Anissa  Beier

Anissa Beier


Cryptocurrencies Used in Blockchain Network

In this Blockchain article, we will learn about Cryptocurrencies Used in Blockchain Network. Decentralized Applications and Ethereum Cryptocurrency. 

Introduction to Blockchain Network

The need for secure and reliable digital transactions becomes more critical as the world becomes increasingly digital. Blockchain technology provides a way to record and transfer digital assets securely and reliably. Simply put, a blockchain is a digital ledger of all transactions. This ledger is distributed across a network of computers known as nodes. Each node has a copy of the ledger and verifies all new transactions. This decentralized system ensures that no single entity can control or tamper with the ledger. Blockchain technology has the potential to revolutionize the way we interact with the internet. The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record financial transactions and virtually everything of value.

This makes blockchain technology extraordinarily secure and trustworthy. It also has the potential to revolutionize the way we do business. For example, blockchain could create a decentralized marketplace where buyers and sellers can trade directly without needing a third party. This would be much more efficient and could reduce costs. Blockchain could also create a new type of internet where users control their data. This would vastly improve over the current internet, where data is centralized and controlled by a few large corporations. Also, it could enable us to make peer-to-peer payments without the need for a central authority, such as a bank. It could also create a more secure and efficient way to store and share data.

blockchain networkSource –

This article will mainly focus on the Cryptocurrencies used in Blockchain Networks. You can refer to this article to get more knowledge about Blockchain Networks. We will discuss Decentralized Applications and Ethereum Cryptocurrency in detail in this post. Starting from the basics, you require a fundamental knowledge of Blockchain Networks. But before diving into that, let’s first discuss what cryptocurrencies are!

What is Cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrencies use cryptography to safeguard their transactions and regulate the generation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual tokens. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and not governed by any one entity, including the government or financial institutions. The most well-known cryptocurrency is Bitcoin, but many other cryptocurrencies are available, such as Ethereum, Litecoin, and Ripple. Cryptocurrencies are often traded on decentralized exchanges and can also be used to purchase goods and services. Cryptocurrencies are often praised for their decentralized nature, as well as their security and privacy features. However, they have also been criticized for their volatile prices and potential for illegal use.

What is a Cryptocurrency Wallet?

A cryptocurrency wallet is a digital or physical wallet that stores your private and public keys, which you use to access your cryptocurrency. A cryptocurrency wallet is needed to send, receive and store your cryptocurrency. There are different types of cryptocurrency wallets, each with its distinct set of features. Some wallets are designed for a specific cryptocurrency, while others can store multiple cryptocurrencies. Some wallets are online, while others are offline. Cryptocurrency wallets can be divided into software, hardware, and paper.

Software wallets are accessed through an application on your computer or phone. They are the most convenient to use but are also the least secure. Hardware wallets are physical devices that look like USB drives. They are more secure than software wallets because they are not connected to the internet and are, therefore, not vulnerable to getting hacked. However, they are more challenging to use. Paper wallets are pieces of paper with your public and private keys printed. They are used to facilitate cryptographic transactions. These types of wallets are considered to be more secure than other forms of wallets.

cryptocurrency walletsSource –

What is Ethereum Network?

Ethereum is a decentralized platform that supports smart contracts, programs that execute exactly as intended with no chance of fraud or outside influence. This blockchain may be customized. It enables users to start ICOs and develop decentralized applications (dapps). These applications are powered by a specially developed blockchain, a potent worldwide shared infrastructure that can transfer value and reflect property ownership.

This makes it possible for developers to build markets, keep records of obligations or promises, transfer money following directives left behind in the past (like a will or a futures contract), and do a lot of other things that are still in the future without the need for a middleman or counterparty risk. Ethereum protocol is powered by ETH, the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum blockchain, and it is an essential part of the web3 stack. The Ethereum protocol is Turing complete, meaning it can run any program.


What is meant by Turing Complete and Turing Incomplete?

There are two types of blockchain: Turing complete and Turing incomplete. A Turing complete blockchain can support all computations that can be done on a Turing machine. This means that a Turing complete blockchain can support all the same computations that a computer can perform. On the other hand, a Turing incomplete blockchain can only support a subset of computations that can be done on a Turing machine.

The main difference between these two types of blockchain is that a Turing complete blockchain can support all types of smart contracts, while a Turing incomplete blockchain can only support a limited number of smart contracts. This is because a Turing complete blockchain can support any computation, while a Turing incomplete blockchain can only support a limited number of computations. One example of a Turing complete blockchain is Ethereum. Ethereum can support all smart contracts because it is a Turing-complete blockchain. One example of a Turing incomplete blockchain is Bitcoin. Bitcoin can only support a limited number of smart contracts.


What are Decentralized Applications?

Decentralized applications run on a decentralized network instead of a single computer. These programs are often referred to as dApps. A dApp can be anything from a decentralized exchange to a social media platform. The one common thread between all dApps is that they are powered by a decentralized network, usually a blockchain. Decentralized networks are more secure and resilient than traditional centralized networks because there is no single point of failure. If one node in the network goes down, the others can continue functioning. Decentralized applications are still in their early stages of development, but there are already a few well-known dApps, such as Ethereum, Augur, and MaidSafe.


