Top 15 Hot Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies

Top 15 Hot Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies

In this article we will discuss Top 15 Hot Artificial Intelligence technologies that one should know: Natural Language Generation, Speech Recognition, Machine Learning Platforms, Virtual Agents, Decision Management, AI Optimized Hardware, Deep Learning Platforms, Robotic Process Automation, Text Analytics and Natural Language Processing (NLP), Bio-metrics, Cyber Defense, Content Creation, Emotion Recognition, Image Recognition, Marketing Automation

Artificial Intelligence was coined in 1955 to introduce a new discipline of computer science. It is rapidly and radically changing the various areas of our daily lives as the market for AI technologies is demanding and flourishing. There is a significant race between many start-ups and internet giants to acquire them. In this article we will discuss Top 15 Hot Artificial Intelligence technologies that one should know.

Following pointers will be covered in this article,

  • Natural Language Generation
  • Speech Recognition
  • Machine Learning Platforms
  • Virtual Agents
  • Decision Management
  • AI Optimized Hardware
  • Deep Learning Platforms
  • Robotic Process Automation
  • Text Analytics and Natural Language Processing (NLP)
  • Bio-metrics
  • Cyber Defense
  • Content Creation
  • Emotion Recognition
  • Image Recognition
  • Marketing Automation

So, let us get started then,

Top 15 Hot Artificial Intelligence Technologies

Natural Language Generation

Even for humans to communicate efficiently and clearly can be tricky. Similarly, for machines to process information is an entirely different process than the human brain, And it can be extremely tricky and complex. Natural Language Generation is a sub discipline of AI that converts text into data and helps the systems to communicate ideas and thoughts as clearly as possible. It is used in customer service, widely, to create reports and market summaries. Companies like Attivio, Automated Insights, Cambridge Semantics, Digital Reasoning, Lucidworks, Narrative Science, SAS and Yseop offer Natural Language Generation. No wonder this one makes to the list of top 15 hot artificial intelligence technologies.

Speech Recognition

Speech Recognition is used to convert and transform human speech into a useful and comprehensive format for computer applications to process. The transcription and transformation of human language into useful formats is witnessed often nowadays and is growing rapidly. Companies like NICE, Nuance Communications, OpenText and Verint Systems offer speech recognition services.

Machine Learning Platforms

Machine Learning is a sub discipline of computer science as well as an important branch of Artificial Intelligence. Its objective is to develop new techniques enabling computers to learn and hence become more intelligent. With the help of algorithms, APIs (application programming interface), development, training tools, big data and applications, machine learning platforms are becoming more popular. They are widely used for the purpose of categorization and prediction. Amazon, Fractal Analytics, Google, H2O AI, Microsoft, SAS, Skytree and Adtext are some of the companies selling machine learning platforms.

Virtual Agents

A virtual agent refers to a computer agent or a program that is capable of interacting effectively with humans. Trending on charts top 15 hot artificial intelligence technologies, currently, it is used in customer service through Chat bots as well as a smart home manager. Companies that provide virtual agents are Apple, Google, Amazon, Artificial Solutions, Assist AI, Creative Virtual, IBM, IPsoft, Microsoft and Satisfi.

Decision Management

Artificially Intelligent machines have the capability of introducing logic to AI systems in order to gear them up to be used for training, maintenance and tuning. In order to add value to the business and profitable, decision management is already being used by organizations by incorporating it into their applications to propel and execute automated decision. Some companies that provide this service are Informatica, Advanced Systems Concepts, Maana, Pegasystems and UiPath.

AI Optimized Hardware

Owing to better and improved graphics as well as central processing units, devices are being structured and used to execute AI oriented tasks specifically. A prominent example of this is the AI optimized silicon chip which can be inserted into any portable device. Therefore, companies and organizations are investing greatly in AI to accelerate the next generation of applications. This technological service is offered by companies like Alluviate, Google, Cray, Intel, IB and Nvidia.

Deep Learning Platforms

Deep Learning Platforms is a form of machine Learning that duplicates the neural circuits of the human brain to process data and create patterns for decision making. In this unique technology, algorithms use artificial neural networks. A few of its applications are automated speech recognition, image recognition and prediction of anything that can be sensed in the digital sphere. Deep learning platform providers are Deep Instinct, Ersatz Labs, Fluid AI, MathWorks, Peltarion, Saffron Technology, Sentient Technologies and Leverton.

