Alayna  Rippin

Alayna Rippin

1597014000

Minimum cost required to convert all Subarrays of size K to a single element

Given an array arr[] consisting of N integers and an integer K, the task is to find the minimum cost required to make each element of every subarray of length K equal. Cost of replacing any array element by another element is the absolute difference between the two.

Examples:

Input: A[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}, K = 3
Output: 7
Explanation:
Subarray 1: Cost to convert subarray {1, 2, 3} to {2, 2, 2} = |1-2| + |2-2| + |3-2| = 2
Subarray 2: Cost to convert subarray {2, 3, 4} to {3, 3, 3} = |2-3| + |3-3| + |4-3| = 2
Subarray 3: Cost to convert subarray {3, 4, 6} to {4, 4, 4} = |3-4| + |4-4| + |6-4| = 3
Minimum Cost = 2 + 2 + 3 = 7/
Input: A[] = {2, 3, 4, 4, 1, 7, 6}, K = 4
Output: 21

Approach:

To find the minimum cost to convert each element of the subarray to a single element, change every element of the subarray to the median of that subarray. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

To find the median for each running subarray efficiently, use a multiset to get the sorted order of elements in each subarray. Median will be the middle element of this multiset.
For the next subarray remove the leftmost element of the previous subarray from the multiset, add the current element to the multiset.
Keep a pointer mid to efficiently keep track of the middle element of the multiset.
If the newly added element is smaller than the previous middle element, move mid to its immediate smaller element. Otherwise, move mid to its immediate next element.
Calaculate cost of replacing every element of the subarray by the equation | A[i] – medianeach_subarray |.
Finally print the total cost.
Below is the implementation for the above approach:

C++

// C++ Program to implement

// the above approach

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;

// Function to find the minimum

// cost to convert each element of

// every subarray of size K equal

int minimumCost(vector arr, int n,

            int k) 

{

// Stores the minimum cost 

int totalcost = 0; 

int i, j; 



// Stores the first K elements 

multiset<int> mp(arr.begin(), 

                 arr.begin() + k); 



if (k == n) { 



    // Obtain the middle element of 

    // the multiset 

    auto mid = next(mp.begin(), 

                    n / 2 - ((k + 1) % 2)); 



    int z = *mid; 



    // Calculate cost for the subarray 

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 

        totalcost += abs(z - arr[i]); 



    // Return the total cost 

    return totalcost; 

} 

else { 



    // Obtain the middle element 

    // in multiset 

    auto mid = next(mp.begin(), 

                    k / 2 - ((k + 1) % 2)); 



    for (i = k; i < n; i++) { 



        int zz = *mid; 

        int cost = 0; 

        for (j = i - k; j < i; j++) { 



            // Cost for the previous 

            // k length subarray 

            cost += abs(arr[j] - zz); 

        } 

        totalcost += cost; 



        // Insert current element 

        // into multiset 

        mp.insert(arr[i]); 



        if (arr[i] < *mid) { 



            // New element appears 

            // to the left of mid 

            mid--; 

        } 



        if (arr[i - k] <= *mid) { 



            // New element appears 

            // to the right of mid 

            mid++; 

        } 



        // Remove leftmost element 

        // from the window 

        mp.erase(mp.lower_bound(arr[i - k])); 



        // For last element 

        if (i == n - 1) { 

            zz = *mid; 

            cost = 0; 



            for (j = i - k + 1; 

                 j <= i; j++) { 



                // Calculate cost for the subarray 

                cost += abs(zz - arr[j]); 

            } 



            totalcost += cost; 

        } 

    } 



    // Return the total cost 

    return totalcost; 

} 

}

// Driver Code

int main()

{

int N = 5, K = 3; 



vector<int> A({ 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 }); 



cout << minimumCost(A, N, K); 

}

Output:

7

Time Complexity: O(NlogN)

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.

#arrays #greedy #mathematical #sorting #cpp-multiset #median-finding #sliding-window #subarray

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Minimum cost required to convert all Subarrays of size K to a single element
Alayna  Rippin

Alayna Rippin

1597014000

Minimum cost required to convert all Subarrays of size K to a single element

Given an array arr[] consisting of N integers and an integer K, the task is to find the minimum cost required to make each element of every subarray of length K equal. Cost of replacing any array element by another element is the absolute difference between the two.

