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Best 50 Nodejs interview questions from Beginners to Advanced

Node.js, the server-side scripting tool, uses JavaScript – a language that is popular with millions of developers worldwide – ensuring that it has a much lower learning curve even for complete beginners. Using Node.js, one can build everything, starting from a simple command line programs to the complex enterprise level web applications with equal ease. Node.js, also brings with it, career opportunities at various levels. In case you are planning to attend Node.js interviews in the near future, we are here to help you with a list of Best 50 Nodejs interview questions that you must prepare

In this Nodejs interview questions article, I have divided the questions into 3 segments based on their difficulty level:
Nodejs Interview Questions – Beginners LevelNodejs Interview Questions – Moderate LevelNodejs Interview Questions – Advanced Level
Before I start off with this Nodejs Interview Questions article, let me put forth a request to the readers who might have attended Nodejs interviews in recent past. So, if you have come across such questions which were asked in interviews but are missing in this article, feel free to put those questions in the comment section below. We will try and answer those at the earliest so that others can also benefit from it.

Now, let’s get started.

Node.js Interview Questions – Beginners Level

1. Differentiate between JavaScript and Node.js.

2. What Is Node.js?

Node.js is a powerful framework developed on Chrome’s V8 JavaScript engine that compiles the JavaScript directly into the native machine code. It is a lightweight framework used for creating server-side web applications and extends JavaScript API to offer usual server-side functionalities. It is generally used for large-scale application development, especially for video streaming sites, single page application, and other web applications.

3. List down the major benefits of using Node.js?

4. What is the difference between Angular and Node.js?

5. Why Node.js is single threaded?

Node.js uses a single threaded model in order to support async processing. With async processing, an application can perform better and is more scalable under web loads. Thus, Node.js makes use of a single-threaded model approach rather than typical thread-based implementation.

6. How do Node.js works?

Node.js is a virtual machine that uses JavaScript as its scripting language and runs on a v8 environment. It works on a single-threaded event loop and a non-blocking I/O which provides high rate as it can handle a higher number of concurrent requests. Also, by making use of the ‘HTTP’ module, Node.js can run on any stand-alone web server.

7. Where Node.js can be used?

Node.js can be used to develop:
Real-Time Web ApplicationsNetwork ApplicationsDistributed SystemsGeneral Purpose Applications## 8. How many types of API functions are there in Node.js?

There are two types of API functions in Node.js:
Asynchronous, non-blocking functionsSynchronous, blocking functions## 9. What is the difference between Asynchronous and Non-blocking?

10. What is package.json?

The package.json file in Node.js is the heart of the entire application. It is basically the manifest file that contains the metadata of the project where we define the properties of a package.

11. What do you understand by Event-driven programming?

Event-driven programming is a programming approach that heavily makes use of events for triggering various functions. An event can be anything like a mouse click, key press, etc. When an event occurs, a call back function is executed that is already registered with the element. This approach mainly follows the publish-subscribe pattern. Because of event-driven programming, Node.js is faster when compared to other technologies.

12. What is an Event loop in Node.js and how does it work?

An event loop in Node.js handles all the asynchronous callbacks in an application. It is one of the most important aspects of Node.js and the reason behind Node.js have non-blocking I/O. Since Node.js is an event-driven language, you can easily attach a listener to an event and then when the event occurs the callback will be executed by the specific listener. Whenever functions like setTimeout, http.get, and fs.readFile are called, Node.js executed the event loop and then proceeds with the further code without waiting for the output. Once the entire operation is finished, Node.js receives the output and then executes the callback function. This is why all the callback functions are placed in a queue in a loop. Once the response is received, they are executed one by one.

13. Explain REPL in the context of Node.js.

REPL in Node.js stands for Read, Eval, Print, and Loop. It represents a computer environment such as a window console or Unix/Linux shell where any command can be entered and then the system can respond with an output. Node.js comes bundled with a REPL environment by default. REPL can perform the below-listed tasks:
Read: Reads the user’s input, parses it into JavaScript data-structure and then stores it in the memory.Eval: Receives and evaluates the data structure.**Print: **Prints the final result.Loop: Loops the provided command until CTRL+C is pressed twice.## 14. List down the tasks which should be done asynchronously using the event loop?

