# How to assess a binary Logistic Regressor with scikit-learn

Bookmark this python function that makes assessing your binary classifier easy.

Bookmark this python function that makes assessing your binary classifier easy.

### Functionality Overview

Logistic Regression is a valuable classifier for its interpretability. This code snippet provides a cut-and-paste function that displays the metrics that matter when logistic regression is used for binary classification problems. Everything here is provided by scikit-learn already, but can be time consuming and repetitive to manually call and visualize without this helper function.

evalBinaryClassifier() takes a fitted model, test features, and test labels as input. It returns the F1 score, and also prints dense output that includes:

• Full confusion matrix labelled with quantities and text labels (ex “True Positive”)
• Distributions of the predicted probabilities of both classes
• ROC curve, AUC, as well as the decision point along the curve that the confusion matrix and distributions represent
• Precision, Recall, and F1 score

For an explanation of how to interpret these outputs, skip to after the code block.

#### Required Imports:

``````import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
from sklearn.metrics import roc_curve, confusion_matrix, auc
from sklearn import linear_model

``````

#### Example Usage:

``````logr = linear_model.LogisticRegressionCV()
logr.fit(X_train,y_train)
F1 = evalBinaryClassifier(logr,X_test,y_test)

``````

### The Code

``````def evalBinaryClassifier(model,x, y, labels=['Positives','Negatives']):
'''
Visualize the performance of  a Logistic Regression Binary Classifier.

Displays a labelled Confusion Matrix, distributions of the predicted
probabilities for both classes, the ROC curve, and F1 score of a fitted
Binary Logistic Classifier. Author: gregcondit.com/articles/logr-charts

Parameters
----------
model : fitted scikit-learn model with predict_proba & predict methods
and classes_ attribute. Typically LogisticRegression or
LogisticRegressionCV

x : {array-like, sparse matrix}, shape (n_samples, n_features)
Training vector, where n_samples is the number of samples
in the data to be tested, and n_features is the number of features

y : array-like, shape (n_samples,)
Target vector relative to x.

labels: list, optional
list of text labels for the two classes, with the positive label first

Displays
----------
3 Subplots

Returns
----------
F1: float
'''
#model predicts probabilities of positive class
p = model.predict_proba(x)
if len(model.classes_)!=2:
raise ValueError('A binary class problem is required')
if model.classes_[1] == 1:
pos_p = p[:,1]
elif model.classes_[0] == 1:
pos_p = p[:,0]

#FIGURE
plt.figure(figsize=[15,4])

#1 -- Confusion matrix
cm = confusion_matrix(y,model.predict(x))
plt.subplot(131)
ax = sns.heatmap(cm, annot=True, cmap='Blues', cbar=False,
annot_kws={"size": 14}, fmt='g')
cmlabels = ['True Negatives', 'False Positives',
'False Negatives', 'True Positives']
for i,t in enumerate(ax.texts):
t.set_text(t.get_text() + "\n" + cmlabels[i])
plt.title('Confusion Matrix', size=15)
plt.xlabel('Predicted Values', size=13)
plt.ylabel('True Values', size=13)

#2 -- Distributions of Predicted Probabilities of both classes
df = pd.DataFrame({'probPos':pos_p, 'target': y})
plt.subplot(132)
plt.hist(df[df.target==1].probPos, density=True,
alpha=.5, color='green',  label=labels[0])
plt.hist(df[df.target==0].probPos, density=True,
alpha=.5, color='red', label=labels[1])
plt.axvline(.5, color='blue', linestyle='--', label='Boundary')
plt.xlim([0,1])
plt.title('Distributions of Predictions', size=15)
plt.xlabel('Positive Probability (predicted)', size=13)
plt.ylabel('Samples (normalized scale)', size=13)
plt.legend(loc="upper right")

#3 -- ROC curve with annotated decision point
fp_rates, tp_rates, _ = roc_curve(y,p[:,1])
roc_auc = auc(fp_rates, tp_rates)
plt.subplot(133)
plt.plot(fp_rates, tp_rates, color='green',
lw=1, label='ROC curve (area = %0.2f)' % roc_auc)
plt.plot([0, 1], [0, 1], lw=1, linestyle='--', color='grey')
#plot current decision point:
tn, fp, fn, tp = [i for i in cm.ravel()]
plt.plot(fp/(fp+tn), tp/(tp+fn), 'bo', markersize=8, label='Decision Point')
plt.xlim([0.0, 1.0])
plt.ylim([0.0, 1.05])
plt.xlabel('False Positive Rate', size=13)
plt.ylabel('True Positive Rate', size=13)
plt.title('ROC Curve', size=15)
plt.legend(loc="lower right")
plt.show()
#Print and Return the F1 score
tn, fp, fn, tp = [i for i in cm.ravel()]
precision = tp / (tp + fp)
recall = tp / (tp + fn)
F1 = 2*(precision * recall) / (precision + recall)
printout = (
f'Precision: {round(precision,2)} | '
f'Recall: {round(recall,2)} | '
f'F1 Score: {round(F1,2)} | '
)
print(printout)
return F1

