Brain  Crist

Brain Crist

1600095600

Diving Into Reactive Microservices

What are Monoliths?

To start explaining the microservices it’s useful to compare it to the monolithic application. An application is said to be a monolith when it is deployed as a single unit. Monoliths have a single shared database. They communicate with synchronous method calls where you send a message and expect a response immediately.

What are the cons of Monoliths?

  • Monoliths are limited by the maximum size of a single physical machine. As the monolith grows, it acquires more and more system resources.
  • They scale as far as the database allows because they often rely on a relational database which probably runs only a single instance in order to maintain consistency.

#reactive-systems #reactive-microservice #reactive-programming #reactive-architecture

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Diving Into Reactive Microservices
Brain  Crist

Brain Crist

1600095600

Diving Into Reactive Microservices

What are Monoliths?

To start explaining the microservices it’s useful to compare it to the monolithic application. An application is said to be a monolith when it is deployed as a single unit. Monoliths have a single shared database. They communicate with synchronous method calls where you send a message and expect a response immediately.

What are the cons of Monoliths?

  • Monoliths are limited by the maximum size of a single physical machine. As the monolith grows, it acquires more and more system resources.
  • They scale as far as the database allows because they often rely on a relational database which probably runs only a single instance in order to maintain consistency.

#reactive-systems #reactive-microservice #reactive-programming #reactive-architecture

Ken  Mueller

Ken Mueller

1592874060

Diving Into Reactive Microservices

What are Monoliths?
To start explaining the microservices it’s useful to compare it to the monolithic application. An application is said to be a monolith when it is deployed as a single unit. Monoliths have a single shared database. They communicate with synchronous method calls where you send a message and expect a response immediately.

What are the cons of Monoliths?

  • Monoliths are limited by the maximum size of a single physical machine. As the monolith grows, it acquires more and more system resources.
  • They scale as far as the database allows because they often rely on a relational database which probably runs only a single instance in order to maintain consistency.
  • Monolith components have to be scaled as a group, even if certain components of the application may require less resources.
  • The deep coupling in monoliths leads to inflexibility, due to which development is typically slow.
  • Serious failures in one component often bring down the whole monolith due to cascading failures.

#microservices #reactive architecture #tech blogs #reactive programming #reactive systems

Fannie  Zemlak

Fannie Zemlak

1595901766

Building Reactive Scalable Systems

scalability word map

Building a Reactive System is all about the balance between consistency and availability and the consequences of picking one over the other. This article mainly focuses on consistency and availability and how they impact the scalability of a system.

What are Scalability, Consistency, and Availability?

A system is considered scalable if it can meet the increase in demand while remaining responsive.

A system is considered consistent if all the nodes show the same data at the same time.

A system is considered available if it remains responsive despite any failures.

How Does the Scalability of a System Differ From the Performance of the System?

Scalability and performance are related but different concepts and we need to understand what the difference is.

Scalability is the number of requests a system can handle at a time, i.e. load. It’s about optimizing the ability to handle the load, which means improving how many requests a system can handle at a time. Performance on the other hand is the time system takes to complete a single request, i.e. latency. It’s about optimizing the response time, which means improving how quickly a system can handle a single request.

Performance has a limit on reducing the response time, and we will eventually reach that limit. Whereas, scalability has no theoretical limit. We may be restricted by the implementation, but in a perfectly scalable system, we could scale forever.

So when we build Reactive Micro-services we tend to focus on improving scalability than improving performance.

How Can We Measure Scalability and Performance of a System?

Measurement like requests-per-second measures both. This makes it a valuable metric because we can use it to see whether we have improved our scalability or our performance. But it also means that it is somewhat restrictive in the sense that if it improves we can’t tell which one changed. So if we want to know where that improvement came from then we have to track scalability and performance individually.

How Can We Explain Consistency in Distributed Systems?

Distributed systems are systems that are separated by space. This means the system could be deployed across multiple data centers or within the same data center, or just deployed to different hardware or the same hardware.

Even if it’s deployed to the same hardware, a distributed system is one where information has to be transferred between different parts of that system, and when that information is transferred it’s crossing some sort of space. It could be going over a local network, or it could be writing to a disk, or it could be writing to a database.

Information cannot be transferred instantaneously, it takes some time. Granted that time could be very small but there is an amount of time that elapses during the transfer of information. Within that time duration when the transfer of the information takes place, the state of the original sender may change.

The key here is to recognize that when we are dealing with a distributed system, we are always dealing with stale data. The reality_ is eventually consistent._

What Is Eventual Consistency?

When a system stops receiving updates at least for some time, we can guarantee that all parts of the system will eventually converge on the same state. Thus in this way, we can reach that level of consistency.

Common source control tools (Git, Subversion, etc) operate on an eventually consistent model. They rely on a later merge operation to bring things back into alignment. That’s how modern source control tools achieve consistency and it’s all an eventually consistent system.

Traditional monolithic architectures are usually based around strong consistency they use a strongly consistent database like a SQL database.

What Is Strong Consistency?

When all members of a system agree on the state, before it becomes available, then we reach the level of strong consistency.

We can achieve strong consistency by introducing mechanisms like locks. Distributed system problem occurs when we have multiple things which are responsible for the same piece of data. As long as only one thing is responsible for that data, as long as we only have one instance of the lock, it’s not a distributed system problem anymore. Thus in this way, we can resolve the distributed system problem by using a non distributed resource(lock).

But when we introduce a lock, it introduces overhead in the form of contention. That overhead has consequences to our ability to be elastic, to be resilient, and it has other consequences as well.

#scalability #reactive architecture #cap theorem #reactive systems #reactive microservices #reactive

Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1599055326

Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

#testing #software testing #test automation #microservice architecture #microservice #test #software test automation #microservice best practices #microservice deployment #microservice components

Tia  Gottlieb

Tia Gottlieb

1597438200

What Is a Microservice Architecture? Why Is It Important Now?

We have been building software applications for many years using various tools, technologies, architectural patterns and best practices. It is evident that many software applications become large complex monolith over a period for various reasons. A monolith software application is like a large ball of spaghetti with criss-cross dependencies among its constituent modules. It becomes more complex to develop, deploy and maintain monoliths, constraining the agility and competitive advantages of development teams. Also, let us not undermine the challenge of clearing any sort of technical debt monoliths accumulate, as changing part of monolith code may have cascading impact of destabilizing a working software in production.

Over the years, architectural patterns such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Microservices have emerged as alternatives to Monoliths.

SOA was arguably the first architectural pattern aimed at solving the typical monolith issues by breaking down a large complex software application to sub-systems or “services”. All these services communicate over a common enterprise service bus (ESB). However, these sub-systems or services are actually mid-sized monoliths, as they share the same database. Also, more and more service-aware logic gets added to ESB and it becomes the single point of failure.

Microservice as an architectural pattern has gathered steam due to large scale adoption by companies like Amazon, Netflix, SoundCloud, Spotify etc. It breaks downs a large software application to a number of loosely coupled microservices. Each microservice is responsible for doing specific discrete tasks, can have its own database and can communicate with other microservices through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to solve a large complex business problem. Each microservice can be developed, deployed and maintained independently as long as it operates without breaching a well-defined set of APIs called contract to communicate with other microservices.

#microservice architecture #microservice #scaling #thought leadership #microservices build #microservice