Below is the list of the tasks which must be done asynchronously using the event loop:
I/O operationsHeavy computationAnything requiring blocking## 15. List down the steps using which “Control Flow” controls the function calls in Node.js?
Control the order of executionCollect dataLimit concurrencyCall the next step in the program#

Node.js Interview Questions – Moderate Level

16. What do you understand by a test pyramid?

A test pyramid basically is a diagram that describes the ratio of how many unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end test are required to be written for the successful development of the project.

17. What is an error-first callback in Node.js?

Error-first callbacks in Node.js are used to pass errors and data. The very first parameter you need to pass to these functions has to be an error object while the other parameters represent the associated data. Thus you can pass the error object for checking if anything is wrong and handle it. In case there is no issue, you can just go ahead and with the subsequent arguments.

var myPost = new Post({title: 'edureka'});
myPost.save(function(err,myInstance){
if(err){
//handle error and return
}
//go ahead with `myInstance`
});

18. Explain the purpose of module.exports?

A module in Node.js is used to encapsulate all the related codes into a single unit of code which can be interpreted by shifting all related functions into a single file. For example, suppose you have a file called greet.js that contains the two functions as shown below:

module.exports = {
greetInHindi: function(){
return "NAMASTE";
},
greetInKorean: function(){
return "ANNYEONGHASEYO";
}};

As you can see module.exports provide two functions which can be imported in another file using below code:

var eduGreets = require ("./greet.js");
eduGreets.greetInHindi() //NAMASTE
eduGreets.greetInKorean() //ANNYEONGHASEYO

19. What do you understand by Reactor Pattern in Node.js?

Reactor Pattern in Node.js is basically a concept of non-blocking I/O operations. This pattern provides a handler that is associated with each I/O operation and as soon as an I/O request is generated, it is then submitted to a demultiplexer. This demultiplexer is a notification interface which is capable of handling concurrency in non-blocking I/O mode. It also helps in collecting each and every request in the form of an event and then place each event in a queue. Thus resulting in the generation of the Event Queue. Simultaneously, we have our event loop which iterates the events present in the Event Queue.

20. What’s the difference between ‘front-end’ and ‘back-end’ development?

21. What are LTS releases of Node.js?

**LTS **stands Long Term Support version of Node.js that receives all the critical bug fixes along with security updates and performance improvements. These versions are supported for at least 18 months and mainly focus on stability and security. The modifications done to the LTS versions are restricted to the bug fixes, security upgrade, npm, and documentation updates, performance improvement, etc.

22. List down the major security implementations within Node.js?

Major security implementations in Node.js are:
AuthenticationsError Handling## 23. What do you understand by callback hell?

Callback Hell is also known as the Pyramid of Doom. It is a pattern caused by intensively nested callbacks which are unreadable and unwieldy. It typically contains multiple nested callback functions which in turn make the code hard to read and debug. It is caused by improper implementation of the asynchronous logic.

async_A(function(){
async_B(function(){
async_C(function(){
async_D(function(){
....
});
});
});
});

24. Explain libuv.

Libuv is a multi-platform support library of Node.js which majorly is used for asynchronous I/O. It was primarily developed for Node.js, with time it is popularly practiced with other systems like as Luvit, pyuv, Julia, etc. Libuv is basically an abstraction around libev/ IOCP depending on the platform, providing users an API based on libev. A few of the important features of libuv are:
Full-featured event loop backedFile system eventsAsynchronous file & file system operationsAsynchronous TCP & UDP socketsChild processes## 25. Explain the concept of middleware in Node.js?

In general, middleware is a function receives the Request and Response objects. In other words, in an application’s request-response cycle these functions have access to various request & response objects along with the next function of the cycle. The next function of middleware is represented with the help of a variable, usually named next. Most commonly performed tasks by the middleware functions are:
Execute any type of codeUpdate or modify the request and the response objectsFinish the request-response cycleInvoke the next middleware in the stack## 26. Explain the concept of URL module.