``````

### Interpretation:

#### Left Chart: Confusion Matrix

The Confusion Matrix describes the predictions that the model made as either True (correct) or False (wrong). It compares these to the real truth. A perfect model would have only True Positives and True Negatives. A purely random model will have all 4 categories in similar quantities.

If you have a class imbalance problem, typically you’ll see many Negatives (True and False both) and few Positives, or vice versa. (For a great example of this, see my project on Predicting Disruption.)

#### Center Chart: Distributions of Predictions

The Center Graph is the distribution of predicted probabilities of a Positive Outcome. For example, If your model is 100% sure a sample is positive, if will be in the far right bin. The two different colors indicate the TRUE class, not the predicted class. A perfect model would show no overlap at all between the green and red distributions. A purely random model will see them overlap each other entirely.

The decision boundary decides the model’s final predictions. In scikit-learn, the default decision boundary is .5; that is, anything above .5 is predicted as a 1 (positive) and anything below .5 is predicted as a 0 (negative). This is an important detail for understanding your model, as well as the ROC curve.

#### Right Chart: The ROC Curve

The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve describes *all possible *decision boundaries. The green curve represents the possibilities, and the trade off between the True Positive Rate and the False Positive Rate at different decision points. The extremes are easy to understand: your model could lazily predict 1 for ALL samples and achieve a perfect True Positive Rate but it would also have a False Positive Rate of 1. Similarly, you could reduce your False Positive rate to zero by lazily predicting everything as Negative, but your True Positive Rate would also be zero. The value in your model is its ability to increase the True Positive Rate *faster *than it increases the False Positive Rate.

A perfect model would be a vertical line up the y-axis (100% True Positives, 0% False Positives). A purely random model would right on the blue dotted line (to find more True Positives means finding an equal number of False Positives).

Left: a perfect model; Right: a purely random model

The Blue dot represents the .5 decision boundary that is currently determining the Confusion Matrix.

Changing this is a useful way to adjust the sensitivity of your model when one error type is worse than another. As an example, healthcare is full of these decisions: incorrectly diagnosing cancer is WAY better than incorrectly diagnosing good health. In that case, we’d want a very low decision boundary, which is to say, only predict a negative result (no cancer) if we’re VERY sure about it.

If you chose a different boundary using this same model (ex: .3 instead of .5), the blue dot would move up and to the right along the green curve. The new boundary means we’d capture more True Positives, and also more False Positives. This is also easily visualized as the blue line in the center chart moving to the left until it’s on 0.3: There would be more “green” bins to the right of the boundary, but also more “red” bins.

scikit-learn does not have a built-in way to adjust the decision boundary, but this can be done easily by calling the predict_proba() method on your data, and then manually coding a decision based on the boundary of your choice.

Did this help you understand your model? Could it be improved? Let me know, I’d love to hear from you!

## Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free

Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free. In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free.

The average cost of obtaining a masters degree at traditional bricks and mortar institutions will set you back anywhere between \$30,000 and \$120,000. Even online data science degree programs don’t come cheap costing a minimum of \$9,000. So what do you do if you want to learn data science but can’t afford to pay this?

I trained into a career as a data scientist without taking any formal education in the subject. In this article, I am going to share with you my own personal curriculum for learning data science if you can’t or don’t want to pay thousands of dollars for more formal study.

