Jean  Glover

Jean Glover


Understanding Services in Kubernetes with Examples!

Service is an abstraction level that Kubernetes uses to make a deployed application accessible from the internal and external of the cluster.

Think time…

  • Imagine that, you have been asked to deploy a web app
  • How front-end web app is exposed to the outside world ?
  • In what way will we connect front-end with back-end and database?
  • How do we resolve Pod IP changes, when they die?

Stick here for a while and you will be able to answer these questions!


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Understanding Services in Kubernetes with Examples!
Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr


50+ Useful Kubernetes Tools for 2020 - Part 2


Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.

According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

#blog #tools #amazon elastic kubernetes service #application security #aws kms #botkube #caylent #cli #container monitoring #container orchestration tools #container security #containers #continuous delivery #continuous deployment #continuous integration #contour #developers #development #developments #draft #eksctl #firewall #gcp #github #harbor #helm #helm charts #helm-2to3 #helm-aws-secret-plugin #helm-docs #helm-operator-get-started #helm-secrets #iam #json #k-rail #k3s #k3sup #k8s #keycloak #kiali #kiam #klum #knative #krew #ksniff #kube #kube-prod-runtime #kube-ps1 #kube-scan #kube-state-metrics #kube2iam #kubeapps #kubebuilder #kubeconfig #kubectl #kubectl-aws-secrets #kubefwd #kubernetes #kubernetes command line tool #kubernetes configuration #kubernetes deployment #kubernetes in development #kubernetes in production #kubernetes ingress #kubernetes interfaces #kubernetes monitoring #kubernetes networking #kubernetes observability #kubernetes plugins #kubernetes secrets #kubernetes security #kubernetes security best practices #kubernetes security vendors #kubernetes service discovery #kubernetic #kubesec #kubeterminal #kubeval #kudo #kuma #microsoft azure key vault #mozilla sops #octant #octarine #open source #palo alto kubernetes security #permission-manager #pgp #rafay #rakess #rancher #rook #secrets operations #serverless function #service mesh #shell-operator #snyk #snyk container #sonobuoy #strongdm #tcpdump #tenkai #testing #tigera #tilt #vert.x #wireshark #yaml

Maud  Rosenbaum

Maud Rosenbaum


Kubernetes in the Cloud: Strategies for Effective Multi Cloud Implementations

Kubernetes is a highly popular container orchestration platform. Multi cloud is a strategy that leverages cloud resources from multiple vendors. Multi cloud strategies have become popular because they help prevent vendor lock-in and enable you to leverage a wide variety of cloud resources. However, multi cloud ecosystems are notoriously difficult to configure and maintain.

This article explains how you can leverage Kubernetes to reduce multi cloud complexities and improve stability, scalability, and velocity.

Kubernetes: Your Multi Cloud Strategy

Maintaining standardized application deployments becomes more challenging as your number of applications and the technologies they are based on increase. As environments, operating systems, and dependencies differ, management and operations require more effort and extensive documentation.

In the past, teams tried to get around these difficulties by creating isolated projects in the data center. Each project, including its configurations and requirements were managed independently. This required accurately predicting performance and the number of users before deployment and taking down applications to update operating systems or applications. There were many chances for error.

Kubernetes can provide an alternative to the old method, enabling teams to deploy applications independent of the environment in containers. This eliminates the need to create resource partitions and enables teams to operate infrastructure as a unified whole.

In particular, Kubernetes makes it easier to deploy a multi cloud strategy since it enables you to abstract away service differences. With Kubernetes deployments you can work from a consistent platform and optimize services and applications according to your business needs.

The Compelling Attributes of Multi Cloud Kubernetes

Multi cloud Kubernetes can provide multiple benefits beyond a single cloud deployment. Below are some of the most notable advantages.


In addition to the built-in scalability, fault tolerance, and auto-healing features of Kubernetes, multi cloud deployments can provide service redundancy. For example, you can mirror applications or split microservices across vendors. This reduces the risk of a vendor-related outage and enables you to create failovers.

#kubernetes #multicloud-strategy #kubernetes-cluster #kubernetes-top-story #kubernetes-cluster-install #kubernetes-explained #kubernetes-infrastructure #cloud

AWS Fargate for Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service | Caylent

On-demand cloud computing brings new ways to ensure scalability and efficiency. Rather than pre-allocating and managing certain server resources or having to go through the usual process of setting up a cloud cluster, apps and microservices can now rely on on-demand serverless computing blocks designed to be efficient and highly optimized.

Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) already makes running Kubernetes on AWS very easy. Support for AWS Fargate, which introduces the on-demand serverless computing element to the environment, makes deploying Kubernetes pods even easier and more efficient. AWS Fargate offers a wide range of features that make managing clusters and pods intuitive.

