Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1595661791

Apple Security Research Device Program Draws Mixed Reactions

Apple’s Security Research Device program is now open to select researchers – but some are irked by the program’s vulnerability disclosure restrictions.

Apple’s long anticipated Security Research Device program has launched, giving select security researchers access to testable iPhones that will make it easier for them to find iOS vulnerabilities.

The program offers security researchers specially configured iPhones with shell access, and special features such as advanced debug capabilities. The devices behave “as closely to a standard iPhone as possible in order to be a representative research target,” said Apple.

“As part of Apple’s commitment to security, this program is designed to help improve security for all iOS users, bring more researchers to iPhone, and improve efficiency for those who already work on iOS security,” according to Apple in a Wednesday announcement. “It features an iPhone dedicated exclusively to security research, with unique code execution and containment policies.”

To be eligible for the program, researchers must be a membership Account Holder in the Apple Developer Program and have a “proven track record of success” in finding security issues on Apple platforms.

The devices are provided on a 12-month renewable basis, are not meant for personal use, and must remain on the premises of program participants at all times, according to Apple.

“If you use the SRD to find, test, validate, verify, or confirm a vulnerability, you must promptly report it to Apple and, if the bug is in third-party code, to the appropriate third party,” according to Apple.

Mixed Reactions

The Security Research Device program has been praised by some in the security space as a “good step forward” for the iPhone maker, which up until last summer had a historically restricted bug bounty program.

Patrick Wardle, security researcher with Jamf, said that the new program will make the analysis of third-party apps much easier – which is “something that may directly impact end users in a positive way.”

“I’m happy that Apple is moving forward with this program,” Wardle told Threatpost. “Though the devices may not be fully open (i.e. probably won’t have the ability to boot custom kernels, etc) and there are some legal restraints (i.e. any bug found must be reported to Apple), I still think it’s a good step forward.”

On the flip side, however, Google Project Zero’s security research team, Ben Hawkes, took to Twitter to air complaints about the program’s vulnerability disclosure restrictions.

“It looks like we won’t be able to use the Apple ‘Security Research Device’ due to the vulnerability disclosure restrictions, which seem specifically designed to exclude Project Zero and other researchers who use a 90 day policy,” he said.

Apple’s program policy says that if researchers report a vulnerability affecting Apple products, Apple will provide them with a publication date (usually the date on which Apple releases the update to resolve the issue).

“Apple will work in good faith to resolve each vulnerability as soon as practical,” according to the policy. “Until the publication date, you cannot discuss the vulnerability with others.”

Threatpost has reached out to Apple for further clarification on this policy.

Hawkes said Google Project Zero will continue to research Apple platforms and provide Apple with their findings. “But I’ll confess, I’m pretty disappointed,” he said.

#bug bounty #mobile security #apple #apple bug bounty #apple developer program #bug bounty #ios #iphone #mac #macos #security research device program #vulnerability

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Buddha Community

Apple Security Research Device Program Draws Mixed Reactions
Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1595661791

Apple Security Research Device Program Draws Mixed Reactions

Apple’s Security Research Device program is now open to select researchers – but some are irked by the program’s vulnerability disclosure restrictions.

Apple’s long anticipated Security Research Device program has launched, giving select security researchers access to testable iPhones that will make it easier for them to find iOS vulnerabilities.

The program offers security researchers specially configured iPhones with shell access, and special features such as advanced debug capabilities. The devices behave “as closely to a standard iPhone as possible in order to be a representative research target,” said Apple.

“As part of Apple’s commitment to security, this program is designed to help improve security for all iOS users, bring more researchers to iPhone, and improve efficiency for those who already work on iOS security,” according to Apple in a Wednesday announcement. “It features an iPhone dedicated exclusively to security research, with unique code execution and containment policies.”

To be eligible for the program, researchers must be a membership Account Holder in the Apple Developer Program and have a “proven track record of success” in finding security issues on Apple platforms.

The devices are provided on a 12-month renewable basis, are not meant for personal use, and must remain on the premises of program participants at all times, according to Apple.

“If you use the SRD to find, test, validate, verify, or confirm a vulnerability, you must promptly report it to Apple and, if the bug is in third-party code, to the appropriate third party,” according to Apple.