The URL module of Node.js provides various utilities for URL resolution and parsing. It is a built-in module that helps in splitting up the web address into a readable format:

var url = require('url');

For example:

var url = require('url');
var adrs = 'http://localhost:8082/default.htm?year=2019&month=april';
var q = url.parse(adr, true);
console.log(q.host); //returns 'localhost:8082'
console.log(q.pathname); //returns '/default.htm'
console.log(q.search); //returns '?year=2019 and month=april'
var qdata = q.query; //returns an object: { year: 2019, month: 'april' }
console.log(qdata.month); //returns 'april'

27. What do you understand by ESLint?

ESLint is an open source project initially developed by Nicholas C. Zakas in 2013 which aims to provide a linting utility for JavaScript through a plug. Linters in Node.js are good tools for searching certain bug classes, especially those which are related to the variable scope.

28. For Node.js, why Google uses V8 engine?

Google uses V8 as it is a Chrome runtime engine that converts JavaScript code into native machine code. This, in turn, speeds up the application execution and response process and give you a fast running application.

29. Explain the working of the control flow function.

In Node.js, the control flow function is basically the code that is executed between the asynchronous function calls. Below are the steps that must be followed for executing it:
Firstly, the order of execution must be controlled. Then, the required data need to be collected.Next, the concurrency must be limited.Once done, the next step of the program has to be invoked.## 30. List down the two arguments that async.queue takes as input?

Below are the two arguments that async.queue takes as input:
Task FunctionConcurrency Value## 31. Differentiate between spawn() and fork() methods in Node.js?

In Node.js, the spawn() is used to launch a new process with the provided set of commands. This method doesn’t create a new V8 instance and just one copy of the node module is active on the processor. When your child process returns a large amount of data to the Node you can invoke this method.

Syntax:

child_process.spawn(command[, args][, options])

Whereas, the fork() in Node.js is a special instance of spawn() that executes a new instance of the V8 engine. This method simply means that multiple workers are running on a single Node code base for various task.

Syntax:

child_process.fork(modulePath[, args][, options])

32. What do you understand by global objects in Node.js?

** **

In Node.js, Globals are the objects which are global in nature and are available in all the modules of the application. You can use these objects directly in your application, rather than having to include them explicitly. The global objects can be modules, functions, strings, object, etc. Moreover, some of these objects can be in the module scope instead of global scope.

33. Explain the concept of stub in Node.js.

In Node.js, stubs are basically the programs or functions that are used for stimulating the module or component behavior. During any test cases, stubs provide the canned answers of the functions.

34. How assert works in Node.js?

In Node.js, assert is used to write tests. It only provides feedback only when any of the running test cases fails. This module gives you a set of assertion tests which are then used for testing invariants. It is basically used internally by Node.js but using require(‘assert’) code, it can be used in other applications as well.

var assert = require('assert');
function mul(a, b) {
return a * b;
}
var result = mul(1,2);
assert( result === 2, 'one multiplied by two is two');

35. Define the concept of the test pyramid. Explain the process to implement them in terms of HTTP APIs.

The test** pyramid** is basically a concept that is developed by Mike Cohn. According to this, you should have a higher number of low-level unit tests as compared to high-level end-to-end **tests that **running through a GUI.

In terms of HTTP APIs it may be defined as:
A higher number of low-level unit tests for each modelLesser integration tests to test model interactionsLesser acceptance tests for testing actual HTTP endpoints## 36. Explain the purpose of ExpressJS package?

Express.js is a framework built on top of Node.js that facilitates the management of the flow of data between server and routes in the server-side applications. It is a lightweight and flexible framework that provides a wide range of features required for the web as well as mobile application development. Express.js is developed on the middleware module of Node.js called connect. The connect module further makes use of http module to communicate with Node.js. Thus, if you are working with any of the connect based middleware modules, then you can easily integrate with Express.js.

37. Differentiate between process.nextTick() and setImmediate()?

In Node.js, process.nextTick() and setImmediate(), both are functions of the Timers module which help in executing the code after a predefined period of time. But these functions differ in their execution. The process.nextTick function waits for the execution of action till the next pass around in the event loop or once the event loop is completed only then it will invoke the callback function. On the other hand, setImmediate() is used to execute a callback method on the next cycle of the event loop which eventually returns it to the event loop in order to execute the I/O operations.