The curriculum will consist of 3 main parts, technical skills, theory and practical experience. I will include links to free resources for every element of the learning path and will also be including some links to additional ‘low cost’ options. So if you want to spend a little money to accelerate your learning you can add these resources to the curriculum. I will include the estimated costs for each of these.

### Technical skills

The first part of the curriculum will focus on technical skills. I recommend learning these first so that you can take a practical first approach rather than say learning the mathematical theory first. Python is by far the most widely used programming language used for data science. In the Kaggle Machine Learning and Data Science survey carried out in 2018 83% of respondents said that they used Python on a daily basis. I would, therefore, recommend focusing on this language but also spending a little time on other languages such as R.

### Python Fundamentals

Before you can start to use Python for data science you need a basic grasp of the fundamentals behind the language. So you will want to take a Python introductory course. There are lots of free ones out there but I like the Codeacademy ones best as they include hands-on in-browser coding throughout.

I would suggest taking the introductory course to learn Python. This covers basic syntax, functions, control flow, loops, modules and classes.

### Data analysis with python

Next, you will want to get a good understanding of using Python for data analysis. There are a number of good resources for this.

To start with I suggest taking at least the free parts of the data analyst learning path on dataquest.io. Dataquest offers complete learning paths for data analyst, data scientist and data engineer. Quite a lot of the content, particularly on the data analyst path is available for free. If you do have some money to put towards learning then I strongly suggest putting it towards paying for a few months of the premium subscription. I took this course and it provided a fantastic grounding in the fundamentals of data science. It took me 6 months to complete the data scientist path. The price varies from \$24.50 to \$49 per month depending on whether you pay annually or not. It is better value to purchase the annual subscription if you can afford it.

The Dataquest platform

### Python for machine learning

If you have chosen to pay for the full data science course on Dataquest then you will have a good grasp of the fundamentals of machine learning with Python. If not then there are plenty of other free resources. I would focus to start with on scikit-learn which is by far the most commonly used Python library for machine learning.

When I was learning I was lucky enough to attend a two-day workshop run by Andreas Mueller one of the core developers of scikit-learn. He has however published all the material from this course, and others, on this Github repo. These consist of slides, course notes and notebooks that you can work through. I would definitely recommend working through this material.

Then I would suggest taking some of the tutorials in the scikit-learn documentation. After that, I would suggest building some practical machine learning applications and learning the theory behind how the models work — which I will cover a bit later on.

SQL

SQL is a vital skill to learn if you want to become a data scientist as one of the fundamental processes in data modelling is extracting data in the first place. This will more often than not involve running SQL queries against a database. Again if you haven’t opted to take the full Dataquest course then here are a few free resources to learn this skill.

Codeacamdemy has a free introduction to SQL course. Again this is very practical with in-browser coding all the way through. If you also want to learn about cloud-based database querying then Google Cloud BigQuery is very accessible. There is a free tier so you can try queries for free, an extensive range of public datasets to try and very good documentation.

#### R

To be a well-rounded data scientist it is a good idea to diversify a little from just Python. I would, therefore, suggest also taking an introductory course in R. Codeacademy have an introductory course on their free plan. It is probably worth noting here that similar to Dataquest Codeacademy also offers a complete data science learning plan as part of their pro account (this costs from \$31.99 to \$15.99 per month depending on how many months you pay for up front). I personally found the Dataquest course to be much more comprehensive but this may work out a little cheaper if you are looking to follow a learning path on a single platform.

#### Software engineering

It is a good idea to get a grasp of software engineering skills and best practices. This will help your code to be more readable and extensible both for yourself and others. Additionally, when you start to put models into production you will need to be able to write good quality well-tested code and work with tools like version control.

There are two great free resources for this. Python like you mean it covers things like the PEP8 style guide, documentation and also covers object-oriented programming really well.

The scikit-learn contribution guidelines, although written to facilitate contributions to the library, actually cover the best practices really well. This covers topics such as Github, unit testing and debugging and is all written in the context of a data science application.

