How to Use GitHub and ES6 Features to Create and Structure Your Code

How to Use GitHub and ES6 Features to Create and Structure Your Code

Using GitHub and ES6 Features to Create and Structure Your Code, we'll walk through cloning an existing repository from GitHub, creating your own local and remote repositories, utilizing node package manager (NPM) to install dependencies, creating a streamlined code base using ES6 classes, import/export modules, and arrow functions, and adding, committing, and pushing changes to GitHub.

If you're moving from coding tutorials into creating your own JavaScript projects, you'll want to become familiar with using a version control system like GitHub and benefiting from ES6 features to clean up your code and streamline your development process.

In this new video, we'll walk through cloning an existing repository from GitHub, creating your own local and remote repositories, utilizing node package manager (NPM) to install dependencies, creating a streamlined code base using ES6 classes, import/export modules, and arrow functions, and adding, committing, and pushing changes to GitHub.

JavaScript ES6 Classes

JavaScript ES6 Classes

An exciting new construct that was introduced in the ES6 specification is the ES6 classes. If you're a Javascript developer, you will be aware that Javascript follows prototypal inheritance and sometimes it can get a little messy. However, with ES6 classes the syntax is simpler and much more intuitive.

An exciting new construct that was introduced in the ES6 specification is the ES6 classes. If you're a Javascript developer, you will be aware that Javascript follows prototypal inheritance and sometimes it can get a little messy. However, with ES6 classes the syntax is simpler and much more intuitive.

Classes are a fundamental part of object oriented programming (OOP). They define “blueprints” for real-world object modeling and organize code into logical, reusable parts. Classes share many similarities with regular objects. They have their own constructor functions, properties, and methods. In this tutorial, we’ll demonstrate how to create and work with ES6 classes.

Creating a class

You can create a class using the class keyword:

class Person{

  constructor(name, age) {

    this.name = name

    this.age = age

  }

}



let person = new Person("Sam", 30)



person.name

//returns 'Sam'



person.age

//returns 30

Notice how we define our Person class with a constructor() function taking two arguments name and age. Using the this keyword, we set the name and age properties based on the provided arguments. Remember that the constructor function is called whenever we create a new instance of the Person class.

Similar to objects, we can read class properties using dot notation so that person.name returns Sam.

Defining properties and methods

You can define properties and methods for a class the same way you do for regular objects:

class Person{

  constructor(name, age) {

    this.name = name

    this.age = age

  }



  sayName() {

    console.log("My name is " + this.name)

  }

}



let person = new Person('Tim', 40)



person.sayName()

//logs 'My name is Tim'



person.location = 'London'



person.location

//returns 'London'

Notice how we define a sayName() function within our Person class definition. Once we create a new instance of Person, we can call the method via person.sayName().

You can also add properties and methods on the fly. You’ll notice that while the location property isn’t defined in our constructor function, we can still dynamically add it later on for the person instance. Remember that if we created a new instance of Person, it would not have a location property because that property is not defined in the class definition. Only properties and methods that we explicitly define will be shared by all instances of the class.

Static functions

You can use the static keyword to make class methods static. A static method acts on the class itself, not on instances of the class:

class Person{

  constructor(name, age) {

    this.name = name

    this.age = age

  }



  static describe(){

    console.log("This is a person.")

  }



  sayName() {

    console.log("My name is " + this.name)

  }

}



Person.describe()

//logs 'This is a person.'

Notice how static methods operate on the class itself and not an instance of the class. We didn’t have to create a new Person to call the static method.

Static methods are useful for common or shared class functionality. In this case, the describe() method is used to describe what the Person class is. It will apply to every instance of Person. This is why we make it a static method.

Class Inheritance

Inheritance allows you to create new classes based off existing ones. These new classes “inherit” the methods and properties of their parent. They can also override or extend the parent:

class Person{

  constructor(name, age) {

    this.name = name

    this.age = age

  }


  static describe(){

    console.log("This is a person.")

  }


  sayName() {

    console.log("My name is " + this.name)

  }

}



class Programmer extends Person {

  sayName(){

    console.log("My name is " + this.name + " and I am a programmer!")