38. Explain the usage of a buffer class in Node.js?

Buffer class in Node.js is used for storing the raw data in a similar manner of an array of integers. But it corresponds to a raw memory allocation that is located outside the V8 heap. It is a global class that is easily accessible can be accessed in an application without importing a buffer module. Buffer class is used because pure JavaScript is not compatible with binary data. So, when dealing with TCP streams or the file system, it’s necessary to handle octet streams.

39. How does Node.js handle the child threads?

In general, Node.js is a single threaded process and doesn’t expose the child threads or thread management methods. But you can still make use of the child threads using spawn() for some specific asynchronous I/O tasks which execute in the background and don’t usually execute any JS code or hinder with the main event loop in the application. If you still want to use the threading concept in your application you have to include a module called ChildProcess explicitly.

40. Explain stream in Node.js along with its various types.

Streams in Node.js are the collection of data similar to arrays and strings. They are objects using which you can read data from a source or write data to a destination in a continuous manner. It might not be available at once and need not to have fit in the memory. These streams are especially useful for reading and processing a large set of data. In Node.js, there are four fundamental types of streams:
*Readable: *Used for reading large chunks of data from the source.Writeable: Use for writing large chunks of data to the destination.*Duplex: *Used for both the functions; read and write.*Transform: *It is a duplex stream that is used for modifying the data.#

Node.js Interview Questions – Advanced Level

41. What is the use of NODE_ENV?

If the project is in the production stage, Node.js promotes the convention of making use of NODE_ENV variable to flag it. This helps in taking better judgment during the development of the projects. Also, when you set your NODE_ENV to production, your application tends to perform 3 times faster.

42. Differentiate between readFile vs createReadStream in Node.js?

Node.js provides two ways to read and execute files which are using readFile and CreateStream. readFile() is a fully buffered process which returns the response only when the complete file is pushed into the buffer and is read. It is a memory intensive process and in case of large files, the processing can be very slow. Whereas createReadStream is a partially buffered which treats the entire process as an event series. The entire file is split into chunks which are then processed and sent back as a response one by one. Once done, they are finally removed from the buffer. Unlike readFile, createReadStream is really effective for the processing of the large files.

43. List down the various timing features of Node.js.

Node.js provides a Timers module which contains various functions for executing the code after a specified period of time. Below I have listed down the various functions provided by this module:
setTimeout/clearTimeout – Used to schedule code execution after a designated amount of millisecondssetInterval/clearInterval – Used to execute a block of code multiple timessetImmediate/clearImmediate – Used to execute code at the end of the current event loop cycleprocess.nextTick – Used to schedule a callback function that needs to be invoked in the next iteration of the Event Loop## 44. Explain the concept of Punycode in Node.js?

In Node.js, Punycode is an encoding syntax that is used for converting Unicode (UTF-8) string of characters into a basic ASCII string of characters. It is important as the hostnames can only understand the ASCII characters. Thus, Node.js version 0.6.2 onwards, it was bundled up with the default Node package. If you want to use it with any previous versions, you can easily do that by using the following code:

Syntax:

punycode = require('punycode');

45. Differentiate between Node.js vs Ajax?

The most basic difference between Node.js and Ajax that, Node.js is a server-side JavaScript whereas Ajax is a client-side technology. In simpler terms, Ajax is mostly used for updating or modifying the webpage contents without having to refresh it. On the other hand, Node.js is required to develop the server software that are typically executed by the servers instead of the web browsers.

46. Does Node.js provide any Debugger?

Node.js do provide a simple TCP based protocol and debugging client that comes built-in. In order to debug your JavaScript file, you can use the below debug argument followed by js file name that you want to debug.

Syntax:

node debug [script.js | -e "script" | <host> : <port> ]

47. Describe the exit codes of Node.js.

In Node.js, exit codes are a set of specific codes which are used for finishing a specific process. These processes can include the global object as well. Below are some of the exit codes used in Node.js:
Uncaught fatal exceptionUnusedFatal ErrorInternal Exception handler Run-time failureInternal JavaScript Evaluation Failure## 48. What do you understand by an Event Emitter in Node.js?