So we have it halfway in this Top 15 Top Artificial Intelligence Technologies article, let us see some more tools.

Robotic Process Automation

Robotic Process Automation refers to the functioning of corporate processes due to the mimicking human tasks and automate them. In this particular sphere, it is important to bear in mind that AI is not meant to replace humans, but to support and complement their skills and talent. Companies like Pega systems, Automation Anywhere, Blue Prism, UiPath and WorkFusion focus on this process.

Text Analytics and Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing focuses on the interactions between human languages and computers. It uses text analytics to analyse the structure of sentences as well as their interpretation and intention through machine learning. This technology is widely adopted in fraud detection and for security systems. Many automated assistants and applications derive unstructured data by NLP. Basis Technology, Expert System, Coveo, Indico, Knime, Lexalytics, Linguamatics, Mindbreeze, Sinequa, Stratifyd and Synapsify are some of the service providers. No wonder these terms make it to the top 15 hot artificial intelligence technologies list.

Bio-metrics

Bioetrics deals with the recognition, measurement and analysis of the physical features of the body’s structure, form and human behavior. It fosters organic interactions between machines and humans as it works with touch, image, speech and body language. It is predominantly used for the purpose of market research. #VR, Affectiva, Agnitio, FaceFirst, Sensory, Synqera and Tahzoo provide this technology service.

Cyber Defense

Cyber defense is a computer defense mechanism that aims to detect, prevent and mitigate attacks and threats to data and infrastructure of systems. Neural networks that are capable of processing sequences of inputs can be put to use along with machine learning techniques to create learning technologies in order to reveal suspicious user activity and detect cyber threats.

Content Creation

Although content is created by people working on videos, ads, blogs and white papers; brands like Hearst, USA Today ad CBS are using AI to generate content. Wordsmith is a popular tool created by Automated Insights, which applies NLP in order to generate news stories.

Emotion Recognition

This kind of AI technology enables emotions expressed by humans to be read and interpreted using advanced image processing or audio data processing. Law enforcers often use thus technology during interrogation. Some companies who use emotion recognition are Beyond Verbal, nViso and Affectiva.

Image Recognition

Image recognition refers to the process of identifying and detecting a feature in a video or an image. It can help the process of image searches greatly as well as detect license plates, diagnose diseases and study personalities. Clarifai, SenseTime and GuGum’s provide this technology service.

Marketing Automation

Marketing and sales teams and divisions have adopted AI and benefited a lot from it in return. Methods incorporating AI through automated customer segmentation, customer data integration and campaign management are widely used. AdextAI has grown to become a pioneer in adopting marketing automation.

So this it guys, this brings us to the end of this article. I hope you liked this Top 15 hot Artificial Technologies article gave you something new to learn.

Data Science vs Data Analytics vs Big Data

Data Science vs Data Analytics vs Big Data

When we talk about data processing, Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics are the terms that one might think of and there has always been a confusion between them. In this article on Data science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics, I will understand the similarities and differences between them

When we talk about data processing, Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics are the terms that one might think of and there has always been a confusion between them. In this article on Data science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics, I will understand the similarities and differences between them

We live in a data-driven world. In fact, the amount of digital data that exists is growing at a rapid rate, doubling every two years, and changing the way we live. Now that Hadoop and other frameworks have resolved the problem of storage, the main focus on data has shifted to processing this huge amount of data. When we talk about data processing, Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics are the terms that one might think of and there has always been a confusion between them.

In this article on Data Science vs Data Analytics vs Big Data, I will be covering the following topics in order to make you understand the similarities and differences between them.
Introduction to Data Science, Big Data & Data AnalyticsWhat does Data Scientist, Big Data Professional & Data Analyst do?Skill-set required to become Data Scientist, Big Data Professional & Data AnalystWhat is a Salary Prospect?Real time Use-case## Introduction to Data Science, Big Data, & Data Analytics

Let’s begin by understanding the terms Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics.

What Is Data Science?

Data Science is a blend of various tools, algorithms, and machine learning principles with the goal to discover hidden patterns from the raw data.

[Source: gfycat.com]

It also involves solving a problem in various ways to arrive at the solution and on the other hand, it involves to design and construct new processes for data modeling and production using various prototypes, algorithms, predictive models, and custom analysis.

