Brakeman is a static analysis tool which checks Ruby on Rails applications for security vulnerabilities.
gem install brakeman
group :development do gem 'brakeman' end
docker pull presidentbeef/brakeman
Using Docker to build from source:
git clone https://github.com/presidentbeef/brakeman.git cd brakeman docker build . -t brakeman
From a Rails application's root directory:
Outside of Rails root:
From a Rails application's root directory:
docker run -v "$(pwd)":/code presidentbeef/brakeman
With a little nicer color:
docker run -v "$(pwd)":/code presidentbeef/brakeman --color
For an HTML report:
docker run -v "$(pwd)":/code presidentbeef/brakeman -o brakeman_results.html
Outside of Rails root (note that the output file is relative to path/to/rails/application):
docker run -v 'path/to/rails/application':/code presidentbeef/brakeman -o brakeman_results.html
Brakeman should work with any version of Rails from 2.3.x to 6.x.
Brakeman can analyze code written with Ruby 1.8 syntax and newer, but requires at least Ruby 2.4.0 to run.
For a full list of options, use
brakeman --help or see the OPTIONS.md file.
To specify an output file for the results:
brakeman -o output_file
The output format is determined by the file extension or by using the
-f option. Current options are:
Multiple output files can be specified:
brakeman -o output.html -o output.json
To output to both a file and to the console, with color:
brakeman --color -o /dev/stdout -o output.json
To suppress informational warnings and just output the report:
Note all Brakeman output except reports are sent to stderr, making it simple to redirect stdout to a file and just get the report.
To see all kinds of debugging information:
Specific checks can be skipped, if desired. The name needs to be the correct case. For example, to skip looking for default routes (
brakeman -x DefaultRoutes
Multiple checks should be separated by a comma:
brakeman -x DefaultRoutes,Redirect
To do the opposite and only run a certain set of tests:
brakeman -t SQL,ValidationRegex
If Brakeman is running a bit slow, try
This will disable some features, but will probably be much faster (currently it is the same as
--skip-libs --no-branching). WARNING: This may cause Brakeman to miss some vulnerabilities.
By default, Brakeman will return a non-zero exit code if any security warnings are found or scanning errors are encountered. To disable this:
brakeman --no-exit-on-warn --no-exit-on-error
To skip certain files or directories that Brakeman may have trouble parsing, use:
brakeman --skip-files file1,/path1/,path2/
To compare results of a scan with a previous scan, use the JSON output option and then:
brakeman --compare old_report.json
This will output JSON with two lists: one of fixed warnings and one of new warnings.
Brakeman will ignore warnings if configured to do so. By default, it looks for a configuration file in
config/brakeman.ignore. To create and manage this file, use:
See warning_types for more information on the warnings reported by this tool.
The HTML output format provides an excerpt from the original application source where a warning was triggered. Due to the processing done while looking for vulnerabilities, the source may not resemble the reported warning and reported line numbers may be slightly off. However, the context still provides a quick look into the code which raised the warning.
Brakeman assigns a confidence level to each warning. This provides a rough estimate of how certain the tool is that a given warning is actually a problem. Naturally, these ratings should not be taken as absolute truth.
There are three levels of confidence:
To only get warnings above a given confidence level:
-w switch takes a number from 1 to 3, with 1 being low (all warnings) and 3 being high (only highest confidence warnings).
Brakeman options can be stored and read from YAML files.
To simplify the process of writing a configuration file, the
-C option will output the currently set options:
$ brakeman -C --skip-files plugins/ --- :skip_files: - plugins/
Options passed in on the commandline have priority over configuration files.
The default config locations are
-c option can be used to specify a configuration file to use.
There is a plugin available for Jenkins/Hudson.
For even more continuous testing, try the Guard plugin.
There are a couple Github Actions available.
git clone git://github.com/presidentbeef/brakeman.git cd brakeman gem build brakeman.gemspec gem install brakeman*.gem
Who is Using Brakeman?
Brakeman is free for non-commercial use.
See COPYING for details.