EventEmitter is a Node.js class that includes all the objects that are capable of emitting events. These objects contain an eventEmitter.on() function through which more than one function can be attached to the named events that are emitted by the object. Whenever an EventEmitter object throws an event, all the attached functions to that specific event are invoked synchronously. Below code shows how to us the EventEmitter in your application:

const EventEmitter = require('events');
class MyEmitter extends EventEmitter { }
const myEmitter = new MyEmitter();
myEmitter.on('event', () => {
console.log('an event occurred!');
});
myEmitter.emit('event');

49. Is cryptography supported in Node.js?

Yes, Node.js does support cryptography through a module called Crypto. This module provides various cryptographic functionalities like cipher, decipher, sign and verify functions, a set of wrappers for open SSL’s hash HMAC etc. For example:

Syntax:

const crypto = require'crypto');
const secret = 'akerude';
const hash = crypto.createHmac('swaEdu', secret).update('Welcome to Edureka').digest('hex');
console.log(hash);

50. Explain the reason as to why Express ‘app’ and ‘server’ must be kept separate.

Express ‘app’ and ‘server’ must be kept separate as by doing this, you will be separating the API declaration from the network related configuration which benefits in the below listed ways:
It allows testing the API in-process without having to perform the network callsFaster testing executionGetting wider coverage metrics of the codeAllows deploying the same API under flexible and different network conditionsBetter separation of concerns and cleaner code
API declaration should reside in app.js:

var app = express();
app.use(bodyParser.json());
app.use("/api/events", events.API);
app.use("/api/forms", forms);

Server network declaration should reside in /bin/www:

var app = require('../app');
var http = require('http');
//Get port from environment and store in Express
var port = normalizePort(process.env.PORT || '8000');
app.set('port', port);
//Create HTTP server.
var server = http.createServer(app);

With this, we come to an end of this Node.js Interview Questions article. I hope you found it informative and it helped in adding up to your knowledge.

#node-js #javascript #web-development

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Top 130 Android Interview Questions - Crack Technical Interview Now!

Android Interview Questions and Answers from Beginner to Advanced level

DataFlair is committed to provide you all the resources to make you an android professional. We started with android tutorials along with practicals, then we published Real-time android projects along with source code. Now, we come up with frequently asked android interview questions, which will help you in showing expertise in your next interview.

android interview questions

Android Interview Questions – Get ready for your next interview

Android – one of the hottest technologies, which is having a bright future. Get ready to crack your next interview with the following android interview questions. These interview questions start with basic and cover deep concepts along with advanced topics.

Android Interview Questions for Freshers

1. What is Android?

Android is an open-source mobile operating system that is based on the modified versions of Linux kernel. Though it was mainly designed for smartphones, now it is being used for Tablets, Televisions, Smartwatches, and other Android wearables.

2. Who is the inventor of Android Technology?

The inventors of Android Technology are- Andry Rubin, Nick Sears, and Rich Miner.

3. What is the latest version of Android?

The latest version of Android is Android 10.0, known as Android Q. The upcoming major Android release is Android 11, which is the 18th version of Android. [Note: Keep checking the versions, it is as of June 2020.]

4. How many Android versions can you recall right now?

Till now, there are 17 versions of Android, which have their names in alphabetical order. The 18th version of Android is also going to come later this year. The versions of Android are here:

  • Android 1.0 – Its release is 23 September 2008.
  • Android 1.1 – Its release date is 9 February 2009.
  • Android 1.5 – Its name is Cupcake, Released on 27 April 2009.
  • Android 1.6 – Its name is Donut, Released on 15 September 2009.
  • Android 2.0 – Its name is Eclair, Released on 26 October 2009
  • Android 2.2 – Its name is Froyo, Released on 20 May 2010.
  • Android 2.3 – Its name is Gingerbread, Released on 06 December 2010.
  • Android 3.0 – Its name is Honeycomb, Released on 22 February 2011.
  • Android 4.0 – Its name is Ice Cream Sandwich, Released on 18 October 2011.
  • Android 4.1 – Its name is Jelly Bean, Released on 9 July 2012.
  • Android 4.4 – Its name is KitKat, Released on 31 October 2013.
  • Android 5.0 – Its name is Lollipop, Released on 12 November 2014.
  • Android 6.0 – Its name is Marshmallow, Released on 5 October 2015.
  • Android 7.0 – Its name is Nougat, Released on 22 August 2016.
  • Android 8.0 – Its name is Oreo, Released on 21 August 2017.
  • Android 9.0 – Its name is Pie, Released on 6 August 2018.
  • Android 10.0 – Its name is Android Q, Released on 3 September 2019.
  • Android 11.0 – As of now, it is Android 11.

