Juanita  Apio

Juanita Apio

1636340661

How to Implement GraphQL Server Code with TypeScript

Although GraphQL.js is well documented, there is not much information about code first implementation and TypeScript. So this article explains how to implement code first GraphQL server with GraphQL.js and TypeScript.

#typescript #graphql 

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How to Implement GraphQL Server Code with TypeScript
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Juanita  Apio

Juanita Apio

1636340661

How to Implement GraphQL Server Code with TypeScript

Although GraphQL.js is well documented, there is not much information about code first implementation and TypeScript. So this article explains how to implement code first GraphQL server with GraphQL.js and TypeScript.

#typescript #graphql 

Delbert  Ferry

Delbert Ferry

1622279628

React + GraphQL Tutorial — The Server

Setting up
We’re going to use Express in this tutorial, because that’s what most people are currently using, but you should be able to follow along even if you’re using hapi or Koa, because the GraphQL part of this tutorial is largely identical.

For starters, let’s clone the tutorial GitHub repo, which has a few resources we’ll need later. If you’ve already done that in Part 1, you can skip this step.

#graphql #react #server #graphql server

Delbert  Ferry

Delbert Ferry

1622359257

How Facebook organizes their GraphQL code

Dan went on to outline how Facebook thinks about application data:

  • The data in an application is a graph.  You can have many types of objects (posts, comments, etc), those objects have fields, and there are relationships between those objects, which form the edges of the graph.
  • Single source of truth.  You don’t want to reimplement data fetching, business logic, or security every time you build a new feature.
  • Thin API layer.  The above leads to the idea that the API layer of the application shouldn’t drive how the business logic works. While GraphQL is a convenient way to fetch data, you don’t need to design your backend around it. Instead, just write your backend in the way that makes sense, and put the GraphQL API on top of it.

#graphql #code #graphql code #facebook

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1621137960

Guidelines for Java Code Reviews

Get a jump-start on your next code review session with this list.

Having another pair of eyes scan your code is always useful and helps you spot mistakes before you break production. You need not be an expert to review someone’s code. Some experience with the programming language and a review checklist should help you get started. We’ve put together a list of things you should keep in mind when you’re reviewing Java code. Read on!

1. Follow Java Code Conventions

2. Replace Imperative Code With Lambdas and Streams

3. Beware of the NullPointerException

4. Directly Assigning References From Client Code to a Field

5. Handle Exceptions With Care

#java #code quality #java tutorial #code analysis #code reviews #code review tips #code analysis tools #java tutorial for beginners #java code review