, it is Vue.js which will help you. It combines the best properties of other frameworks. Vue.js is a developing framework. A ready-to-use library of interface elements does not exist. However, many third-party libraries can help you.

Ember.js offers you a well-organized and trustworthy framework. When the development team is big, this is the framework that suits best. It allows everyone to understand the written code and contribute to a common project. The technology will be up-to-date, and the platform will be stable.

Vue.js can help you use the syntax of different kinds. It helps in writing the codes with ease. It is also an SEO friendly framework. Ember is a fully loaded front-end framework and can help you develop the applications very fast. But it is not suitable for developing small projects.

It is not easy to say this is better than that. It will depend on what kind of project you have undertaken. Both have their pluses and minuses. The below table will help in a better comparison.

Final Thoughts

It is not easy to conclude as to which is better. It all depends on the application that you want to develop. Both frameworks are developing. Both are getting updates. Both the communities are working on the frameworks.

While Vue.js is more comfortable for writing codes, Ember is a full-stack framework allowing the development of apps very fast. It is suitable for big projects. It is too complicated to be used for smaller projects.

We hope you had a great time reading this article. If you’ve any questions or suggestions related to this blog, then feel free to ask them in the comment section. Thank You.!