5. Explain the Android Architecture with its components.

This is a popular android developer interview question

Android Architecture consists of 5 components that are-

a. Linux Kernel: It is the foundation of the Android Architecture that resides at the lowest level. It provides the level of abstraction for hardware devices and upper layer components. Linux Kernel also provides various important hardware drivers that act as software interfaces for hardwares like camera, bluetooth, etc.

b. Native Libraries: These are the libraries for Android that are written in C/C++. These libraries are useful to build many core services like ART and HAL. It provides support for core features.

c. Android Runtime: It is an Android Runtime Environment. Android Operating System uses it during the execution of the app. It performs the translation of the application bytecode into the native instructions. The runtime environment of the device then executes these native instructions.

d. Application Framework: Application Framework provides many java classes and interfaces for app development. And it also provides various high-level services. This complete Application framework makes use of Java.

e. Applications: This is the topmost layer of Android Architecture. It provides applications for the end-user, so they can use the android device and compute the tasks.

6. What are the services that the Application framework provides?

The Android application framework has the following key services-

a. Activity Manager: It uses testing and debugging methods.

b. Content provider: It provides the data from application to other layers.

c. Resource Manager: This provides users access to resources.

d. Notification Manager: This gives notification to the users regarding actions taking place in the background.

e. View System: It is the base class for widgets, and it is also responsible for event handling.

7. What are the important features of Linux Kernel?

The important features of the Linux Kernel are as follows:

a. Power Management: Linux Kernel does power management to enhance and improve the battery life of the device.

b. Memory Management: It is useful for the maximum utilization of the available memory of the device.

c. Device Management: It includes managing all the hardware device drivers. It maximizes the utilization of the available resources.

d. Security: It ensures that no application has any such permission that it affects any other application in order to maintain security.

e. Multi-tasking: Multi-tasking provides the users the ease of doing multiple tasks at the same time.

8. What are the building blocks of an Android Application?

This is a popular android interview question for freshers.

The main components of any Android application are- Activity, Services, Content Provider, and Broadcast Receiver. You can understand them as follows:

a. Activity- It is a class that acts as the entry point representing a single screen to the user. It is like a window to show the user interface.

b. Services- Services are the longest-running component that runs in the background.

c. Content Provider- The content provider is an essential component that allows apps to share data between themselves.

d. Broadcast receivers- Broadcast receiver is another most crucial application component. It helps the apps to receive and respond to broadcast messages from the system or some other application.

9. What are the important components of Android Application?

The Components of Android application are listed below:

  1. Widgets
  2. Intents
  3. Views
  4. Notification
  5. Fragments
  6. Layout XML files
  7. Resources

10. What are the widgets?

Widgets are the variations of Broadcast receivers. They are an important part of home screen customization. They often display some data and also allow users to perform actions on them. Mostly they display the app icon on the screen.

11. Can you name some types of widgets?

Mentioned below are the types of widgets-

a. Informative Widgets: These widgets show some important information. Like, the clock widget or a weather widget.

b. Collective Widgets: They are the collection of some types of elements. For example, a music widget that lets us change, skip, or forward the song.

c. Control Widgets: These widgets help us control the actions within the application through it. Like an email widget that helps check the recent mails.

d. Hybrid Widgets: Hybrid widgets are those that consist of at least two or more types of widgets.

12. What are Intents?

Intents are an important part of Android Applications. They enable communication between components of the same application as well as separate applications. The Intent signals the Android system about a certain event that has occurred.

13. Explain the types of intents briefly?

Intent is of three types that are-

a. Implicit Intents: Implicit intents are those in which there is no description of the component name but only the action.

b. Explicit Intents: In explicit intents, the target component is present by declaring the name of the component.

c. Pending Intents: These are those intents that act as a shield over the Intent objects. It covers the intent objects and grants permission to the external app components to access them.