#### Deep learning

For a comprehensive introduction to deep learning, I don’t think that you can get any better than the totally free and totally ad-free fast.ai. This course includes an introduction to machine learning, practical deep learning, computational linear algebra and a code-first introduction to natural language processing. All their courses have a practical first approach and I highly recommend them.

Fast.ai platform

#### Theory

Whilst you are learning the technical elements of the curriculum you will encounter some of the theory behind the code you are implementing. I recommend that you learn the theoretical elements alongside the practical. The way that I do this is that I learn the code to be able to implement a technique, let’s take KMeans as an example, once I have something working I will then look deeper into concepts such as inertia. Again the scikit-learn documentation contains all the mathematical concepts behind the algorithms.

In this section, I will introduce the key foundational elements of theory that you should learn alongside the more practical elements.

The khan academy covers almost all the concepts I have listed below for free. You can tailor the subjects you would like to study when you sign up and you then have a nice tailored curriculum for this part of the learning path. Checking all of the boxes below will give you an overview of most elements I have listed below.

#### Maths

Calculus

Calculus is defined by Wikipedia as “the mathematical study of continuous change.” In other words calculus can find patterns between functions, for example, in the case of derivatives, it can help you to understand how a function changes over time.

Many machine learning algorithms utilise calculus to optimise the performance of models. If you have studied even a little machine learning you will probably have heard of Gradient descent. This functions by iteratively adjusting the parameter values of a model to find the optimum values to minimise the cost function. Gradient descent is a good example of how calculus is used in machine learning.

What you need to know:

Derivatives

• Geometric definition
• Calculating the derivative of a function
• Nonlinear functions

Chain rule

• Composite functions
• Composite function derivatives
• Multiple functions

• Partial derivatives
• Directional derivatives
• Integrals

Linear Algebra

Many popular machine learning methods, including XGBOOST, use matrices to store inputs and process data. Matrices alongside vector spaces and linear equations form the mathematical branch known as Linear Algebra. In order to understand how many machine learning methods work it is essential to get a good understanding of this field.

What you need to learn:

Vectors and spaces

• Vectors
• Linear combinations
• Linear dependence and independence
• Vector dot and cross products

Matrix transformations

• Functions and linear transformations
• Matrix multiplication
• Inverse functions
• Transpose of a matrix

### Statistics

Here is a list of the key concepts you need to know:

Descriptive/Summary statistics

• How to summarise a sample of data
• Different types of distributions
• Skewness, kurtosis, central tendency (e.g. mean, median, mode)
• Measures of dependence, and relationships between variables such as correlation and covariance

Experiment design

• Hypothesis testing
• Sampling
• Significance tests
• Randomness
• Probability
• Confidence intervals and two-sample inference

Machine learning

• Linear and non-linear regression
• Classification

### Practical experience

The third section of the curriculum is all about practice. In order to truly master the concepts above you will need to use the skills in some projects that ideally closely resemble a real-world application. By doing this you will encounter problems to work through such as missing and erroneous data and develop a deep level of expertise in the subject. In this last section, I will list some good places you can get this practical experience from for free.

“With deliberate practice, however, the goal is not just to reach your potential but to build it, to make things possible that were not possible before. This requires challenging homeostasis — getting out of your comfort zone — and forcing your brain or your body to adapt.”, Anders Ericsson, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise

### Kaggle, et al

Machine learning competitions are a good place to get practice with building machine learning models. They give access to a wide range of data sets, each with a specific problem to solve and have a leaderboard. The leaderboard is a good way to benchmark how good your knowledge at developing a good model actually is and where you may need to improve further.

In addition to Kaggle, there are other platforms for machine learning competitions including Analytics Vidhya and DrivenData.

Driven data competitions page

### UCI Machine Learning Repository

The UCI machine learning repository is a large source of publically available data sets. You can use these data sets to put together your own data projects this could include data analysis and machine learning models, you could even try building a deployed model with a web front end. It is a good idea to store your projects somewhere publically such as Github as this can create a portfolio showcasing your skills to use for future job applications.

#### Contributions to open source

One other option to consider is contributing to open source projects. There are many Python libraries that rely on the community to maintain them and there are often hackathons held at meetups and conferences where even beginners can join in. Attending one of these events would certainly give you some practical experience and an environment where you can learn from others whilst giving something back at the same time. Numfocus is a good example of a project like this.

