Caden  Walsh

Caden Walsh


AAX Exchange Review & Tutorial! Beginners Guide 2021 $AAB

AAX Exchange Review & Tutorial! Beginners Guide 2021 $AAB

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AAX Exchange Review & Tutorial! Beginners Guide 2021 $AAB
Jeromy  Lowe

Jeromy Lowe


Data Visualization in R with ggplot2: A Beginner Tutorial

A famous general is thought to have said, “A good sketch is better than a long speech.” That advice may have come from the battlefield, but it’s applicable in lots of other areas — including data science. “Sketching” out our data by visualizing it using ggplot2 in R is more impactful than simply describing the trends we find.

This is why we visualize data. We visualize data because it’s easier to learn from something that we can see rather than read. And thankfully for data analysts and data scientists who use R, there’s a tidyverse package called ggplot2 that makes data visualization a snap!

In this blog post, we’ll learn how to take some data and produce a visualization using R. To work through it, it’s best if you already have an understanding of R programming syntax, but you don’t need to be an expert or have any prior experience working with ggplot2

#data science tutorials #beginner #ggplot2 #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials

Willie  Beier

Willie Beier


Tutorial: Getting Started with R and RStudio

In this tutorial we’ll learn how to begin programming with R using RStudio. We’ll install R, and RStudio RStudio, an extremely popular development environment for R. We’ll learn the key RStudio features in order to start programming in R on our own.

If you already know how to use RStudio and want to learn some tips, tricks, and shortcuts, check out this Dataquest blog post.

Table of Contents

#data science tutorials #beginner #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials

Marcus  Flatley

Marcus Flatley


Getting Started with R Markdown — Guide and Cheatsheet

In this blog post, we’ll look at how to use R Markdown. By the end, you’ll have the skills you need to produce a document or presentation using R Mardown, from scratch!

We’ll show you how to convert the default R Markdown document into a useful reference guide of your own. We encourage you to follow along by building out your own R Markdown guide, but if you prefer to just read along, that works, too!

R Markdown is an open-source tool for producing reproducible reports in R. It enables you to keep all of your code, results, plots, and writing in one place. R Markdown is particularly useful when you are producing a document for an audience that is interested in the results from your analysis, but not your code.

R Markdown is powerful because it can be used for data analysis and data science, collaborating with others, and communicating results to decision makers. With R Markdown, you have the option to export your work to numerous formats including PDF, Microsoft Word, a slideshow, or an HTML document for use in a website.

r markdown tips, tricks, and shortcuts

Turn your data analysis into pretty documents with R Markdown.

We’ll use the RStudio integrated development environment (IDE) to produce our R Markdown reference guide. If you’d like to learn more about RStudio, check out our list of 23 awesome RStudio tips and tricks!

Here at Dataquest, we love using R Markdown for coding in R and authoring content. In fact, we wrote this blog post in R Markdown! Also, learners on the Dataquest platform use R Markdown for completing their R projects.

We included fully-reproducible code examples in this blog post. When you’ve mastered the content in this post, check out our other blog post on R Markdown tips, tricks, and shortcuts.

Okay, let’s get started with building our very own R Markdown reference document!

R Markdown Guide and Cheatsheet: Quick Navigation

1. Install R Markdown

R Markdown is a free, open source tool that is installed like any other R package. Use the following command to install R Markdown:


Now that R Markdown is installed, open a new R Markdown file in RStudio by navigating to File > New File > R Markdown…. R Markdown files have the file extension “.Rmd”.

2. Default Output Format

When you open a new R Markdown file in RStudio, a pop-up window appears that prompts you to select output format to use for the document.

New Document

The default output format is HTML. With HTML, you can easily view it in a web browser.

We recommend selecting the default HTML setting for now — it can save you time! Why? Because compiling an HTML document is generally faster than generating a PDF or other format. When you near a finished product, you change the output to the format of your choosing and then make the final touches.

One final thing to note is that the title you give your document in the pop-up above is not the file name! Navigate to File > Save As.. to name, and save, the document.

#data science tutorials #beginner #r #r markdown #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #rstudio #tutorial #tutorials

Tutorial: Loading and Cleaning Data with R and the tidyverse

1. Characteristics of Clean Data and Messy Data

What exactly is clean data? Clean data is accurate, complete, and in a format that is ready to analyze. Characteristics of clean data include data that are:

  • Free of duplicate rows/values
  • Error-free (e.g. free of misspellings)
  • Relevant (e.g. free of special characters)
  • The appropriate data type for analysis
  • Free of outliers (or only contain outliers have been identified/understood), and
  • Follows a “tidy data” structure

Common symptoms of messy data include data that contain:

  • Special characters (e.g. commas in numeric values)
  • Numeric values stored as text/character data types
  • Duplicate rows
  • Misspellings
  • Inaccuracies
  • White space
  • Missing data
  • Zeros instead of null values