What is Big Data?

Big Data refers to the large amounts of data which is pouring in from various data sources and has different formats. It is something that can be used to analyze the insights which can lead to better decisions and strategic business moves.

[Source: gfycat.com]

What is Data Analytics?

Data Analytics is the science of examining raw data with the purpose of drawing conclusions about that information. It is all about discovering useful information from the data to support decision-making. This process involves inspecting, cleansing, transforming & modeling data.

[Source: ibm.com]

What Does Data Scientist, Big Data Professional & Data Analyst Do?

What does a Data Scientist do?

Data Scientists perform an exploratory analysis to discover insights from the data. They also use various advanced machine learning algorithms to identify the occurrence of a particular event in the future. This involves identifying hidden patterns, unknown correlations, market trends and other useful business information.

Roles of Data Scientist

What do Big Data Professionals do?

The responsibilities of big data professional lies around dealing with huge amount of heterogeneous data, which is gathered from various sources coming in at a high velocity.

Roles of Big Data Professiona

Big data professionals describe the structure and behavior of a big data solution and how it can be delivered using big data technologies such as Hadoop, Spark, Kafka etc. based on requirements.

What does a Data Analyst do?

Data analysts translate numbers into plain English. Every business collects data, like sales figures, market research, logistics, or transportation costs. A data analyst’s job is to take that data and use it to help companies to make better business decisions.

Roles of Data Analyst

Skill-Set Required To Become Data Scientist, Big Data Professional, & Data Analyst

What Is The Salary Prospect?

The below figure shows the average salary structure of **Data Scientist, Big Data Specialist, **and Data Analyst.

A Scenario Illustrating The Use Of Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics.

Now, let’s try to understand how can we garner benefits by combining all three of them together.

Let’s take an example of Netflix and see how they join forces in achieving the goal.

First, let’s understand the role of* Big Data Professional* in Netflix example.

Netflix generates a huge amount of unstructured data in forms of text, audio, video files and many more. If we try to process this dark (unstructured) data using the traditional approach, it becomes a complicated task.

Approach in Netflix

Traditional Data Processing

Hence a Big Data Professional designs and creates an environment using Big Data tools to ease the processing of Netflix Data.

Big Data approach to process Netflix data

Now, let’s see how Data Scientist Optimizes the Netflix Streaming experience.

Role of Data Scientist in Optimizing the Netflix streaming experience

1. Understanding the impact of QoE on user behavior

User behavior refers to the way how a user interacts with the Netflix service, and data scientists use the data to both understand and predict behavior. For example, how would a change to the Netflix product affect the number of hours that members watch? To improve the streaming experience, Data Scientists look at QoE metrics that are likely to have an impact on user behavior. One metric of interest is the rebuffer rate, which is a measure of how often playback is temporarily interrupted. Another metric is bitrate, that refers to the quality of the picture that is served/seen — a very low bitrate corresponds to a fuzzy picture.

2. Improving the streaming experience

How do Data Scientists use data to provide the best user experience once a member hits “play” on Netflix?

One approach is to look at the algorithms that run in real-time or near real-time once playback has started, which determine what bitrate should be served, what server to download that content from, etc.

For example, a member with a high-bandwidth connection on a home network could have very different expectations and experience compared to a member with low bandwidth on a mobile device on a cellular network.

By determining all these factors one can improve the streaming experience.

3. Optimize content caching

A set of big data problems also exists on the content delivery side.

The key idea here is to locate the content closer (in terms of network hops) to Netflix members to provide a great experience. By viewing the behavior of the members being served and the experience, one can optimize the decisions around content caching.

4. Improving content quality

Another approach to improving user experience involves looking at the quality of content, i.e. the video, audio, subtitles, closed captions, etc. that are part of the movie or show. Netflix receives content from the studios in the form of digital assets that are then encoded and quality checked before they go live on the content servers.

In addition to the internal quality checks, Data scientists also receive feedback from our members when they discover issues while viewing.

By combining member feedback with intrinsic factors related to viewing behavior, they build the models to predict whether a particular piece of content has a quality issue. Machine learning models along with natural language processing (NLP) and text mining techniques can be used to build powerful models to both improve the quality of content that goes live and also use the information provided by the Netflix users to close the loop on quality and replace content that does not meet the expectations of the users.