In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free. Showcasing what you are able to do in the form of a portfolio is a great tool for future job applications in lieu of formal qualifications and certificates. I really believe that education should be accessible to everyone and, certainly, for data science at least, the internet provides that opportunity. In addition to the resources listed here, I have previously published a recommended reading list for learning data science available here. These are also all freely available online and are a great way to complement the more practical resources covered above.

## Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big Data

Let’s begin.

Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Data Science in HD

### Part 1: Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

Neural Networks Cheat Sheets

### Neural Networks Basics

Neural Networks Basics Cheat Sheet

An Artificial Neuron Network (ANN), popularly known as Neural Network is a computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. It is like an artificial human nervous system for receiving, processing, and transmitting information in terms of Computer Science.

#### Basically, there are 3 different layers in a neural network :

1. Input Layer (All the inputs are fed in the model through this layer)
2. Hidden Layers (There can be more than one hidden layers which are used for processing the inputs received from the input layers)
3. Output Layer (The data after processing is made available at the output layer)

### Neural Networks Graphs

Neural Networks Graphs Cheat Sheet

Graph data can be used with a lot of learning tasks contain a lot rich relation data among elements. For example, modeling physics system, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model learns from graph inputs. Graph reasoning models can also be used for learning from non-structural data like texts and images and reasoning on extracted structures.

### Part 2: Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

Machine Learning Cheat Sheets

### Machine Learning with Emojis

Machine Learning with Emojis Cheat Sheet

### Machine Learning: Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet

Scikit-learn is a free software machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines is a simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis. It’s built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib an open source, commercially usable — BSD license

Scikit-learn Algorithm Cheat Sheet

### Scikit-learn algorithm

This machine learning cheat sheet will help you find the right estimator for the job which is the most difficult part. The flowchart will help you check the documentation and rough guide of each estimator that will help you to know more about the problems and how to solve it.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Machine Learning: Scikit-Learn Algorythm for Azure Machine Learning Studios

Scikit-Learn Algorithm for Azure Machine Learning Studios Cheat Sheet

### Part 3: Data Science with Python

Data Science with Python Cheat Sheets

### Data Science: TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow Cheat Sheet

TensorFlow is a free and open-source software library for dataflow and differentiable programming across a range of tasks. It is a symbolic math library, and is also used for machine learning applications such as neural networks.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Python is one of the most popular data science tool due to its low and gradual learning curve and the fact that it is a fully fledged programming language.

### Data Science: PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet

“At a high level, every Spark application consists of a driver program that runs the user’s `main` function and executes various parallel operations on a cluster. The main abstraction Spark provides is a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a collection of elements partitioned across the nodes of the cluster that can be operated on in parallel. RDDs are created by starting with a file in the Hadoop file system (or any other Hadoop-supported file system), or an existing Scala collection in the driver program, and transforming it. Users may also ask Spark to persist an RDD in memory, allowing it to be reused efficiently across parallel operations. Finally, RDDs automatically recover from node failures.” via Spark.Aparche.Org

### Data Science: NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet

NumPy is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.

***If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know ***here.

### Data Science: Bokeh Cheat Sheet

Bokeh Cheat Sheet

“Bokeh is an interactive visualization library that targets modern web browsers for presentation. Its goal is to provide elegant, concise construction of versatile graphics, and to extend this capability with high-performance interactivity over very large or streaming datasets. Bokeh can help anyone who would like to quickly and easily create interactive plots, dashboards, and data applications.” from Bokeh.Pydata.com

### Data Science: Karas Cheat Sheet

Karas Cheat Sheet

Keras is an open-source neural-network library written in Python. It is capable of running on top of TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, Theano, or PlaidML. Designed to enable fast experimentation with deep neural networks, it focuses on being user-friendly, modular, and extensible.

### Data Science: Padas Basics Cheat Sheet

Pandas is a software library written for the Python programming language for data manipulation and analysis. In particular, it offers data structures and operations for manipulating numerical tables and time series. It is free software released under the three-clause BSD license.