14. What is a View?

A view is an important building block that helps in designing the user interface of the application. It can be a rectangular box or a circular shape, for example, Text View, Edit Text, Buttons, etc. Views occupy a certain area of the screen, and it is also responsible for event handling. A view is the superclass of all the graphical user interface components.

15. What do you understand by View Group?

It is the subclass of the ViewClass. It gives an invisible container to hold layouts or views. You can understand view groups as special views that are capable of holding other views, that are Child View.

16. What do you understand about Shared Preferences?

It is a simple mechanism for data storage in Android. In this, there is no need to create files, and using APIs, it stores the data in XML files. It stores the data in the pair of key-values. SharedPreferences class lets the user save the values and retrieve them when required. Using SharedPreferences we can save primitive data like- boolean, float, integer, string and long.

17. What is a Notification?

A notification is just like a message that shows up outside the Application UI to provide reminders to the users. They remind the user about a message received, or some other timely information from the app.

18. Give names of Notification types.

There are three types of notifications namely-

a. Toast Notification- This notification is the one that fades away sometime after it pops up.

b. Status Notification- This notification stays till the user takes some action on it.

c. Dialog Notification- This notification is the result of an Active Activity.

19. What are fragments?

A fragment is a part of the complete user interface. These are present in Activity, and an activity can have one or more fragments at the same time. We can reuse a fragment in multiple activities as well.

20. What are the types of fragments?

There are three types of fragments that are: Single Fragment, List Fragment, Fragment Transactions.

  1. Single Transactions can only show a single view for the user.
  2. List Fragments have a special list view feature that provides a list from which the user can select one.
  3. Fragment Transactions are helpful for the transition between one fragment to the other.

Frequently asked Android Interview Questions and Answers

21. What are Layout XML files?

Layout XML files contain the structure for the user interface of the application. The XML file also contains various different layouts and views, and they also specify various GUI components that are there in Activity or fragments.

22. What are Resources in Android Application?

The resources in Android Apps defines images, texts, strings, colors, etc. Everything in resources directory is referenced in the source code of the app so that we can use them.

23. Can you develop Android Apps with languages other than Java? If so, name some.

Yes, there are many languages that we can work with, for the development of Android Applications. To name some, I would say Java, Python, C, C++, Kotlin, C#, Corona/LUA.

24. What are the states of the Activity Lifecycle?

Activity lifecycle has the following four stages-

a. Running State: As soon as the activity starts, it is the first state.

b. Paused State: When some other activity starts without closing the previous one, the running activity turns into the Paused state.

c. Resume State: When the activity opens again after being in pause state, it comes into the Resume State.

d. Stopped State: When the user closes the application or stops using it, the activity goes to the Stopped state.

25. What are some methods of Activity?

The methods of Activity are as follows:

  • onCreate()
  • onStart()
  • onPause()
  • onRestart()
  • onResume()
  • onStop()
  • onDestroy()

26. How can you launch an activity in Android?

We launch an activity using Intents. For this we need to use intent as follows:

  1. ntent intent_name= new Intent(this, Activity_name.class);
  2. startActivity(intent_name);

27. What is the service lifecycle?

There are two states of a service that are-

a. Started State: This is when the service starts its execution. A Services come in start state only through the startService() method.

b. Bounded State: A service is in the bounded state when it calls the method bindService().

28. What are some methods of Services?

The methods of service are as follows-

  • onStartCommand()
  • onBind()
  • onCreate()
  • onUnbind()
  • onDestroy()
  • onRebind()

29. What are the types of Broadcast?

Broadcasts are of two types that are-

a. Ordered Broadcast: Ordered broadcasts are Synchronous and work in a proper order. It decides the order by using the priority assigned to the broadcasts.

b. Normal Broadcast: These are asynchronous and unordered. They are more efficient as they run unorderly and all at once. But, they lack full utilization of the results.

30. What are useful impotent folders in Android?

The impotent folders in an Android application are-

  1. build.xml- It is responsible for the build of Android applications.
  2. bin/ – The bin folder works as a staging area to wrap the files packages into the APK.
  3. src/ – The src is a folder where all the source files of the project are present.
  4. res/ – The res is the resource folder that stores values of the resources that are used in the application. These resources can be colors, styles, strings, dimensions, etc.
  5. assets/ – It provides a facility to include files like text, XML, fonts, music, and video in the Android application.