Mixed Reactions

The Security Research Device program has been praised by some in the security space as a “good step forward” for the iPhone maker, which up until last summer had a historically restricted bug bounty program.

Patrick Wardle, security researcher with Jamf, said that the new program will make the analysis of third-party apps much easier – which is “something that may directly impact end users in a positive way.”

“I’m happy that Apple is moving forward with this program,” Wardle told Threatpost. “Though the devices may not be fully open (i.e. probably won’t have the ability to boot custom kernels, etc) and there are some legal restraints (i.e. any bug found must be reported to Apple), I still think it’s a good step forward.”

On the flip side, however, Google Project Zero’s security research team, Ben Hawkes, took to Twitter to air complaints about the program’s vulnerability disclosure restrictions.

“It looks like we won’t be able to use the Apple ‘Security Research Device’ due to the vulnerability disclosure restrictions, which seem specifically designed to exclude Project Zero and other researchers who use a 90 day policy,” he said.

Apple’s program policy says that if researchers report a vulnerability affecting Apple products, Apple will provide them with a publication date (usually the date on which Apple releases the update to resolve the issue).

“Apple will work in good faith to resolve each vulnerability as soon as practical,” according to the policy. “Until the publication date, you cannot discuss the vulnerability with others.”

Threatpost has reached out to Apple for further clarification on this policy.

Hawkes said Google Project Zero will continue to research Apple platforms and provide Apple with their findings. “But I’ll confess, I’m pretty disappointed,” he said.

#bug bounty #mobile security #apple #apple bug bounty #apple developer program #bug bounty #ios #iphone #mac #macos #security research device program #vulnerability

Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac

1596789120

Best Custom Web & Mobile App Development Company

Everything around us has become smart, like smart infrastructures, smart cities, autonomous vehicles, to name a few. The innovation of smart devices makes it possible to achieve these heights in science and technology. But, data is vulnerable, there is a risk of attack by cybercriminals. To get started, let’s know about IoT devices.

What are IoT devices?

The Internet Of Things(IoT) is a system that interrelates computer devices like sensors, software, and actuators, digital machines, etc. They are linked together with particular objects that work through the internet and transfer data over devices without humans interference.

Famous examples are Amazon Alexa, Apple SIRI, Interconnected baby monitors, video doorbells, and smart thermostats.

How could your IoT devices be vulnerable?

When technologies grow and evolve, risks are also on the high stakes. Ransomware attacks are on the continuous increase; securing data has become the top priority.

When you think your smart home won’t fudge a thing against cybercriminals, you should also know that they are vulnerable. When cybercriminals access our smart voice speakers like Amazon Alexa or Apple Siri, it becomes easy for them to steal your data.

Cybersecurity report 2020 says popular hacking forums expose 770 million email addresses and 21 million unique passwords, 620 million accounts have been compromised from 16 hacked websites.

The attacks are likely to increase every year. To help you secure your data of IoT devices, here are some best tips you can implement.

Tips to secure your IoT devices

1. Change Default Router Name

Your router has the default name of make and model. When we stick with the manufacturer name, attackers can quickly identify our make and model. So give the router name different from your addresses, without giving away personal information.

2. Know your connected network and connected devices

If your devices are connected to the internet, these connections are vulnerable to cyber attacks when your devices don’t have the proper security. Almost every web interface is equipped with multiple devices, so it’s hard to track the device. But, it’s crucial to stay aware of them.

3. Change default usernames and passwords

When we use the default usernames and passwords, it is attackable. Because the cybercriminals possibly know the default passwords come with IoT devices. So use strong passwords to access our IoT devices.

4. Manage strong, Unique passwords for your IoT devices and accounts

Use strong or unique passwords that are easily assumed, such as ‘123456’ or ‘password1234’ to protect your accounts. Give strong and complex passwords formed by combinations of alphabets, numeric, and not easily bypassed symbols.

Also, change passwords for multiple accounts and change them regularly to avoid attacks. We can also set several attempts to wrong passwords to set locking the account to safeguard from the hackers.