So this is how Data Scientist optimizes the Netflix streaming experience.

Now let’s understand how Data Analytics is used to drive the Netflix success.

Role of Data Analyst in Netflix

The above figure shows the different types of users who watch the video/play on Netflix. Each of them has their own choices and preferences.

So what does a Data Analyst do?

Data Analyst creates a user stream based on the preferences of users. For example, if user 1 and user 2 have the same preference or a choice of video, then data analyst creates a user stream for those choices. And also –
Orders the Netflix collection for each member profile in a personalized way.We know that the same genre row for each member has an entirely different selection of videos.Picks out the top personalized recommendations from the entire catalog, focusing on the titles that are top on ranking.By capturing all events and user activities on Netflix, data analyst pops out the trending video.Sorts the recently watched titles and estimates whether the member will continue to watch or rewatch or stop watching etc.
I hope you have *understood *the *differences *& *similarities *between Data Science vs Big Data vs Data Analytics.

Top 10 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies in 2020

Top 10 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies in 2020

This video on "Top 10 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies in 2020 - Artificial Intelligence Trends" will list out the top trending technologies that are going to take over the IT industries with the help of Artificial Intelligence. These technologies are most likely to start showing their dominance in the market from 2020 itself.

Top 10 Artificial Intelligence Technologies in 2020 - Artificial Intelligence Trends

This video on "Top 10 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technologies in 2020 - Artificial Intelligence Trends" will list out the top trending technologies that are going to take over the IT industries with the help of Artificial Intelligence. These technologies are most likely to start showing their dominance in the market from 2020 itself.

Data Science Vs Machine Learning Vs Artificial Intelligence

Data Science Vs Machine Learning Vs Artificial Intelligence

Data Science vs Artificial Intelligence vs Machine Learning vs Deep Learning - Learn about each concept and relation between them for their ...

Data Science vs Artificial Intelligence vs Machine Learning vs Deep Learning - Learn about each concept and relation between them for their ...

What is Data Science?

Data Science is an interdisciplinary field whose primary objective is the extraction of meaningful knowledge and insights from data. These insights are extracted with the help of various mathematical and Machine Learning-based algorithms. Hence, Machine Learning is a key element of Data Science.

Alongside Machine Learning, as the name suggests, “data” itself is the fuel for Data Science. Without the availability of appropriate data, key insights cannot be extracted from it. Both the volume and accuracy of data matters in this field, since the algorithms are designed to “learn” with “experience”, which comes through the data provided. Data Science involves the use of various types of data, from multiple sources. Some of the types of data are image data, text data, video data, time-dependent data, time-independent data, audio data, etc.

Data Science requires knowledge of multiple disciplines. As shown in the figure, it is a combination of Mathematics and Statistics, Computer Science skills and Domain Specific Knowledge. Without a mastery of all these sub-domains, the grasp on Data Science will be incomplete.

What is Machine Learning?

Machine Learning is a subset or a part of Artificial Intelligence. It primarily involves the scientific study of algorithmic, mathematical, and statistical models which performs a specific task by analyzing data, without any explicit step-by-step instructions, by relying on patterns and inference, which is drawn from the data. This also contributes to its alias, Pattern Recognition.

Its objective is to recognize patterns in a given data and draw inferences, which allows it to perform a similar task on similar but unseen data. These two separate sets of data are known as the “Training Set” and “Testing Set” respectively.

Machine Learning primarily finds its applications in solving complex problems, which, a normal procedure oriented program cannot solve, or in places where there are too many variables that need to be explicitly programmed, which is not feasible.

As shown in the figure, Machine Learning is primarily of three types, namely: Supervised Learning, Unsupervised Learning and Reinforcement Learning.