2. Motivation

In this blog post, we will work with five property-sales datasets that are publicly available on the New York City Department of Finance Rolling Sales Data website. We encourage you to download the datasets and follow along! Each file contains one year of real estate sales data for one of New York City’s five boroughs. We will work with the following Microsoft Excel files:

  • rollingsales_bronx.xls
  • rollingsales_brooklyn.xls
  • rollingsales_manhattan.xls
  • rollingsales_queens.xls
  • rollingsales_statenisland.xls

As we work through this blog post, imagine that you are helping a friend launch their home-inspection business in New York City. You offer to help them by analyzing the data to better understand the real-estate market. But you realize that before you can analyze the data in R, you will need to diagnose and clean it first. And before you can diagnose the data, you will need to load it into R!

3. Load Data into R with readxl

Benefits of using tidyverse tools are often evident in the data-loading process. In many cases, the tidyverse package readxl will clean some data for you as Microsoft Excel data is loaded into R. If you are working with CSV data, the tidyverse readr package function read_csv() is the function to use (we’ll cover that later).

Let’s look at an example. Here’s how the Excel file for the Brooklyn borough looks:

The Brooklyn Excel file

Now let’s load the Brooklyn dataset into R from an Excel file. We’ll use the readxlpackage. We specify the function argument skip = 4 because the row that we want to use as the header (i.e. column names) is actually row 5. We can ignore the first four rows entirely and load the data into R beginning at row 5. Here’s the code:

library(readxl) # Load Excel files
brooklyn <- read_excel("rollingsales_brooklyn.xls", skip = 4)

Note we saved this dataset with the variable name brooklyn for future use.

4. View the Data with tidyr::glimpse()

The tidyverse offers a user-friendly way to view this data with the glimpse() function that is part of the tibble package. To use this package, we will need to load it for use in our current session. But rather than loading this package alone, we can load many of the tidyverse packages at one time. If you do not have the tidyverse collection of packages, install it on your machine using the following command in your R or R Studio session:


Once the package is installed, load it to memory:


Now that tidyverse is loaded into memory, take a “glimpse” of the Brooklyn dataset:

## Observations: 20,185
## Variables: 21
## $ BOROUGH <chr> "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "…
## $ `TAX CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "…
## $ BLOCK <dbl> 6359, 6360, 6364, 6367, 6371, 6…
## $ LOT <dbl> 70, 48, 74, 24, 19, 32, 65, 20,…
## $ `EASE-MENT` <lgl> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "…
## $ ADDRESS <chr> "8684 15TH AVENUE", "14 BAY 10T…
## $ `APARTMENT NUMBER` <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ `ZIP CODE` <dbl> 11228, 11228, 11214, 11214, 112…
## $ `RESIDENTIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1…
## $ `COMMERCIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ `TOTAL UNITS` <dbl> 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1…
## $ `LAND SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 1933, 2513, 2492, 1571, 2320, 3…
## $ `GROSS SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 4080, 1428, 972, 1456, 1566, 22…
## $ `YEAR BUILT` <dbl> 1930, 1930, 1950, 1935, 1930, 1…
## $ `TAX CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "…
## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "…
## $ `SALE PRICE` <dbl> 1300000, 849000, 0, 830000, 0, …
## $ `SALE DATE` <dttm> 2020-04-28, 2020-03-18, 2019-0…

The glimpse() function provides a user-friendly way to view the column names and data types for all columns, or variables, in the data frame. With this function, we are also able to view the first few observations in the data frame. This data frame has 20,185 observations, or property sales records. And there are 21 variables, or columns.

#data science tutorials #beginner #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tidyverse #tutorial #tutorials

What is AAX Token (AAB) | What is AAX Exchange | What is AAB token

AAX – Where Crypto meets Global Finance

AAX is the world’s first digital asset exchange to be powered by LSEG Technology.

Launched in November 2019, AAX is the world’s first cryptocurrency exchange to be powered by LSEG Technology’s Millennium Exchange  the same matching engine that powers London Stock Exchange. It is also the first of its kind to have joined London Stock Exchange Group’s (LSEG) Partner Platform.

Catering to retail and institutional investors, we operate spot, futures and over-the-counter markets across 50+ crypto spot pairs, derivatives, and fiat-to-crypto on and off ramps. AAX also offers perpetual futures contracts for major cryptocurrency pairs with BTC and USDT as the primary settlement currencies.

We make it as easy as possible for new investors to purchase and sell crypto for fiat. Our over-the-counter platform hosts institutional-grade liquidity providers, offering a simple way for our clients to move in and out of crypto.

This year, 2020, we are launching AAX’s native exchange token AAB – built to serve as a bridge between crypto and global finance.

To attract more capital into the digital asset world, we will roll out a set of unique financial instruments, and expand on tokenized commodities, perpetual contracts, options, indices, altcoins and security tokens.