Examples:

Input: A[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}, K = 3
Output: 7
Explanation:
Subarray 1: Cost to convert subarray {1, 2, 3} to {2, 2, 2} = |1-2| + |2-2| + |3-2| = 2
Subarray 2: Cost to convert subarray {2, 3, 4} to {3, 3, 3} = |2-3| + |3-3| + |4-3| = 2
Subarray 3: Cost to convert subarray {3, 4, 6} to {4, 4, 4} = |3-4| + |4-4| + |6-4| = 3
Minimum Cost = 2 + 2 + 3 = 7/
Input: A[] = {2, 3, 4, 4, 1, 7, 6}, K = 4
Output: 21

Approach:

To find the minimum cost to convert each element of the subarray to a single element, change every element of the subarray to the median of that subarray. Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

To find the median for each running subarray efficiently, use a multiset to get the sorted order of elements in each subarray. Median will be the middle element of this multiset.
For the next subarray remove the leftmost element of the previous subarray from the multiset, add the current element to the multiset.
Keep a pointer mid to efficiently keep track of the middle element of the multiset.
If the newly added element is smaller than the previous middle element, move mid to its immediate smaller element. Otherwise, move mid to its immediate next element.
Calaculate cost of replacing every element of the subarray by the equation | A[i] – medianeach_subarray |.
Finally print the total cost.
Below is the implementation for the above approach:

C++

// C++ Program to implement

// the above approach

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;

// Function to find the minimum

// cost to convert each element of

// every subarray of size K equal

int minimumCost(vector arr, int n,

            int k) 

{

// Stores the minimum cost 

int totalcost = 0; 

int i, j; 



// Stores the first K elements 

multiset<int> mp(arr.begin(), 

                 arr.begin() + k); 



if (k == n) { 



    // Obtain the middle element of 

    // the multiset 

    auto mid = next(mp.begin(), 

                    n / 2 - ((k + 1) % 2)); 



    int z = *mid; 



    // Calculate cost for the subarray 

    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) 

        totalcost += abs(z - arr[i]); 



    // Return the total cost 

    return totalcost; 

} 

else { 



    // Obtain the middle element 

    // in multiset 

    auto mid = next(mp.begin(), 

                    k / 2 - ((k + 1) % 2)); 



    for (i = k; i < n; i++) { 



        int zz = *mid; 

        int cost = 0; 

        for (j = i - k; j < i; j++) { 



            // Cost for the previous 

            // k length subarray 

            cost += abs(arr[j] - zz); 

        } 

        totalcost += cost; 



        // Insert current element 

        // into multiset 

        mp.insert(arr[i]); 



        if (arr[i] < *mid) { 



            // New element appears 

            // to the left of mid 

            mid--; 

        } 



        if (arr[i - k] <= *mid) { 



            // New element appears 

            // to the right of mid 

            mid++; 

        } 



        // Remove leftmost element 

        // from the window 

        mp.erase(mp.lower_bound(arr[i - k])); 



        // For last element 

        if (i == n - 1) { 

            zz = *mid; 

            cost = 0; 



            for (j = i - k + 1; 

                 j <= i; j++) { 



                // Calculate cost for the subarray 

                cost += abs(zz - arr[j]); 

            } 



            totalcost += cost; 

        } 

    } 



    // Return the total cost 

    return totalcost; 

} 

}

// Driver Code

int main()

{

int N = 5, K = 3; 



vector<int> A({ 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 }); 



cout << minimumCost(A, N, K); 

}

Output:

7

Time Complexity: O(NlogN)

Auxiliary Space: O(1)

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.

#arrays #greedy #mathematical #sorting #cpp-multiset #median-finding #sliding-window #subarray

Ron  Cartwright

Ron Cartwright

1600596000

Improve Your Cost Management with AWS Saving Plans

The adaptability and flexibility of today’s cloud services present a lot of opportunities to cut infrastructure costs. Amazon Web Services and its plethora of services let you set up any kind of cloud environment for any type of application, without forcing you to make long-term commitments. At the very least, you don’t have to make a big initial investment to set up your cloud environments.

AWS resources are designed to make deploying cloud-native applications easy and affordable. Affordability is always important for businesses because cost-efficient applications guarantee higher returns on cloud investment. The way AWS services are set up allows for easy scaling of apps and cloud resource usage, but keeping your cloud environment efficient is not without its challenges.

#aws #amazon web services #cost #cost optimization #cost analysis #cost management #cost analytics #aws costs

Banking App Development Cost - 8 Hidden Factors

Since 1994, Digital banking has been here. It is a very long time, but digital banking through mobile devices is entirely new to the banking industry. It all started when Atom became the first digital-only bank in the UK.

Nowadays, Tech-savvy customers expect corporations to support their digital movement, and because of this, almost every industry has adopted technologies to stay relevant with these modern customers. Most of the newbies who plan to develop a banking app have two questions in mind: “What is the cost of developing a banking application” and “Which hidden factors affect the cost of developing a banking app?”

You can get all the answers to these questions here, because this article will take you through the cost of developing a banking app, the features of banking apps, and much other pertinent information. After reading this, you will be able to plan better for your mobile banking app development. But before directly jumping into the cost of mobile banking app development, let’s take a look at the global digital payment market size of mobile banking.