  • Supervised Learning: This is the most commonly used form of machine learning and is widely used across the industry. In fact, most of the problems that are solved by Machine Learning belong to Supervised Learning. A learning problem is known as supervised learning when the data is in the form of feature-label pairs. In other words, the algorithm is trained on data where the ground truth is known. This is learning with a teacher. Two common types of supervised learning are:
    Classification: This is a process where the dataset is categorized into discrete values or categories. For example, if the input to the algorithm is an image of a dog or a cat, ideally, a well-trained algorithm should be able to predict whether the input image is that of a dog or of a cat.Regression: This is a process where the dataset has continuous valued target values. That is, the output of the function is not categories, but is a continuous value. For example, algorithms that forecast the future price of the stock market would output a continuous value (like 34.84, etc.) for a given set of inputs. * Unsupervised Learning: This is a much lesser used, but quite important learning technique. This technique is primarily used when there is unlabeled data or data without the target values mentioned. In such learning, the algorithm has to analyze the data itself and bring out insights based on certain common traits or features in the dataset. This is learning without a teacher. Two common types of unsupervised learning are:
    Clustering: Clustering is a well known unsupervised learning technique where similar data are automatically grouped together by the algorithm based on common features or traits (eg. color, values, similarity, difference, etc.).Dimensionality Reduction: Yet another popular unsupervised learning is dimensionality reduction. The dataset that is used for machine learning is often huge and of high dimensions (higher than three dimensions). One major problem in working with high dimensional data is data-visualization. Since we can visualize and understand up-to 3 dimensions, higher dimensional data is often difficult for human beings to interpret. In addition to this, higher dimension means more features, which in turn means a more complex model, which is often a curse for any machine learning model. The aim is to keep the simplest model that works best on a wide range of unseen data. Hence, dimensionality reduction is an important part of working with high dimensional data. One of the most common methods of dimensionality reduction is Principal Component Analysis (PCA).* Reinforcement Learning: This is a completely different approach to “learning” when compared to the previous two categories. This particular class of learning algorithms primarily finds its applications in Game AI, Robotics and Automatic Trading Bots. Here, the machine is not provided with a huge amount of data. Instead, in a given scenario (playground) some parameters and constrictions are defined and the algorithm is let loose. The only feedback given to the algorithm is that, if it wins or performs a correct task, it is rewarded. If it loses or performs an incorrect task, it is penalized. Based on this minimal feedback, over time the algorithm learns to how to do the correct task on its own.
What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is a vast field made up of multidisciplinary subjects, which aims to artificially create “intelligence” to machines, similar to that displayed by humans and animals. The term is used to describe machines that mimic cognitive functions such as learning and problem-solving.

Artificial Intelligence can be broadly classified into three parts: Analytical AI, Human-Inspired AI, and Humanized AI.

  1. Analytical AI: It only has characteristics which are consistent with Cognitive Intelligence. It generates a cognitive representation of the world around it based on past experiences, which inspires future decisions.
  2. Human-Inspired AI: In addition to having Cognitive Intelligence, this class of AI also has Emotional Intelligence. It has a deeper understanding of human emotions in addition to Cognitive Intelligence and thus has a better understanding of the world around it. Both Cognitive Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence contributes to the decision making of Human-Inspired AI.
  3. Humanized AI: This is the most superior form of AI among the three. This form of AI incorporates Cognitive Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, and Social Intelligence into its decision making. With a broader understanding of the world around it, this form of AI is able to make self-conscious and self-aware decisions and interactions with the external world.
How are they interrelated?

From the above introductions, it may seem that these fields are not related to each other. However, that is not the case. Each of these three fields is quite closely related to each other than it may seem.

If we look at Venn Diagrams, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Data Science are overlapping sets, with Machine Learning being a subset or a part of Artificial Intelligence, and Data Science having a significant chunk of it under Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.

Artificial Intelligence is a much broader field and it incorporates most of the other intelligence-related fields of study. Machine Learning, being a part of AI, deals with the algorithmic learning and inference based on data, and finally, Data Science is primarily based on statistics, probability theory, and has significant contribution of Machine Learning to it; of course, AI also being a part of it, since Machine Learning is indeed a subset of Artificial Intelligence.

Similarities: All of the three fields have one thing in common, Machine Learning. Each of these is heavily dependent on Machine Learning Algorithms.

In Data Science, the statistical algorithms that are used are limited to certain applications. In most cases, Data Scientists rely on Machine Learning techniques to extract inferences from data.

The current technological advancement in Artificial Intelligence is heavily based on Machine Learning. The part of AI without Machine Learning is like a car without an engine. However, without the “learning” part, Artificial Intelligence is basically Expert Systems, Search and Optimization algorithms.

Difference between the three

Even though they are significantly similar to each other, there are still a few key differences that are to be noted.