Utilizing Fargate
As with many other AWS services, using Fargate to manage Kubernetes clusters is very easy to do. To integrate Fargate and run a cluster on top of it, you only need to add the command –fargate to the end of your eksctl command.

EKS automatically configures the cluster to run on Fargate. It creates a pod execution role so that pod creation and management can be automated in an on-demand environment. It also patches coredns so the cluster can run smoothly on Fargate.

A Fargate profile is automatically created by the command. You can choose to customize the profile later or configure namespaces yourself, but the default profile is suitable for a wide range of applications already, requiring no human input other than a namespace for the cluster.

There are some prerequisites to keep in mind though. For starters, Fargate requires eksctl version 0.20.0 or later. Fargate also comes with some limitations, starting with support for only a handful of regions. For example, Fargate doesn’t support stateful apps, DaemonSets or privileged containers at the moment. Check out this link for Fargate limitations for your consideration.

Support for conventional load balancing is also limited, which is why ALB Ingress Controller is recommended. At the time of this writing, Classic Load Balancers and Network Load Balancers are not supported yet.

However, you can still be very meticulous in how you manage your clusters, including using different clusters to separate trusted and untrusted workloads.

Everything else is straightforward. Once the cluster is created, you can begin specifying pod execution roles for Fargate. You have the ability to use IAM console to create a role and assign it to a Fargate cluster. Or you can also create IAM roles and Fargate profiles via Terraform.

#aws #blog #amazon eks #aws fargate #aws management console #aws services #kubernetes #kubernetes clusters #kubernetes deployment #kubernetes pods

Layne  Fadel

Layne Fadel


Traefik Ingress on Azure Kubernetes Service

Having an application deployed on a Kubernetes cluster consisting of multiple microservices, you may want to expose some of them to be accessible through the internet. While it’s obviously for your web app service, maybe you have some additional APIs that you want to expose.

In the world of Kubernetes, any connection to one of your microservices is done using the Service resource. Using the type LoadBalancer of the Kubernetes Service resource leverages the underlying cloud provider to create a cloud provider-specific load balancer for exposing the microservice through an external IP. The problem with that approach is that each microservice would be exposed under a separate IP address.

It would be much more convenient to have them exposed under one and the same host while having different paths to reach the dedicated microservice, right?

This article shows how to do that with a Kubernetes Cluster on Azure and Traefik and is a follow-up to my article about achieving the same using the Azure Application Gateway. A lot of content will be based on that article.


Microservices can be exposed inside and outside of Kubernetes using the Kubernetes Service resource. So far, so good. But as already said, if we want to expose them outside the cluster, using the Service resource with the type LoadBalancer, we end up having different IPs for each microservice. This does not want we want, instead, we want to have them exposed under one and the host using different paths.

This is where the Kubernetes Ingress resource comes in handy. Think of an Ingress like a layer on top of Kubernetes Services. It is the single point of entrance for traffic hitting our microservices, which routes traffic to different Kubernetes Services based on specified rules.

The concept of Kubernetes Ingress resource is like an Abstraction. In order to make use of a Kubernetes Ingress, you have to install a specific Ingress Controller. There are plenty of different Implementations of the Kubernetes Ingress Abstraction out there. Nginx and Traefik Ingress are two of them which are very popular in the Kubernetes and Open Source Community, just to name some.

And then of course we have Cloud Providers, where you can use resources like Load Balancers and Gateways as a Kubernetes Ingress. Anyways, in this article, we will focus on the Traefik_ Ingress_.

#microservices #azure-kubernetes-service #ingress #kubernetes #azure kubernetes service

Kubernetes Services in a Nutshell

Service is a resource you create to make a single, constant point of entry to a group of pods providing the same service. Each service has an IP address and port that never change while the service exists. Clients can open connections to that IP and port, and those connections are then routed to one of the pods backing that service. This way, clients of a service don’t need to know the location of individual pods providing the service, allowing those pods to be moved around the cluster at any time.

Creating deployment and service

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: toad-deployment
  replicas: 4
      app: toad
        app: toad
      name: toad
          image: "clivern/toad:release-0.2.4"
          name: toad-app

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: toad-svc
    app: toad
      port: 80
      targetPort: 8080
    app: toad
$ kubectl create -f toad.yaml

You’re defining a service called toad-svc, which will accept connections on port 80 and route each connection to port 8080 of one of the pods matching the app=toad label selector.

You can list all service resources in your namespace and see that an internal cluster IP has been assigned to your service:

$ kubectl get svc

The kubectl exec command allows you to remotely run arbitrary commands inside an existing container of a pod.

$ kubectl get pods
$ kubectl exec ${podName} bash

If you want all requests made by a certain client to be redirected to the same pod every time, you can set the service’s sessionAffinity property to ClientIP (instead of None, which is the default).

#cloud native #kubernetes #kubernetes #kubernetes-services