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python

### Data Wrangling

The term “data wrangler” is starting to infiltrate pop culture. In the 2017 movie Kong: Skull Island, one of the characters, played by actor Marc Evan Jackson is introduced as “Steve Woodward, our data wrangler”.

### Data Science: Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet

### “Why Use tidyr & dplyr

• Although many fundamental data processing functions exist in R, they have been a bit convoluted to date and have lacked consistent coding and the ability to easily flow together → leads to difficult-to-read nested functions and/or choppy code.
• R Studio is driving a lot of new packages to collate data management tasks and better integrate them with other analysis activities → led by Hadley Wickham & the R Studio teamGarrett Grolemund, Winston Chang, Yihui Xie among others.
• As a result, a lot of data processing tasks are becoming packaged in more cohesive and consistent ways → leads to:
• More efficient code
• Easier to remember syntax
• Easier to read syntax” via Rstudios

### Data Science: Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr

Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr Cheat Sheet

If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Scipy Linear Algebra

Scipy Linear Algebra Cheat Sheet

SciPy builds on the NumPy array object and is part of the NumPy stack which includes tools like Matplotlib, pandas and SymPy, and an expanding set of scientific computing libraries. This NumPy stack has similar users to other applications such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, and Scilab. The NumPy stack is also sometimes referred to as the SciPy stack.[3]

### Data Science: Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet

Matplotlib is a plotting library for the Python programming language and its numerical mathematics extension NumPy. It provides an object-oriented APIfor embedding plots into applications using general-purpose GUI toolkits like Tkinter, wxPython, Qt, or GTK+. There is also a procedural “pylab” interface based on a state machine (like OpenGL), designed to closely resemble that of MATLAB, though its use is discouraged. SciPy makes use of matplotlib.

Pyplot is a matplotlib module which provides a MATLAB-like interface matplotlib is designed to be as usable as MATLAB, with the ability to use Python, with the advantage that it is free.

### Data Science: Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet

### Data Science: Big-O Cheat Sheet

Big-O Cheat Sheet

### Resources

Special thanks to DataCamp, Asimov Institute, RStudios and the open source community for their content contributions. You can see originals here:

Big-O Algorithm Cheat Sheet: http://bigocheatsheet.com/

Data Science Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/tutorials/python-data-science-cheat-sheet-basics

Data Wrangling: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_wrangling

Keras Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/keras-cheat-sheet#gs.DRKeNMs

Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://ai.icymi.email/new-machinelearning-cheat-sheet-by-emily-barry-abdsc/

Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-in/azure/machine-learning/machine-learning-algorithm-cheat-sheet

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-matplotlib-cheat-sheet#gs.uEKySpY

Matpotlib: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matplotlib

Neural Networks Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/neural-network-zoo/

Neural Networks Graph Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/blog/

Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-pandas-cheat-sheet#gs.oundfxM

Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pandas-cheat-sheet-python#gs.HPFoRIc

Pyspark Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pyspark-cheat-sheet-python#gs.L=J1zxQ

Scikit Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/scikit-learn-cheat-sheet

Scikit-learn: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scikit-learn

Scikit-learn Cheat Sheet: http://peekaboo-vision.blogspot.com/2013/01/machine-learning-cheat-sheet-for-scikit.html

TesorFlow Cheat Sheet: https://www.altoros.com/tensorflow-cheat-sheet.html

## 10 Data Science and Machine Learning Courses for Beginners

Data Science, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial intelligence are really hot at this moment and offering a lucrative career to programmers with high pay and exciting work.

Data Science, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial intelligence are really hot at this moment and offering a lucrative career to programmers with high pay and exciting work.

It's a great opportunity for programmers who are willing to learn these new skills and upgrade themselves and want to solve some of the most interesting real-world problems.

It's also important from the job perspective because Robots and Bots are getting smarter day by day, thanks to these technologies and most likely will take over some of the jobs which many programmers do today.

Hence, it's important for software engineers and developers to upgrade themselves with these skills. Programmers with these skills are also commanding significantly higher salaries as data science is revolutionizing the world around us.

You might already know that the Machine learning specialist is one of the top paid technical jobs in the world. However, most developers and IT professionals are yet to learn this valuable set of skills.