5. Do not use Public WI-FI Networks

Are you try to keep an eye on your IoT devices through your mobile devices in different locations. I recommend you not to use the public WI-FI network to access them. Because they are easily accessible through for everyone, you are still in a hurry to access, use VPN that gives them protection against cyber-attacks, giving them privacy and security features, for example, using Express VPN.

6. Establish firewalls to discover the vulnerabilities

There are software and firewalls like intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system in the market. This will be useful to screen and analyze the wire traffic of a network. You can identify the security weakness by the firewall scanners within the network structure. Use these firewalls to get rid of unwanted security issues and vulnerabilities.

7. Reconfigure your device settings

Every smart device comes with the insecure default settings, and sometimes we are not able to change these default settings configurations. These conditions need to be assessed and need to reconfigure the default settings.

8. Authenticate the IoT applications

Nowadays, every smart app offers authentication to secure the accounts. There are many types of authentication methods like single-factor authentication, two-step authentication, and multi-factor authentication. Use any one of these to send a one time password (OTP) to verify the user who logs in the smart device to keep our accounts from falling into the wrong hands.

9. Update the device software up to date

Every smart device manufacturer releases updates to fix bugs in their software. These security patches help us to improve our protection of the device. Also, update the software on the smartphone, which we are used to monitoring the IoT devices to avoid vulnerabilities.

10. Track the smartphones and keep them safe

When we connect the smart home to the smartphone and control them via smartphone, you need to keep them safe. If you miss the phone almost, every personal information is at risk to the cybercriminals. But sometimes it happens by accident, makes sure that you can clear all the data remotely.

However, securing smart devices is essential in the world of data. There are still cybercriminals bypassing the securities. So make sure to do the safety measures to avoid our accounts falling out into the wrong hands. I hope these steps will help you all to secure your IoT devices.

If you have any, feel free to share them in the comments! I’d love to know them.

Are you looking for more? Subscribe to weekly newsletters that can help your stay updated IoT application developments.

#iot #enterprise iot security #how iot can be used to enhance security #how to improve iot security #how to protect iot devices from hackers #how to secure iot devices #iot security #iot security devices #iot security offerings #iot security technologies iot security plus #iot vulnerable devices #risk based iot security program

Seamus  Quitzon

Seamus Quitzon

1593152820

Apple Pays $100K Bounty for Critical 'Sign in With Apple' Flaw

Apple has fixed a critical flaw in its Sign in with Apple feature, which could have been abused by attackers to takeover victims’ third-party applications.

A researcher recently found a critical Apple vulnerability that, if exploited, could enable remote attackers to abuse the “Sign in with Apple” feature to take over victims’ third-party application accounts. The security researcher, Bhavuk Jain, reported the flaw to Apple via its bug bounty program, and was awarded $100,000 for the find.

The flaw stemmed from the “Sign in with Apple” feature, which was introduced by Apple at its Worldwide Developers Conference last year. Sign in with Apple aimed to make it easy and secure for Apple users to sign into third-party apps and websites. It did this by implementing an Apple-backed authentication system to replace social logins on third-party services.

“In the month of April, I found a zero-day in Sign in with Apple that affected third-party applications which were using it and didn’t implement their own additional security measures,” said Jain, in his disclosure of the bug on Sunday. “This bug could have resulted in a full account takeover of user accounts on that third party application irrespective of a victim having a valid Apple ID or not.”

Apple has since fixed the flaw. Threatpost has reached out to Apple for further comment.

One of the highlights of Sign in with Apple is that users could sign up with third-party services without needing to disclose their Apple ID email address to these services. This worked because Sign in with Apple would first validate users on the client side, and then initiate a JSON Web Token (JWT) request from Apple’s authentication services. This JWT would then be used by the third-party app to confirm the user’s identity.

The issue was that after Apple validated the user on the client side via their Apple ID email address, it did not verify that the JWT request was from that actual user account. An attacker could abuse this flaw by providing an Apple ID email that belongs to the victim and tricking Apple servers into generating a valid JWT payload. Once an attacker does this, he can then sign into a third-party app using the victim’s identity.

apple critical flaw

“I found I could request JWTs for any Email ID from Apple and when the signature of these tokens was verified using Apple’s public key, they showed as valid,” he said. “This means an attacker could forge a JWT by linking any Email ID to it and gaining access to the victim’s account.”