Source code: https://github.com/presidentbeef/brakeman
License: Unknown and 2 other licenses found
I adore such articles. Really informative. thanks a million! I would add that Vulners provides the ability to customize feeds according to each user’s individual needs. Feeds https://vulners.com/feed can be tailored for specific types of security vulnerabilities, such as specific product vulnerabilities, third-party vulnerabilities, and exploits. Users can also schedule custom feeds for specific times and intervals to get the most up-to-date intelligence when they need it.
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Rails is a server-side web application development framework written in the Ruby programming language. Its emergence in 2005 has influenced and impacted web application development to a vast range, including but not limited to seamless database tables, migrations, and scaffolding of views. In the simplest understanding, Rails is a highly productive and intuitive software developer.
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The Ruby on Rails framework is based on two philosophies:
Some of the commonly known websites built by the Ruby on Rails software developers are Instacart, Scribd, Shopify, Github, ConvertKit, Soundcloud, GoodReads, Airbnb. It finds its application in Sa-as Solutions, Social Networking Platforms, Dating websites, Stock Exchange Platforms, etc.
Read more: Why Ruby on Rails is Perfect for eCommerce Web Development
There is a large community that is dedicated to Ruby on Rails that keeps it up-to-date and indeed encourages its family of developers to continue using it. They make sure the benefits are soaring with every update they make.
The community is committed to developing several ready-to-use code packages, commonly known as gems, for its users. They discuss and announce new project launches, help each other with queries, and engage in framework discussions and betterment. While Ruby on Rails helps developers in rapid application development, it also connects and grows businesses together.
To talk about scalability, we indicate the ability to grow and manage more and more user requests per minute (RPM). However, this depends on the architecture rather than the framework. The right architecture of Ruby on Rails web application development allows it to write bulky codes and programs as compared to early-stage difficulties with scalability.
It uses the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. This will enable Rails to create efficient web applications based on Rails 6, launched last year in 2020, which addresses most scalability issues. The portable components are agile and help in a better understanding of new requirements and needful adaptations for any business. The framework and architecture allow both vertical and horizontal scalability.
Fast Application Development and Cost Effectiveness
Ruby on Rails is lucid, logical, and has lean code requirements, thereby cutting down redundancy and improving the overall development speed. Lesser amount of code is proportional to lesser time investment with optimal results. The more time it takes for development, the more expensive it becomes for the end customers.
Considering the ready-made code modules/packages (gems) available, Ruby on Rails development company will less time and money are spent creating and modifying Rails websites and applications. Another advantage that has made Ruby on Rails super attractive for startups is its use of Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. It has a component separation scheme that speeds up the web development process and fixes any errors that occur.
Rails framework and the Ruby on Rails community put in a lot of efforts for data protection and security of its customer base. It is also one of the efficient frameworks for developing database-backed applications.
The developers at Ruby on Rails cover many aspects of cybersecurity, including encryptions of passwords, credit card information, and users’ personal database. Special measures are taken to prevent the framework from SQL injections and XSS attacks.
Ruby on Rails simplifies the daily operations and lowers the cost of enterprise app developments. The prominent features include data management, seamless updating of applications, easy and efficient code development, and high scalability, as discussed above.
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There are several reasons to prefer Ruby on Rails discussed above and extend further to early detection of errors, reduced time to market, and easy adaptation for API developments. It makes web programming much easier and simplifies website building of any complexity. Its flexibility and acceptance among new developers and programmers make it the perfect, one-stop choice for software application development company in 2021.
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Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.
Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.
“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”
We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.
We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.
Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use
ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.
Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:
As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:
The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.
A token might consist of either a single character, like
(, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g.,
Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g,
def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.
Python provides the
tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:
code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"
for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):
TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING), string='utf-8')
TokenInfo(type=1 (NAME), string='color')
TokenInfo(type=54 (OP), string='=')
TokenInfo(type=1 (NAME), string='input')
TokenInfo(type=54 (OP), string='(')
TokenInfo(type=3 (STRING), string="'Enter your favourite color: '")
TokenInfo(type=54 (OP), string=')')
TokenInfo(type=4 (NEWLINE), string='')
TokenInfo(type=0 (ENDMARKER), string='')
(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)
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