For those, who don't know what is a Data ScienceMachine learning, or deep learning, they are very related terms with all pointing towards machine doing jobs which is only possible for humans till date and analyzing the huge set of data collected by modern day application.

Data Science, in particular, is a combination of concepts such as machine learning, visualization, data mining, programming, data mugging, etc.

If you have some programming experience then you can learn Python or Rto make your carer as a Data Scientist.

There are a lot of popular scientific Python libraries such as Numpy, Scipy, Scikit-learn, Pandas, which is used by Data Scientist for analyzing data.

To be honest with you, I am also quite new to Data Science and Machine learning world but I have been spending some time from last year to understand this field and have done some research in terms of best resources to learn machine learning, data science, etc.

I am sharing all those resources in a series of a blog post like this. Earlier, I have shared some courses to learn TensorFlow, one of the most popular machine-learning library and today I'll share some more to learn these technologies.

These are a combination of both free and paid resource which will help you to understand key data science concepts and become a Data Scientist. Btw, I'll get paid if you happen to buy a course which is not free.

### 10 Useful Courses to Learn Machine Learning and Data Science for Programmers

Here is my list of some of the best courses to learn Data Science, Machine learning, and deep learning using Python and R programming language. As I have said, Data Science and machine learning work very closely together, hence some of these courses also cover machine learning.

If you are still on fence with respect to choosing Python or R for machine learning, let me tell you that both Python and R are a great language for Data Analysis and have good APIs and library, hence I have included courses in both Python and R, you can choose the one you like.

I personally like Python because of its versatile usage, it's the next best in my list of language after Java. I am already using it for writing scripts and other web stuff, so it was an easy choice for me. It has also got some excellent libraries like Sci-kit Learn and TensorFlow.

Data Science is also a combination of many skills e.g. visualization, data cleaning, data mining, etc and these courses provide a good overview of all these concepts and also presents a lot of useful tools which can help you in the real world.

Machine Learning by Andrew Ng

This is probably the most popular course to learn machine learning provided by Stanford University and Coursera, which also provides certification. You'll be tested on each and every topic that you learn in this course, and based on the completion and the final score that you get, you'll also be awarded the certificate.

This course is free but you need to pay for certificates, if you want. Though, it does provide value to you as a developer and gives you a good understanding of the mathematics behind all the machine learning algorithms that you come up with.

I personally really like this one. Andrew Ng takes you through the course using Octave, which is a good tool to test your algorithm before making it go live on your project.

1.Machine Learning A-Z: Hands-On Python and R --- In Data Science

This is probably the best hands on course on Data Science and machine learning online. In this course, you will learn to create Machine Learning Algorithms in Python and R from two Data Science experts.

This is a great course for students and programmers who want to make a career in Data Science and also Data Analysts who want to level up in machine learning.

It's also good for any intermediate level programmers who know the basics of machine learning, including the classical algorithms like linear regression or logistic regression, but who want to learn more about it and explore all the different fields of Machine Learning.

2. Data Science with R by Pluralsight

Data science is the practice of transforming data into knowledge, and R is one of the most popular programming language used by data scientists.

In this course, you'll learn first learn about the practice of data science, the R programming language, and how they can be used to transform data into actionable insight.

Next, you'll learn how to transform and clean your data, create and interpret descriptive statistics, data visualizations, and statistical models.

Finally, you'll learn how to handle Big Data, make predictions using machine learning algorithms, and deploy R to production.

Btw, you would need a Pluralsight membership to get access this course, but if you don't have one you can still check out this course by taking their 10-day free Pass, which provides 200 minutes of access to all of their courses for free.

3.** **Harvard Data Science Course

The course is a combination of various data science concepts such as machine learning, visualization, data mining, programming, data mugging, etc.

You will be using popular scientific Python libraries such as Numpy, Scipy, Scikit-learn, Pandas throughout the course.

I suggest you complete the machine learning course on course before taking this course, as machine learning concepts such as PCA (dimensionality reduction), k-means and logistic regression are not covered in depth.

But remember, you have to invest a lot of time to complete this course, especially the homework exercises are very challenging

In short, if you are looking for an online course in data science(using Python), there is no better course than Harvard's CS 109. You need some background in programming and knowledge of statistics to complete this course.