  }

}



let averageJoe = new Person('Todd', 40)

let programmer = new Programmer('Sam', 33)



averageJoe.sayName()


//logs 'My name is Todd'


programmer.sayName()


//logs 'My name is Sam and I am a programmer!'

Using the extends keyword, we can create a new class sharing the same characteristics as Person. Notice how we override the sayName() method with a new definition for the Programmer class. Apart from overriding this method, everything else remains the same for both Person and Programmer.

Using super

The super keyword allows a child class to invoke parent class properties and methods.

class Person{

  constructor(name, age) {

    this.name = name

    this.age = age

  }



  static describe(){

    console.log("This is a person.")

  }



  sayName() {

    console.log("My name is " + this.name)

  }

}





class Programmer extends Person {

  sayName(){

    super.sayName()

    console.log("My name is " + this.name + " and I am a programmer!")

  }

}



let averageJoe = new Person('Todd', 40)

let programmer = new Programmer('Sam', 33)



programmer.sayName()



//logs 'My name is Sam'

//logs 'My name is Sam and I am a programmer!'

Notice how we call super.sayName() in the Programmer implementation of sayName(). While this invokes the parent implementation of super.sayName(), the name property still references the Programmer class.

Conclusion

Classes facilitate object oriented programming in JavaScript. While regular objects provide similar functionality, classes provide the extra advantage of inheritance and static methods.

Learn NPM - The Node Package Manager for JavaScript

Learn NPM - The Node Package Manager for JavaScript

Learn the fundamentals of NPM - The Node Package Manager for JavaScript - NPM for Beginners - NPM Crash Course: What is NPM? NPM stands for Node Package Manager and it is used mainly to download and install JavaScript Packages. NPM comes with Nodejs already as a default so we would need to download that first in order for us to use it.

Free JavaScript Tutorial - NPM for Beginners - Fast Track

Learn NPM - The Node Package Manager for JavaScript

NPM stands for Node Package Manager and it is used mainly to download and install JavaScript Packages. This course would be beneficial for any web developer who is looking to make his or her life easier by using code that is already written instead of starting from scratch.

NPM comes with Nodejs already as a default so we would need to download that first in order for us to use it. This is a short course full of useful content and tips.

What you'll learn

  • Students will learn the fundamentals of NPM

Javascript ES6: Map-Reduce-Filter-Find

Javascript ES6: Map-Reduce-Filter-Find

If you are a fan of javascript and use it daily then you will love this. Way you write your JavaScript by using .map(), .reduce() and .filter() ... concise with arrow functions

If you are a fan of javascript and use it daily then you will love this

Javascript is a language that give freedom of writing code in any style, from imperative to declarative styles. Most programmer use imperative because either they are coming from OOPs background, may be they love it or they are not familiar with other style. Before we dive into the declarative style which is FP, let’s understand the differences in two by looking at an example(If you already know the difference then you may skip few paragraphs).

Imperative

// to calculate the sum of array elements
const sum = (arr) => {
  let result = 0; 
  for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
    result += arr[i];
  }  
  return result;
};

Imperative style is cool but imagine what if there is a complex mathematics logic here then size of code and the readability will suck. It increases the cognitive load when reading, and over time makes it easier to faulter in reasoning and logic. Also, the main complexity of this code snippet derives from the fact that instead of telling the computer what we want it to do, we are instructing it on how to do it.

Declarative

// calculate the sum of array elements
const sum = (arr) => arr.reduce((total, item) => total += item, 0);

Now, this looks pretty clean, shorter, expressive, concise code, less error prone, easier to maintain and easier to debug. We are telling computer what we want it to do rather how to do it.

Declarative approach are easily optimisable at complier end and also have less side effects.

Note: if you are concerned about the performance of above two and other javascript function (map, reduce, filter, find) then you should for small data set and can view here for large data set(100–1000000)

Without more delay, let’s start the real action with most used Javascript function for functional programming.

Map

// definition 
collection.map((currentValue, index) => {
    // Return element for newArray
});
// example
const arr = [1,2,3,4,5];
const newArray = arr.map(i => i*10);
// return a new array with all value as multiple of 10;

Map works on an array and return an array that’s it. Above code snippet works on an collection i.e an array and takes a callback with current iteration value, index as arguments and return a new array.