According to The Hacker News, the flaw could be exploited even if users had decided to hide their email IDs from third-party services. It could also be exploited to sign up new accounts with victims’ Apple IDs.

There are two hoops that attackers would need to jump through to make this exploit work. First, they would need an email ID for an Apple user – though that could be any Apple user’s email ID. Second, they would need to log into a third-party app via Sign in with Apple that didn’t require any further security measures.

Jain said the impact of this vulnerability is “quite critical” as it could allow full account takeover. Many developers have integrated Sign in with Apple into their services, including Dropbox, Spotify, Airbnb, and Giphy.

“These applications were not tested but could have been vulnerable to a full account takeover if there weren’t any other security measures in place while verifying a user,” Jain said.

Jain said that Apple conducted an investigation of their logs and determined there was no misuse or account compromise due to this vulnerability. The researcher found the flaw in April and reported it via Apple’s bug bounty program which earned him $100,000. Threatpost has reached out to Jain for further details on the timeline of discovering and reporting the flaw.

#mobile security #vulnerabilities #web security #app takeover #apple #apple bug bounty #apple flaw #bug bounty #critical flaw #security vulnerability #sign in with apple #third party app

Dylan  Iqbal

Dylan Iqbal

1561523460

Matplotlib Cheat Sheet: Plotting in Python

This Matplotlib cheat sheet introduces you to the basics that you need to plot your data with Python and includes code samples.

Data visualization and storytelling with your data are essential skills that every data scientist needs to communicate insights gained from analyses effectively to any audience out there. 

For most beginners, the first package that they use to get in touch with data visualization and storytelling is, naturally, Matplotlib: it is a Python 2D plotting library that enables users to make publication-quality figures. But, what might be even more convincing is the fact that other packages, such as Pandas, intend to build more plotting integration with Matplotlib as time goes on.

However, what might slow down beginners is the fact that this package is pretty extensive. There is so much that you can do with it and it might be hard to still keep a structure when you're learning how to work with Matplotlib.   

DataCamp has created a Matplotlib cheat sheet for those who might already know how to use the package to their advantage to make beautiful plots in Python, but that still want to keep a one-page reference handy. Of course, for those who don't know how to work with Matplotlib, this might be the extra push be convinced and to finally get started with data visualization in Python. 

You'll see that this cheat sheet presents you with the six basic steps that you can go through to make beautiful plots. 

Check out the infographic by clicking on the button below:

Python Matplotlib cheat sheet

With this handy reference, you'll familiarize yourself in no time with the basics of Matplotlib: you'll learn how you can prepare your data, create a new plot, use some basic plotting routines to your advantage, add customizations to your plots, and save, show and close the plots that you make.

What might have looked difficult before will definitely be more clear once you start using this cheat sheet! Use it in combination with the Matplotlib Gallery, the documentation.

Matplotlib 

Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication-quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms.

Prepare the Data 

1D Data 

>>> import numpy as np
>>> x = np.linspace(0, 10, 100)
>>> y = np.cos(x)
>>> z = np.sin(x)

2D Data or Images 

>>> data = 2 * np.random.random((10, 10))
>>> data2 = 3 * np.random.random((10, 10))
>>> Y, X = np.mgrid[-3:3:100j, -3:3:100j]
>>> U = 1 X** 2 + Y
>>> V = 1 + X Y**2
>>> from matplotlib.cbook import get_sample_data
>>> img = np.load(get_sample_data('axes_grid/bivariate_normal.npy'))

Create Plot

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Figure 

>>> fig = plt.figure()
>>> fig2 = plt.figure(figsize=plt.figaspect(2.0))

Axes 

>>> fig.add_axes()
>>> ax1 = fig.add_subplot(221) #row-col-num
>>> ax3 = fig.add_subplot(212)
>>> fig3, axes = plt.subplots(nrows=2,ncols=2)
>>> fig4, axes2 = plt.subplots(ncols=3)