4. Want to be a Data Scientist? (FREE)

This is a great introductory course on what Data Scientist do and how you can become a data science professional. It's also free and you can get it on Udemy.

If you have just heard about Data Science and excited about it but doesn't know what it really means then this is the course you should attend first.

It's a small course but packed with big punches. You will understand what Data Science is? Appreciate the work Data Scientists do on a daily basis and differentiate the various roles in Data Science and the skills needed to perform them.

You will also learn about the challenges Data Scientists face. In short, this course will give you all the knowledge to make a decision on whether Data Science is the right path for you or not.

5. Intro to Data Science by Udacity

This is another good Introductory course on Data science which is available for free on Udacity, another popular online course website.

In this course, you will learn about essential Data science concepts e.g. Data Manipulation, Data Analysis with Statistics and Machine Learning, Data Communication with Information Visualization, and Data at Scale while working with Big Data.

This is a free course and it's also the first step towards a new career with the Data Analyst Nanodegree Program offered by Udacity.

6. Data Science Certification Training --- R Programming

The is another good course to learn Data Science with R. In this course, you will not only learn R programming language but also get some hands-on experience with statistical modeling techniques.

The course has real-world examples of how analytics have been used to significantly improve a business or industry.

If you are interested in learning some practical analytic methods that don't require a ton of maths background to understand, this is the course for you.

7. Intro To Data Science Course by Coursera

This course provides a broad introduction to various concepts of data science. The first programming exercise "Twitter Sentiment Analysis in Python" is both fun and challenging, where you analyze tons of twitter message to find out the sentiments e.g. negative, positive etc.

The course assumes that you know statistics, Python, and SQL.

Btw, It's not so good for beginners, especially if you don't know Python and SQL but if you do and have a basic understanding of Data Science then this is a great course.

8. Python for Data Science and Machine Learning Bootcamp

There is no doubt that Python is probably the best language, apart from R for Data Analysis and that's why it's hugely popular among Data Scientists.

This course will teach you how to use all important Python scientific and machine learning libraries Tensorflow, NumPy, Pandas, Seaborn, Matplotlib, Plotly, Scikit-Learn, Machine Learning, and many more libraries which I have explained earlier in my list of useful machine learning libraries.

It's a very comprehensive course and you will how to use the power of Python to analyze data, create beautiful visualizations, and use powerful machine learning algorithms!

9. Data Science A-Z: Real-Life Data Science Exercises Included

This is another great hands-on course on Data Science from Udemy. It promises to teach you Data Science step by step through real Analytics examples. Data Mining, Modeling, Tableau Visualization and more.

This course will give you so many practical exercises that the real world will seem like a piece of cake when you complete this course.

The homework exercises are also very thought-provoking and challenging. In short, If you love doing stuff then this is a course for you.

10. Data Science, Deep Learning and Machine Learning with Python

If you've got some programming or scripting experience, this course will teach you the techniques used by real data scientists and machine learning practitioners in the tech industry --- and help you to become a data scientist.

The topics in this course come from an analysis of real requirements in data scientist job listings from the biggest tech employers, that makes it even more special and useful.

That's all about some of the popular courses to learn Data Science. As I said, there is a lot of demand for good Data Analytics and there are not many developers out there to fulfill that demand.

It's a great chance for the programmer, especially those who have good knowledge of maths and statistics to make a career in machine learning and Data analytics. You will be awarded exciting work and incredible pay.

Other useful Data Science and Machine Learning resources

Top 8 Python Machine Learning Libraries

5 Free courses to learn R Programming for Machine learning

5 Free courses to learn Python in 2018

Top 5 Data Science and Machine Learning courses

Top 5 TensorFlow and Machine Learning Courses

10 Technologies Programmers Can Learn in 2018

Top 5 Courses to Learn Python Better

How a Japanese cucumber farmer is using deep learning and TensorFlow

#### Closing Notes

Thanks, You made it to the end of the article ... Good luck with your Data Science and Machine Learning journey! It's certainly not going to be easy, but by following these courses, you are one step closer to becoming the Machine Learning Specialists you always wanted to be.