Note: Maps are well suited for change/transforming whole array rather than breaking the flow for some conditions, Map suck’s performance wise, check out "underlined" here but are easy to be used for small data sets.

Reduce

// definition 
collection.reduce((accumulator, item, index) => {
    // logic to perform to get accumulator as a return value
}, initialValue for accumulator);
// example
const arr = [1,2,3,4,5];
const total = arr.reduce((acc, item) => acc+= item, 0);
// return a total as 15

Reduce works on an array but can return anything you want it to return. As the name speaks for itself it can be reduce to anything and can behave like map, find, filter or any other javascript function. The above code snippet works on an array and reduce to compute the total value of item of array.

Explanation of example above : On reduce first run, acc is assigned a 0 value and then acc+= item i.e acc = acc+item which will compute to0+1 i.e 1. This 1 will be acc value for next iteration and this continues until we are done with all array items.

Find

// definition 
collection.find((item) => {
    // return first element that satisfy the condition
});
// example
const arr = [1,2,8,4,5];
const value = arr.find(i => i%4 == 0);
// return the first value i.e 8 

Find works on an array and return the first element that satisfy the condition in function.

Note: Easy, simple but not efficient on large data set, why ? look here

Filter

// definition 
collection.filter((currentValue, index) => {
    // logic to filter array on
});
// example
const arr = [1,2,3,4,5];
const newArray = arr.filter(i => i%2 == 0);
// return a new array with value [2, 4]

Filter works on array return an array for filtered items.


Lets use them for some real world scenarios + some ES6. (lets try some ARMD on below object keys)

Wondering what is ARMD its Add, Read, Modify, Delete, its cool to coin your own jargon

const users = [
  {
    id: 1,
    name: "Jonathon Haley",
    username: "Monte.Weber2",
    email: "[email protected]",
    phone: "1-563-675-1857 x11708",
    website: "carmela.net",
    password: "hashed_password"
  },
  {
    id: 2,
    name: "Dean John",
    username: "dd.1",
    email: "[email protected]",
    phone: "1-123-543-1857 123212",
    website: "dd.net",
    password: "Dean_hashed_password"
  }

We will use users as array for further examples

1. ARMD — Adding a new element to users

const newUser = {
    id: 4,
    name: "Denomer Crazy",
    username: "crazy.1",
    email: "[email protected]",
    phone: "",
    website: "crazy.app",
    password: "crazed_checker"
};
const newData = [...users, newUser]; // add element at last
or 
const newData = [newUser, ...users]; // add element at first
or 
const newData = users.concat(newUser) // the old way

The use of es6 spread operator make super easy to add elements to array. We can use spread operator to concat two different array, modify shape of objects or add dynamic key value pairs etc.

const hobbies = ['chess', 'pool'];
const newUsers = users.map(u => ({...u, hobbies}))
// this will add hobbies to users array and return newUsers array

2. ARMD — Get email address, phone number and website of users into new array

const contactInfo = users.map(({email, website, phone}) => ({email, website, phone}));

The use es6 of destructuring of object keys and map to get the contact info array for user.

3. ARMD — Find and replace value for key of objects

const newUsers = users.map(u => u.id == 2? ({...u, name: 'te'}): u);
// this will return newUsers with all user having name 'te'

4. ARMD —Delete some key’s from object

Note: We will actually not delete the key but return a new object, if you want to delete the key use delete operator, here we are considering object immutability.

To delete keys there are lot of ways but we will look at the most easy, single lined. Lets try to delete website from users.

const newUsers = users.map({id, email, name, username, phone, password} => ({id, email, username, email, phone, password}));
// will return an array with all keys other than website

Above code seems to be practically difficult to code for big objects.

const newUsers = users.map(u => Object.keys(u).reduce((newObj, key) => key != 'website' ? { ...newObj, [key]: u[key]} : newObj, {}));

We map through the users and then on each user we do a reduce and form a new object (newObj) and then check for website key, if its a website we return the previously formed newObj, if not then we do a spread operator and add require key to obj and finally return newObj.

If anything is not clear or you want to point out something, please comment down below.

Thank you