Learn the different ways wireless devices can be interconnected on a local network. Explore more IT Networking courses and advance your skills on LinkedIn Learning:
This is an excerpt from “Networking Foundations: Networking Basics,” a course on LinkedIn Learning taught by Kevin Wallace. Kevin is a double Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert with multiple certifications in the Route/Switch, Collaboration, Security, Design, and Data Center tracks.
Networking Foundations: Networking Basics
In this tutorial we’ll learn how to begin programming with R using RStudio. We’ll install R, and RStudio RStudio, an extremely popular development environment for R. We’ll learn the key RStudio features in order to start programming in R on our own.
If you already know how to use RStudio and want to learn some tips, tricks, and shortcuts, check out this Dataquest blog post.
[tidyverse](https://www.dataquest.io/blog/tutorial-getting-started-with-r-and-rstudio/#tve-jump-173bb264c2b)Packages into Memory
#data science tutorials #beginner #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials
What exactly is clean data? Clean data is accurate, complete, and in a format that is ready to analyze. Characteristics of clean data include data that are:
Common symptoms of messy data include data that contain:
In this blog post, we will work with five property-sales datasets that are publicly available on the New York City Department of Finance Rolling Sales Data website. We encourage you to download the datasets and follow along! Each file contains one year of real estate sales data for one of New York City’s five boroughs. We will work with the following Microsoft Excel files:
As we work through this blog post, imagine that you are helping a friend launch their home-inspection business in New York City. You offer to help them by analyzing the data to better understand the real-estate market. But you realize that before you can analyze the data in R, you will need to diagnose and clean it first. And before you can diagnose the data, you will need to load it into R!
Benefits of using tidyverse tools are often evident in the data-loading process. In many cases, the tidyverse package
readxl will clean some data for you as Microsoft Excel data is loaded into R. If you are working with CSV data, the tidyverse
readr package function
read_csv() is the function to use (we’ll cover that later).
Let’s look at an example. Here’s how the Excel file for the Brooklyn borough looks:
The Brooklyn Excel file
Now let’s load the Brooklyn dataset into R from an Excel file. We’ll use the
readxlpackage. We specify the function argument
skip = 4 because the row that we want to use as the header (i.e. column names) is actually row 5. We can ignore the first four rows entirely and load the data into R beginning at row 5. Here’s the code:
library(readxl) # Load Excel files brooklyn <- read_excel("rollingsales_brooklyn.xls", skip = 4)
Note we saved this dataset with the variable name
brooklyn for future use.
The tidyverse offers a user-friendly way to view this data with the
glimpse() function that is part of the
tibble package. To use this package, we will need to load it for use in our current session. But rather than loading this package alone, we can load many of the tidyverse packages at one time. If you do not have the tidyverse collection of packages, install it on your machine using the following command in your R or R Studio session:
Once the package is installed, load it to memory:
tidyverse is loaded into memory, take a “glimpse” of the Brooklyn dataset:
glimpse(brooklyn) ## Observations: 20,185 ## Variables: 21 ## $ BOROUGH <chr> "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "… ## $ NEIGHBORHOOD <chr> "BATH BEACH", "BATH BEACH", "BA… ## $ `BUILDING CLASS CATEGORY` <chr> "01 ONE FAMILY DWELLINGS", "01 … ## $ `TAX CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "… ## $ BLOCK <dbl> 6359, 6360, 6364, 6367, 6371, 6… ## $ LOT <dbl> 70, 48, 74, 24, 19, 32, 65, 20,… ## $ `EASE-MENT` <lgl> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,… ## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "… ## $ ADDRESS <chr> "8684 15TH AVENUE", "14 BAY 10T… ## $ `APARTMENT NUMBER` <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,… ## $ `ZIP CODE` <dbl> 11228, 11228, 11214, 11214, 112… ## $ `RESIDENTIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1… ## $ `COMMERCIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0… ## $ `TOTAL UNITS` <dbl> 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1… ## $ `LAND SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 1933, 2513, 2492, 1571, 2320, 3… ## $ `GROSS SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 4080, 1428, 972, 1456, 1566, 22… ## $ `YEAR BUILT` <dbl> 1930, 1930, 1950, 1935, 1930, 1… ## $ `TAX CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "… ## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "… ## $ `SALE PRICE` <dbl> 1300000, 849000, 0, 830000, 0, … ## $ `SALE DATE` <dttm> 2020-04-28, 2020-03-18, 2019-0…
glimpse() function provides a user-friendly way to view the column names and data types for all columns, or variables, in the data frame. With this function, we are also able to view the first few observations in the data frame. This data frame has 20,185 observations, or property sales records. And there are 21 variables, or columns.
#data science tutorials #beginner #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tidyverse #tutorial #tutorials
A famous general is thought to have said, “A good sketch is better than a long speech.” That advice may have come from the battlefield, but it’s applicable in lots of other areas — including data science. “Sketching” out our data by visualizing it using ggplot2 in R is more impactful than simply describing the trends we find.
This is why we visualize data. We visualize data because it’s easier to learn from something that we can see rather than read. And thankfully for data analysts and data scientists who use R, there’s a tidyverse package called ggplot2 that makes data visualization a snap!
In this blog post, we’ll learn how to take some data and produce a visualization using R. To work through it, it’s best if you already have an understanding of R programming syntax, but you don’t need to be an expert or have any prior experience working with ggplot2
#data science tutorials #beginner #ggplot2 #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials
In my previous role as a marketing data analyst for a blogging company, one of my most important tasks was to track how blog posts performed.