AAB is Digital Umami

More than a token, AAB is an integral part of AAX, providing special benefits to users, and a means to be part of the growth of the exchange .

It is built to serve as a bridge between digital and traditional assets, retail and professional traders, takers and market makers, the exchange and its partners, and it will be deeply integrated with AAX’s upcoming products expansion.

We like to think of AAB as digital umami  – it adds that extra touch, that next-level flavor, that hard-to-define dimension – the missing piece that makes everything taste slightly better.

In total, 50 million AAB  is to be issued as an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum blockchain, and it will initially be valued at 1 USDT each.

AAB: Utility & Access

Multi-tiered discount scheme

AAB is the primary currency for settling up to 100% of all trading fees on AAX.

  • Baseline Discount
  • Trading fees settled in AAB are discounted at 20%
  • Portfolio Discount
  • For any percentage of a client’s portfolio allocated to AAB, a corresponding percentage is added to the client’s overall discount, up to a maximum discount of 50%
  • Clients can opt out of using AAB to settle their trading fees
  • 1. Opting out means forfeiting the ‘Baseline Discount’;
  • 2. Clients can still enjoy the ‘Portfolio Discount’ up to a maximum of 50%.

Optimized Wealth Management

AAB will be used to drive promotions across lending, borrowing, and other features.

  • Lending
  • Adding 10% of AAB on top of the total loan collateral, will be rewarded with 1% extra interest on the total loan collateral
  • Borrowing
  • Clients who opt in to pay interest on loans with AAB will enjoy a 20% discount

Platform Upgrades

  • Clients can use AAB to unlock special features and tools to optimize the trading experience
  • Use AAB to unlock trading bots and trading signals
  • AAB can be used to gain access to exclusive services and facilities, including increased API access rates, and FIX connectivity
  • Clients who hold more than 100,000 USD worth of AAB can enjoy:
    • Higher withdrawal and internal transfer limits;
    • Early notifications around product upgrades, events, and promotions;
    • Discounted custody services.

Pioneer Program

  • AAB can be used to purchase social trading subscriptions to copytrade high-performing traders, as well as low-performing that can be copied in the reverse, with leverage;
  • AAB is the only trading fee payment currency for engaging unique financial instruments, including index derivatives, a selection of tokenized commodities, and security tokens.

Daily Coinburns

Built for aggressive price action, AAB will benefit from daily buybacks and coinburns funded by 100% of all trading fees  earned by AAX on its futures markets. Any AAB bought back from the market will be permanently destroyed and auditable on the blockchain. This process will continue until 50% of the total supply  of AAB is destroyed.

To give an idea of what this implies:

AAX currently ranks 39th on, between ErisX (51st) and Bakkt (36th). If we take the top 10 crypto derivatives exchanges by daily trade volume, we can see that daily volumes range between $1bn and $11.5bn on average.

Even if AAX were to secure a place at the lower end of the top 10, generating between $1bn to $3.5bn a day, with maker and taker fees averaging out to 0.05%, AAX’s buybacks and coinburns would still mean the destruction of $250k to $875k worth of AAB per day .

With AAX, we expect to generate $500m  daily trade volumes by the end of 2020, break into the top 10 in 2021, with an average volume of $1.5bn , and then onwards to $4.5bn  in 2022. There is no doubt that AAX’s daily buyburns will stimulate significant price action and present token holders with an opportunity to grow with AAX.

Spreading Wealth

Out of a total of 50 million AAB, we will gradually be distributing AAB as follows:

Public Offering

The initial listing price is 1 USDT per AAB. Out of a total of 50 million, 10 million AAB will be made available  for sale in a series of four rounds according to the following schedule:

  • After the completion of the lockup period, the purchased amount of AAB will be gradually unlocked, at a rate of 5% per day, over the course of 20 days.

In the 1st round:

  • 50% off
  • 500,000 AAB will be offered at a 50% discount to a maximum of 500 buyers who have successfully subscribed for participation.
  • Get your money back
  • 250 participants from among those 500 buyers will get their AAB for free. Winners will be determined by way of random selection of a promotional code given to each participant.
  • 15 days lockup
  • Upon purchase, first round buyers are required to lock their AAB up for 15 days.

In the 2nd round:

  • 50% off
  • 500,000 AAB will be offered at a 50% discount to a maximum of 500 buyers who have successfully subscribed for participation.
  • Get your money back
  • 250 participants from among those 500 buyers will get their AAB for free. Winners will be determined by way of random selection of a promotional code given to each participant.
  • 15 days lockup
  • Upon purchase, second round buyers are required to lock their AAB up for 15 days.

In the 3rd round:

  • 9 million AAB will be offered for a total of 1 USDT each.
  • Participants can trade immediately.

Would you like to earn many tokens and cryptocurrencies right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

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#blockchain #bitcoin #aab #aax exchange