Save Plot 

>>> plt.savefig('foo.png') #Save figures
>>> plt.savefig('foo.png',  transparent=True) #Save transparent figures

Show Plot

>>> plt.show()

Plotting Routines 

1D Data 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> lines = ax.plot(x,y) #Draw points with lines or markers connecting them
>>> ax.scatter(x,y) #Draw unconnected points, scaled or colored
>>> axes[0,0].bar([1,2,3],[3,4,5]) #Plot vertical rectangles (constant width)
>>> axes[1,0].barh([0.5,1,2.5],[0,1,2]) #Plot horiontal rectangles (constant height)
>>> axes[1,1].axhline(0.45) #Draw a horizontal line across axes
>>> axes[0,1].axvline(0.65) #Draw a vertical line across axes
>>> ax.fill(x,y,color='blue') #Draw filled polygons
>>> ax.fill_between(x,y,color='yellow') #Fill between y values and 0

2D Data 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> im = ax.imshow(img, #Colormapped or RGB arrays
      cmap= 'gist_earth', 
      interpolation= 'nearest',
      vmin=-2,
      vmax=2)
>>> axes2[0].pcolor(data2) #Pseudocolor plot of 2D array
>>> axes2[0].pcolormesh(data) #Pseudocolor plot of 2D array
>>> CS = plt.contour(Y,X,U) #Plot contours
>>> axes2[2].contourf(data1) #Plot filled contours
>>> axes2[2]= ax.clabel(CS) #Label a contour plot

Vector Fields 

>>> axes[0,1].arrow(0,0,0.5,0.5) #Add an arrow to the axes
>>> axes[1,1].quiver(y,z) #Plot a 2D field of arrows
>>> axes[0,1].streamplot(X,Y,U,V) #Plot a 2D field of arrows

Data Distributions 

>>> ax1.hist(y) #Plot a histogram
>>> ax3.boxplot(y) #Make a box and whisker plot
>>> ax3.violinplot(z)  #Make a violin plot

Plot Anatomy & Workflow 

Plot Anatomy 

 y-axis      

                           x-axis 

Workflow 

The basic steps to creating plots with matplotlib are:

1 Prepare Data
2 Create Plot
3 Plot
4 Customized Plot
5 Save Plot
6 Show Plot

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> x = [1,2,3,4]  #Step 1
>>> y = [10,20,25,30] 
>>> fig = plt.figure() #Step 2
>>> ax = fig.add_subplot(111) #Step 3
>>> ax.plot(x, y, color= 'lightblue', linewidth=3)  #Step 3, 4
>>> ax.scatter([2,4,6],
          [5,15,25],
          color= 'darkgreen',
          marker= '^' )
>>> ax.set_xlim(1, 6.5)
>>> plt.savefig('foo.png' ) #Step 5
>>> plt.show() #Step 6

Close and Clear 

>>> plt.cla()  #Clear an axis
>>> plt.clf(). #Clear the entire figure
>>> plt.close(). #Close a window

Plotting Customize Plot 

Colors, Color Bars & Color Maps 

>>> plt.plot(x, x, x, x**2, x, x** 3)
>>> ax.plot(x, y, alpha = 0.4)
>>> ax.plot(x, y, c= 'k')
>>> fig.colorbar(im, orientation= 'horizontal')
>>> im = ax.imshow(img,
            cmap= 'seismic' )

Markers 

>>> fig, ax = plt.subplots()
>>> ax.scatter(x,y,marker= ".")
>>> ax.plot(x,y,marker= "o")

Linestyles 

>>> plt.plot(x,y,linewidth=4.0)
>>> plt.plot(x,y,ls= 'solid') 
>>> plt.plot(x,y,ls= '--') 
>>> plt.plot(x,y,'--' ,x**2,y**2,'-.' ) 
>>> plt.setp(lines,color= 'r',linewidth=4.0)

Text & Annotations 

>>> ax.text(1,
           -2.1, 
           'Example Graph', 
            style= 'italic' )
>>> ax.annotate("Sine", 
xy=(8, 0),
xycoords= 'data', 
xytext=(10.5, 0),
textcoords= 'data', 
arrowprops=dict(arrowstyle= "->", 
connectionstyle="arc3"),)