On the surface, it’s a fairly straightforward goal. With Google Analytics, you can quickly get just about any metric you need for your blog posts, for any date range.
But when it comes to comparing blog post performance, things get a bit trickier.
For example, let’s say we want to compare the performance of the blog posts we published on the Dataquest blog in June (using the month of June as our date range).
But wait… two blog posts with more than 1,000 pageviews were published earlier in the month, And the two with fewer than 500 pageviews were published at the end of the month. That’s hardly a fair comparison!
My first solution to this problem was to look up each post individually, so that I could make an even comparison of how each post performed in their first day, first week, first month, etc.
However, that required a lot of manual copy-and-paste work, which was extremely tedious if I wanted to compare more than a few posts, date ranges, or metrics at a time.
But then, I learned R, and realized that there was a much better way.
In this post, we’ll walk through how it’s done, so you can do my better blog post analysis for yourself!
To complete this tutorial, you’ll need basic knowledge of R syntax and the tidyverse, and access to a Google Analytics account.
Not yet familiar with the basics of R? We can help with that! Our interactive online courses teach you R from scratch, with no prior programming experience required. Sign up and start today!
You’ll also need the
stringr packages installed — which, as a reminder, you can do with the
Finally, you will need a CSV of the blog posts you want to analyze. Here’s what’s in my dataset:
post_url: the page path of the blog post
post_date: the date the post was published (formatted m/d/yy)
category: the blog category the post was published in (optional)
title: the title of the blog post (optional)
Depending on your content management system, there may be a way for you to automate gathering this data — but that’s out of the scope of this tutorial!
For this tutorial, we’ll use a manually-gathered dataset of the past ten Dataquest blog posts.
#data science tutorials #promote #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials
Talking about inspiration in the networking industry, nothing more than Autonomous Driving Network (ADN). You may hear about this and wondering what this is about, and does it have anything to do with autonomous driving vehicles? Your guess is right; the ADN concept is derived from or inspired by the rapid development of the autonomous driving car in recent years.
Driverless Car of the Future, the advertisement for “America’s Electric Light and Power Companies,” Saturday Evening Post, the 1950s.
The vision of autonomous driving has been around for more than 70 years. But engineers continuously make attempts to achieve the idea without too much success. The concept stayed as a fiction for a long time. In 2004, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA) organized the Grand Challenge for autonomous vehicles for teams to compete for the grand prize of $1 million. I remembered watching TV and saw those competing vehicles, behaved like driven by drunk man, had a really tough time to drive by itself. I thought that autonomous driving vision would still have a long way to go. To my surprise, the next year, 2005, Stanford University’s vehicles autonomously drove 131 miles in California’s Mojave desert without a scratch and took the $1 million Grand Challenge prize. How was that possible? Later I learned that the secret ingredient to make this possible was using the latest ML (Machine Learning) enabled AI (Artificial Intelligent ) technology.
Since then, AI technologies advanced rapidly and been implemented in all verticals. Around the 2016 time frame, the concept of Autonomous Driving Network started to emerge by combining AI and network to achieve network operational autonomy. The automation concept is nothing new in the networking industry; network operations are continually being automated here and there. But this time, ADN is beyond automating mundane tasks; it reaches a whole new level. With the help of AI technologies and other critical ingredients advancement like SDN (Software Defined Network), autonomous networking has a great chance from a vision to future reality.
In this article, we will examine some critical components of the ADN, current landscape, and factors that are important for ADN to be a success.
At the current stage, there are different terminologies to describe ADN vision by various organizations.
Even though slightly different terminologies, the industry is moving towards some common terms and consensus called autonomous networks, e.g. TMF, ETSI, ITU-T, GSMA. The core vision includes business and network aspects. The autonomous network delivers the “hyper-loop” from business requirements all the way to network and device layers.
On the network layer, it contains the below critical aspects:
On top of those, these capabilities need to be across multiple services, multiple domains, and the entire lifecycle(TMF, 2019).
No doubt, this is the most ambitious goal that the networking industry has ever aimed at. It has been described as the “end-state” and“ultimate goal” of networking evolution. This is not just a vision on PPT, the networking industry already on the move toward the goal.
David Wang, Huawei’s Executive Director of the Board and President of Products & Solutions, said in his 2018 Ultra-Broadband Forum(UBBF) keynote speech. (David W. 2018):
“In a fully connected and intelligent era, autonomous driving is becoming a reality. Industries like automotive, aerospace, and manufacturing are modernizing and renewing themselves by introducing autonomous technologies. However, the telecom sector is facing a major structural problem: Networks are growing year by year, but OPEX is growing faster than revenue. What’s more, it takes 100 times more effort for telecom operators to maintain their networks than OTT players. Therefore, it’s imperative that telecom operators build autonomous driving networks.”
Juniper CEO Rami Rahim said in his keynote at the company’s virtual AI event: (CRN, 2020)
“The goal now is a self-driving network. The call to action is to embrace the change. We can all benefit from putting more time into higher-layer activities, like keeping distributors out of the business. The future, I truly believe, is about getting the network out of the way. It is time for the infrastructure to take a back seat to the self-driving network.”
If you asked me this question 15 years ago, my answer would be “no chance” as I could not imagine an autonomous driving vehicle was possible then. But now, the vision is not far-fetch anymore not only because of ML/AI technology rapid advancement but other key building blocks are made significant progress, just name a few key building blocks:
#network-automation #autonomous-network #ai-in-network #self-driving-network #neural-networks