Global Digital Payment Market Size

According to GlobalNewsWire, by 2026, the Global Digital Payment Market size is estimated to reach $175.8 billion, rising at a market growth of 20% CAGR during the forecast period.

Around 23% of millennials use mobile banking apps daily.
Around 49.2% of total smartphone users use mobile banking apps.
41% of Americans said that mobile banking apps had minimized their concerns about managing finances.

Banking app development cost

Data Source: Statista

As you can see, the data clearly indicates that the percentage of smartphone users are increasing day-by-day. Therefore, by engaging in your own mobile banking app development currently, you will be able to take advantage of the growth in mobile users. But, the cost of developing a banking application depends on so many factors like the platform, features, technologies, and so on.

Mobile banking app development cost

Cost of developing a banking app depends on various factors. To give you a rough idea of the mobile banking application development cost, the total development time for a fully-featured app sums to 3760 hours. Considering hourly rate for fintech projects of $25, the cost of developing a feature-loaded banking app stands around $94k.

Banking Application Development Cost depends on different phases such as:

  • Research and Planning
  • UI/UX Design
  • Development
  • Testing
  • Maintenance and Support

8 Hidden Factors of Costs of Mobile Banking App Development

1. Push Notifications

It’s not easy to imagine an app that does not utilize this necessary mobile capability. Push notifications always increase your users’ engagement with your mobile banking app and encourage the desired action. Push notifications are of three types:

  1. Transactional notifications notify users about their account updates.

  2. The Application-based notifications indicate when the mobile banking app requires the user’s attention, whether related to the password change requests or document submissions.

  3. Promotional notifications are to grab the attention of customers to offer discounts and attractive deals.

2. Chatbot Integration

For most users, mobile banking has a steep learning curve, and due to that, the customer will require immediate assistance on various occasions. Hence, creating a chatbot for customer service is the best way for many institutions to improve their customer service availability. The chatbots will save you a lot of time and money, whilst providing customer support 24/7. But this feature has a separate development process, and therefore you have to pay separately for this.

3. Servers

Servers are where your mobile banking app will be hosted. If you are not with the largest enterprises, you will want to outsource hosting from Amazon, Azure, or Google, which will result in more costs.

4. Content Delivery Network

A CDN is a system that is used to deliver content to the app based on the origin of the content, the content delivery server, and the geographic location of the particular user. In simple words, if you have users across the globe, and they have to keep coming back to one far off location to access the content, then the app will not perform in a good way. So, if you want your mobile banking app to perform effectively, you should use a content delivery network, because it reduces the app loading time and also increases the responsiveness of the app.

5. Development Tools

If you want to use paid deployment tools like iBuildApp, Appy Pie, and IBM MobileFirst, to develop your mobile banking apps, you will need to subscribe to them over the lifespan of your app. This will also affect your banking app development cost.

6. Android and iOS Updates

As we all know, both platforms constantly release updates, and those updates require maintenance. Depending on the extent of maintenance required, the cost in the long-term can sometimes be significant.

7. APIs

Every mobile app usually has multiple third-party APIs that they interact with, especially at the enterprise level. If you make changes to any of these applications, they will require periodic maintenance of your APIs. For instance, Facebook updated their API version four times in 2016; now, what if you want to integrate with Facebook? You will need to update your app to accommodate those changes.

8. Bugs

As you know, every app has bugs, and not even a single developer can assure you that there will be no bugs in the future in your app. It’s just that sometimes they go undiscovered for months or even years. User communities are not kind to apps that are slow to address the issues that they have reported.

Conclusion

The cost of banking application development not only depend on the features of the banking application, but they are also heavily affected by the hidden factors I have mentioned. The primary issue with mobile banking app development cost is the amount of individual components that you need to gather. Each of them can cost thousands of dollars, and these costs will continue throughout the lifespan of your app. However, the rewards that come from a successful mobile banking app development project are huge.

Pro Tip: The cost of developing a banking application greatly depends on the hourly rates of programmers and the expertise of the team. FinTech experts are able to complete these projects much more efficiently.

#banking app development cost #banking application development cost #cost of developing a banking app #cost of developing a banking application #mobile banking app development cost #mobile banking application development cost

Rajat Rajput

1625301328

OST to PST Converter Free to Convert OST to PST Online

When the exchange server is synchronised with MS Outlook then, automatically a copy of its mailboxes will be generated in OST (Offline Storage Table) file format. The user can access OST data in the offline mode and work on them. The changes will get updated when the internet connectivity is re-established. OST files cannot be accessed in the other system or remote system. So to access the OST files in another system Outlook, then convert Outlook OST to PST format. Due to various reasons for which users’ want to convert OST to PST file format such as the Exchange might face some technical issues, downtime or crash. How to convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016, 2013, 2010? Well, in this blog, we will discuss both manual as well as the professional best OST to PST Converter online solution.
For better understanding of users’, we have listed some common reasons below.