Applications

Since all the three domains are interrelated, they have some common applications and some unique to each of them. Most applications involve the use of Machine Learning in some form or the other. Even then, there are certain applications of each domain, which are unique. A few of them are listed below:

  • Data Science: The applications in this domain are dependent on machine learning and mathematical algorithms, such as statistics and probability based algorithms.
    Time Series Forecasting: This is a very important application of data science and is used across the industry, primarily in the banking sector and the stock market sector. Even though there are Machine Learning based algorithms for this specific application, Data Scientists usually prefer the statistical approach.Recommendation Engines: This is a statistics-based approach towards recommending products or services to the user, based on data of his/her previous interests. Similar to the previous application, Machine Learning based algorithms to achieve similar or better results is also present.* Machine Learning: The applications of this domain is nearly limitless. Every industry has some problem that can partially or fully be solved by Machine Learning techniques. Even Data Science and Artificial Intelligence roles make use of Machine Learning to solve a huge set of problems.
    Computer Vision: This is another sub-field which falls under Machine Learning and deals with visual information. This field itself finds its applications in many industries, for example, Autonomous Driving Vehicles, Medical Imaging, Autonomous Surveillance Systems, etc.Natural Language Processing: Similar to the previous example, this field is also self-contained sub-field of research. Natural Language Processing (NLP) or Natural Language Understanding (NLU) primarily deals with the interpretation and understanding of the meaning behind spoken or written text/language. Understanding the exact meaning of a sentence is quite difficult (even for human beings). Teaching a machine to understand the meaning behind a text is even more challenging. Few of the major applications of this sub-field are the development of intelligent chatbots, artificial voice assistants (Google Assistant, Siri, Alexa, etc.), spam detection, hate speech detection and so on.* Artificial Intelligence: Most of the current advancements and applications in this domain is based on a sub-field of Machine Learning, known as Deep Learning. Deep Learning deals with artificially emulating the structure and function of the biological neuron. However, since few of the applications of Deep Learning have already been discussed under Machine Learning, let us look at applications of Artificial Intelligence that is not primarily dependent on Machine Learning.
    Game AI: Game AI is an interesting application of Artificial Intelligence, where the machine automatically learns to play complex games to the level where it can challenge and even win against a human being. Google’s DeepMind had developed a Game AI called AlphaGo, which outperformed and beat the human world champion in 2017. Similarly, video game AI’s have been developed to play Dota 2, flappy bird and Mario. These models are developed using several algorithms like Search and Optimization, Generative Models, Reinforcement Learning, etc.Search: Artificial Intelligence has found several applications in Search Engines, for example, Google and Bing Search. The method of displaying results and the order in which results are displayed are based on algorithms developed in the field of Artificial Intelligence. These applications do contain Machine Learning techniques, but their older versions were developed by algorithms like Google’s proprietary PageRank Algorithm, which were not based on “Learning”.Robotics: One of the major applications of Artificial Intelligence is in the field of robotics. Teaching robots to walk/run automatically (for example, Spot and Atlas) using Reinforcement Learning has been one of the biggest goals of companies like Boston Dynamics. In addition to that, humanoid robots like Sophia are a perfect example of AI being applied for Humanized AI.## Skill-set Required

Since the fields are interrelated by a significant degree, the skill-set required to master each of these fields is nearly the same and overlapping. However, there are a few skill-sets that are uniquely associated with each of them. The same has been discussed further.