Mathtext 

>>> plt.title(r '$sigma_i=15$', fontsize=20)

Limits, Legends and Layouts 

Limits & Autoscaling 

>>> ax.margins(x=0.0,y=0.1) #Add padding to a plot
>>> ax.axis('equal')  #Set the aspect ratio of the plot to 1
>>> ax.set(xlim=[0,10.5],ylim=[-1.5,1.5])  #Set limits for x-and y-axis
>>> ax.set_xlim(0,10.5) #Set limits for x-axis

Legends 

>>> ax.set(title= 'An Example Axes',  #Set a title and x-and y-axis labels
            ylabel= 'Y-Axis', 
            xlabel= 'X-Axis')
>>> ax.legend(loc= 'best')  #No overlapping plot elements

Ticks 

>>> ax.xaxis.set(ticks=range(1,5),  #Manually set x-ticks
             ticklabels=[3,100, 12,"foo" ])
>>> ax.tick_params(axis= 'y', #Make y-ticks longer and go in and out
             direction= 'inout', 
              length=10)

Subplot Spacing 

>>> fig3.subplots_adjust(wspace=0.5,   #Adjust the spacing between subplots
             hspace=0.3,
             left=0.125,
             right=0.9,
             top=0.9,
             bottom=0.1)
>>> fig.tight_layout() #Fit subplot(s) in to the figure area

Axis Spines 

>>> ax1.spines[ 'top'].set_visible(False) #Make the top axis line for a plot invisible
>>> ax1.spines['bottom' ].set_position(( 'outward',10))  #Move the bottom axis line outward

Have this Cheat Sheet at your fingertips

Original article source at https://www.datacamp.com

#matplotlib #cheatsheet #python

Micheal  Block

Micheal Block

1602936000

Wormable Apple iCloud Bug Allows Automatic Photo Theft

A group of ethical hackers cracked open Apple’s infrastructure and systems and, over the course of three months, discovered 55 vulnerabilities, a number of which would have given attackers complete control over customer and employee applications.

Of note, a critical, wormable iCloud account takeover bug would allow attackers to automatically steal all of a victim’s documents, photos, videos and more.

The discovery by hackers Sam Curry, Brett Buerhaus, Ben Sadeghipour, Samuel Erb and Tanner Barnes demonstrated key weaknesses in the company’s “massive” infrastructure while it also earned the team nearly $300,000 to date in rewards for their efforts, Curry wrote in an extensive blog post detailing the team’s findings.

Among the flaws found in core portions of Apple’s infrastructure includes ones that would have allowed an attacker to: “fully compromise both customer and employee applications; launch a worm capable of automatically taking over a victim’s iCloud account; retrieve source code for internal Apple projects; fully compromise an industrial control warehouse software used by Apple; and take over the sessions of Apple employees with the capability of accessing management tools and sensitive resources,” he wrote.

Of the 55 vulnerabilities discovered, 11 were rated with critical severity, 29 with high severity, 13 with medium severity and two with low severity. Researchers rated the bugs based on the CvSS vulnerability-severity rating, and “our understanding of the business-related impact,” Curry said.

The wormable iCloud bug is a cross-site scripting (XSS) issue, according to the writeup. iCloud is an automatic storage mechanism for photos, videos, documents, and app related data for Apple products. Additionally, this platform provides services like Mail and Find my iPhone.

“The mail service is a full email platform where users can send and receive emails similar to Gmail and Yahoo,” explained Curry. “Additionally, there is a mail app on both iOS and Mac which is installed by default on the products. The mail service is hosted on www.icloud.com alongside all of the other services like file and document storage.”

He added, “This meant, from an attackers perspective, that any cross-site scripting vulnerability would allow an attacker to retrieve whatever information they wanted to from the iCloud service.”

#bug bounty #cloud security #hacks #iot #mobile security #privacy #vulnerabilities #web security #$300 #000 #apple #apple bug bounty program #applications #authentication bypass #bug bounty #critical bugs #critical flaws #developers #ethical hackers #hackers #hardware #icloud #sam curry #software #source code #takeover #vulnerabilities #wormable #xss