31. What are the important files for Android Application when working on Android Studio?

This is an important android studio interview question

There are following three files that we need to work on for an application to work-

a. The AndroidManifest.xml file: It has all the information about the application.

b. The MainActivity.java file: It is the app file that actually gets converted to the dalvik executable and runs the application. It is written in java.

c. The Activity_main.xml file: It is the layout file that is available in the res/layout directory. It is another mostly used file while developing the application.

32. Which database do you use for Android Application development?

The database that we use for Android Applications is SQLite. It is because SQLite is lightweight and specially developed for Android Apps. SQLite works the same way as SQL using the same commands.

33. Tell us some features of Android OS.

The best features of Android include-

  1. Multi-tasking
  2. Support for a great range of languages
  3. Support for split-screen
  4. High connectivity with 5G support
  5. Motion Control

34. Why did you learn Android development?

Learning Android Studio is a good idea because of the following-

  1. It has a low application development cost.
  2. It is an open-source platform.
  3. It has multi-platform support as well as Multi-carrier support.
  4. It is open for customizations.
  5. Android is a largely used operating system throughout the world.

35. What are the different ways of storage supported in Android?

The various storage ways supported in Android are as follows:

  1. Shared Preference
  2. Internal Storage
  3. External Storage
  4. SQLite Databases
  5. Network Connection

36. What are layouts?

Layout is nothing but arrangements of elements on the device screen. These elements can be images, tests, videos, anything. They basically define the structure of the Android user interface to make it user friendly.

37. How many layout types are there?

The type of layouts used in Android Apps are as follows:

  1. Linear Layout
  2. Relative Layout
  3. Constraint Layout
  4. Table Layout
  5. Frame Layout
  6. Absolute Layout
  7. Scrollview layout

38. What is an APK?

An APK stands for Android Package that is a file format of Android Applications. Android OS uses this package for the distribution and installation of the Android Application.

39. What is an Android Manifest file?

The manifest file describes all the essential information about the project application for build tools, Android operating system, and google play. This file is a must for every Android project that we develop, and it is present in the root of the project source set.

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Sigrid  Farrell

Sigrid Farrell

1623718560

Top 10 Critical Spring Boot Interview Questions and Answers [For Beginners & Experienced]

offers powerful features for the rapid development of deployment-ready applications. It is the most used and best java framework for the development of scalable microservices and web applications.

If you want to become a domain expert, you have come to the right place. We have curated some the most repeatedly asked spring boot interview questions and answers to help you ace the interview.

Basic Spring Boot Interview Questions And Answers

Technical Spring Boot Interview Questions And Answers

Conclusion

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50 Python Interview Questions and Answers

Ace your next coding interview

Are you preparing for a job interview or an exam that involves knowledge about Python? Or do you want to quickly go through common topics of Python?

Here is a list of 50 interview questions with answers. The list is in no particular order.

I hope you enjoy it.

1. Name Some Differences Between a List and a Tuple

2. What Does the Range() Function Do?

3. How Does Map() Function Work?

4. What is the Difference between “is” and “==”?

#python #data-science #software-development #50 python interview questions and answers #interview questions and answers #python interview questions and answers

Biju Augustian

Biju Augustian

1575031899

PHP Interview Questions with Solutions: Prepare for PHP Interview

Description
In this course you will be introduced with some tricky questions that everyone face during their interview. In each solutions I have included some useful functions which we generally use at the time of development also. I have covered the following area in my course with Questions, Attractive Presentations and Practical Solutions that will help you to understand the logic behind PHP in a different way.

Some useful functions
PHP error types
Class concept
Access specifiers public, private and protected
Set variable with php.ini file
Operators introduced in PHP7
Logic and its output behind some code segment
Basic knowledge
PHP7, XAMPP Server, Notepad++
What will you learn
This course is build for the person who is facing interviews. Every question is well explained with the practical solution through videos. So that everybody can prepare themselves for the tricky questions asked during interviews
To continue:

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