Why There is a Need to Export OST to PST Outlook?

Before providing methods to the query “how to convert OST file to PST in outlook 2016”, first understand why users’ need to convert OST to PST. Some of the basic reasons are provided below.

  • When the Exchange server is under maintenance.
  • Accidental deletion of the Exchange server account.
  • Virus or Malware attacks.
  • Power Failures or intrusions by malicious software.

These are a few reasons for Outlook OST to PST conversion. Now let’s proceed ahead to different methods to convert OST to PST online.

How to Convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016 Manually?

Manual strategies are cost-effective methods and here, we will discuss the complete manual steps for OST to PST conversion. Before starting the steps, it is suggested to create a backup copy of the original data as there might be a risk of human error that can ultimately lead to severe data loss. How to convert OST to PST manually? Follow the methods provided below -

Method 1: Import/ Export Feature

  1. Open your Microsoft Outlook program.
  2. Click on the File tab.
  3. Select the Import/Export option.
  4. Click on Export to a file.
  5. Press the Next button.
  6. Now Select the Personal File folder (.pst).
  7. Click on the Parent root.
  8. Check on the include subfolders
  9. Click on browse and navigate to the path to save the resultant data.
  10. Click on the finish button.

Method 2: Use Outlook Archive Feature

  1. Sign-in to Microsoft Outlook.
  2. Go to the File section
  3. Click on Options
  4. Now, click on the Advanced section
  5. Click on Auto Archive settings…
  6. Navigate to the path to save the archived files.
  7. Click on the OK button.

Drawbacks

  • Manual Processes are lengthy and more time-consuming.
  • Need connectivity with the Exchange server.
  • Unable to export corrupt OST data.
  • Outlook application installation is required.
  • Feasible for small sized OST files only.
  • High risk of data loss.

How to Convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016 Using DRS OST to PST Converter

To avoid all the limitations that we have already seen above with the conventional manual techniques, users can opt for a well known and reliable automated method for conversion. There are numerous third-party solutions available to convert OST to PST, however it is suggested to use a trusted software. Using the smart DRS Best OST to PST Converter online utility that allows to export OST to PST, MBOX, MSG, EML, PDF, CSV, HTML, Gmail, Yandex mail, Yahoo, Office 365, etc. It can easily open corrupt OST files and convert them to healthy PST. The tool even allows users to smoothly export all the mailbox items like attachments, calendar, contacts, journals, tasks, etc. There are no file size restrictions and no risk of severe data loss. The advanced software is compatible with all versions of Mac and Windows. The free OST to PST Converter online version allows to export 50 emails for free.

Conclusion

Above in this blog, we have discussed the recommended solutions by experts on the query “how to convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016”. At the end of this article, we can conclude that manual strategies have several limitations, so it is suggested to use the well known DRS OST to PST Converter for an effective, accurate and effortless conversion.

#how to convert ost file to pst in outlook 2016 #how to convert ost to pst online #how to convert ost to pst manually #convert ost to pst #ost to pst converter #outlook ost to pst

Seamus  Quitzon

Seamus Quitzon

1601341562

AWS Cost Allocation Tags and Cost Reduction

Bob had just arrived in the office for his first day of work as the newly hired chief technical officer when he was called into a conference room by the president, Martha, who immediately introduced him to the head of accounting, Amanda. They exchanged pleasantries, and then Martha got right down to business:

“Bob, we have several teams here developing software applications on Amazon and our bill is very high. We think it’s unnecessarily high, and we’d like you to look into it and bring it under control.”

Martha placed a screenshot of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) billing report on the table and pointed to it.

“This is a problem for us: We don’t know what we’re spending this money on, and we need to see more detail.”

Amanda chimed in, “Bob, look, we have financial dimensions that we use for reporting purposes, and I can provide you with some guidance regarding some information we’d really like to see such that the reports that are ultimately produced mirror these dimensions — if you can do this, it would really help us internally.”

“Bob, we can’t stress how important this is right now. These projects are becoming very expensive for our business,” Martha reiterated.

“How many projects do we have?” Bob inquired.

“We have four projects in total: two in the aviation division and two in the energy division. If it matters, the aviation division has 75 developers and the energy division has 25 developers,” the CEO responded.

Bob understood the problem and responded, “I’ll see what I can do and have some ideas. I might not be able to give you retrospective insight, but going forward, we should be able to get a better idea of what’s going on and start to bring the cost down.”

The meeting ended with Bob heading to find his desk. Cost allocation tags should help us, he thought to himself as he looked for someone who might know where his office is.

#aws #aws cloud #node js #cost optimization #aws cli #well architected framework #aws cost report #cost control #aws cost #aws tags