  • Mathematics: Each of these fields is math heavy, which means mathematics are the basic building blocks of these fields and in order to fully understand the algorithms and master them, a great math background is necessary. However, all the fields of math are not necessary for all of these. The specific fields of math that are required are discussed below:
    Linear Algebra: Since all of these fields are based on data, which comes in huge volumes of rows and columns, matrices are the easiest and most convenient method of representing and manipulating such data. Hence, a thorough knowledge of Linear Algebra and Matrix operations is necessary for all three fields.Calculus: Deep Learning, the sub-field of Machine Learning is heavily dependent on calculus. To be more precise, multivariate derivatives. In neural networks, backpropagation algorithms require multiple derivative calculations, which demands a thorough knowledge of calculus.Statistics: Since these fields deal with a huge amount of data, the knowledge of statistics is imperative. Statistical methods to deal with the selection and testing of smaller sample size with diversity is the common application for all three fields. However, statistics finds its main application in Data Science, where most of the algorithms are purely based on statistics (eg. ARIMA algorithm used for Time Series Analysis).Probability: Similar to the reason behind statistics, probability and the conditional probability of a certain event is the basic building block of important Machine Learning algorithms like Naive Bayes Classifier. Probability theory is also very important in understanding Data Science Algorithms.* Computer Science: There is no doubt about either of these fields being a part of the Computer Science field. Hence, a thorough knowledge of computer science algorithms is quite necessary.
    Search and Optimization Algorithms: Fundamental Search Algorithms like Breadth-First Search (BFS), Depth-First Search (DFS), Bidirectional Search, Route Optimization Algorithms, etc. are quite important. These search and optimization algorithms find their use in the Artificial Intelligence field.Fuzzy Logic: Fuzzy Logic (FL) is a method of reasoning that resembles human reasoning. It imitates the way human beings make decisions. For example, making a YES or NO decision based on a certain set of events or environmental conditions. Fuzzy Logic is primarily used in Artificially Intelligent Systems.Basic Algorithms and Optimization: Even though this is not a necessity, but it is a good-to-have knowledge since fundamental knowledge on algorithms (searching, sorting, recursion, etc.) and optimization (space and time complexity) is necessary for any computer science related fields.* Programming Knowledge: The implementation of any of the algorithms in these fields is through programming. Hence a thorough knowledge of programming is a necessity. Some of the most commonly used programming languages are discussed further.
    Python: One of the most commonly used programming languages for either of these fields is Python. It is used across the industry and has support for a plethora of open source libraries for Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Data Science. However, programming is not just about writing code, it is about writing proper Pythonic code. This has been discussed in detail in this article: A Guide to Best Python Practices.R: This is the second most used programming language for such applications across the industry. R excels in statistical libraries and data visualization when compared to python. However, lacks significantly when it comes to Deep Learning libraries. Hence, R is a preferred tool for Data Scientists.## Job Market

The Job Market for each of these fields is in very high demand. As a direct quote from Andrew Ng says, “AI is the new Electricity”. This is quite true as the extended field of Artificial Intelligence is at the verge of revolutionizing every industry in ways that could not be anticipated earlier.

Hence, the demand for jobs in the field of Data Science and Machine Learning is quite high. There are more job openings worldwide than the number of qualified Engineers who are eligible to fill that position. Hence, due to supply-demand constraints, the amount of compensation offered by companies for such roles exceeds any other domain.

The job scenario for each of the different domains are discussed further:

  1. Data Science: The number of job posting with the profile of Data Science is highest, among the three discussed domains. Data Scientists are handsomely paid for their work. Due to the blurred lines in terms of the difference between the fields, the job description of a Data Scientist ranges from Time Series Forecasting to Computer Vision. It basically covers the entire domain. For further insights on the job aspect of Data Science, the article on What is Data Science can be referred to.
  2. Machine Learning: Even though the number of jobs postings having the job profile as “Machine Learning Engineer” is much lesser when compared to that of a Data Scientist, it is still a significant field to consider when it comes to availability of jobs. Moreover, someone who is skilled in Machine Learning is a good candidate to consider for a Data Science role. However, unlike Data Science, Machine Learning job descriptions primarily deal with the requirements of “Learning” algorithms (including Deep Learning), and the industry ranges from Natural Language Processing to developing Recommendation Engines.
  3. Artificial Intelligence: Coming across job postings with profiles of “Artificial Intelligence Developer” developer is quite rare. Instead of “Artificial Intelligence”, most companies write “Data Scientists” or “Machine/Deep Learning Engineers” in the job profile. However, Artificial Intelligence Developers, in addition to getting jobs in the Machine Learning domain, mostly find jobs in Robotics and AI R&D oriented companies like Boston Dynamics, DeepMind, OpenAI, etc.

Conclusion

Data Science, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence are like the different branches of the same tree. They are highly overlapping and there is no clear boundary amongst them. They have common skill set requirements and common applications as well. They are just different names given to slightly different versions of AI.

Finally, it is worth mentioning that since there is high overlap in required skill-set, an optimally skilled Engineer is eligible to work in either of the three domains and switch domains without any major changes.