Decentralized ApplicationsSource –


What is Ethereum Gas?

Ethereum gas is a measurement unit used to determine how much computational effort is required to execute a particular transaction or smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain. In other words, it is a way of measuring how much “work” is required to be done to complete a transaction. The more complex the transaction, the more gas it will require. For example, a simple transfer of ETH from one address to another requires less gas than a smart contract that involves data storage, calculation, and other operations.

Gas is essential because it prevents the Ethereum network from overloading many transactions. If a transaction requires too much gas, it will be rejected by the network. Users are not charged for gas directly. Instead, they must pay a small amount of ETH for each transaction that they make. This ETH is then used to pay the miners who confirm the transactions on the blockchain.


What are the Types of Users in the Ethereum Network?

There are three types of users in the Ethereum network:

1. Full node:

A full node is a computer that stores a copy of the entire Ethereum blockchain. Full nodes help to keep the network secure by validating and propagating transactions and blocks. They also provide the necessary data for light clients to access the network.

2. Light client:

A light client is a computer that does not store a copy of the blockchain but instead relies on full nodes to provide data. Light clients can be used to send and receive transactions and to interact with smart contracts.

3. Contract:

A contract is a program that runs on the Ethereum network and can store data and execute transactions. Contracts can be used to create decentralized applications or to interact with other contracts.


What are the Components of Ethereum?

1. Smart Contracts:

Smart contracts are self-executing contracts that are written on a blockchain platform. A smart contract is like a traditional contract, but it is executed and enforced automatically by the network. This means there is no need for a third party to mediate or enforce the contract. Smart contracts have the potential to revolutionize the way we do business. They can automate many transactions, from financial to supply chain management. One of the most promising applications of smart contracts is in the area of financial services. Smart contracts can streamline the process of securities trading, making it more efficient and less vulnerable to fraud.

Another potential application of smart contracts is in the area of identity management. Smart contracts can create a decentralized identity management system that is more secure and efficient than the current centralized system. There are many other potential applications of smart contracts. The possibilities are limited only by our imagination.

Smart contractsSource –

Working of Smart Contract:

Smart contracts are executed by the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which runs on every node in the Ethereum network. The EVM has its own internal Turing-complete programming language, which allows it to execute any code. When a smart contract is deployed, its code is stored in the blockchain and can not be changed. However, the contract can be called by other contracts or external accounts. When a contract is called, its code is executed by the EVM. The EVM has access to the contract’s storage, a persistent key-value store. The EVM can also send messages to other contracts or external accounts.

Working of Smart ContractSource –

2. Ether:

Ether is the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum network. It is used to pay transaction fees and computational services on the Ethereum network. Ether is a decentralized currency, like Bitcoin. However, unlike Bitcoin, Ether is not meant to be a global currency. Instead, it is intended to be used as fuel for the Ethereum network. The Ethereum network is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts. These contracts are programs that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of fraud or third-party interference.

Ether is used to pay for the computational power needed to run these smart contracts. This is similar to how oil is used to power cars or coal is used to power trains. Ether is also used to pay transaction fees on the Ethereum network. Every time a user sends a transaction, they must pay a small fee to have their transaction processed by the network.


3. Ethereum Clients:

To use the Ethereum network, you need to have an Ethereum client. An Ethereum client is software that allows you to interact with the Ethereum network. It is your gateway to the Ethereum network. There are different types of Ethereum clients. The most popular ones are Geth and Parity. Geth is the Go implementation of the Ethereum client. Parity is the Rust implementation of the Ethereum client. There are also other clients like Aleth and Trinity.

Each client has its advantages and disadvantages. Geth is the most popular client. It is easy to use, and it has a lot of features. Parity is more lightweight, and it is faster than Geth. Aleth is more focused on security. Trinity is still in development. You can choose any client you want. It would be best if you used a client you are comfortable with. If you are still deciding which client to use, you can try out different ones and see which one you like the most.


4. Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM):

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing-complete virtual machine that runs on the Ethereum network. It is used to run smart contracts and decentralized applications (apps). The EVM is sandboxed, meaning that the code running on the EVM has no access to the network or filesystem. This makes it a very secure environment for running apps. The EVM is also Turing-complete, meaning it can run any code. This makes it very flexible and powerful. The EVM is executed on every node in the Ethereum network. This ensures that all dapps running on the network are secure and have no single point of failure. The EVM is a crucial part of Ethereum and makes it a powerful platform for running dapps.


5. Ether Scripter:

Ether Scripter is a smart contract programming language that enables developers to create contracts and decentralized applications (dapps) on the Ethereum blockchain. It is a high-level language similar to JavaScript and is designed to be easy to learn and use. Ether Scripter is also Turing-complete, meaning that it can be used to create programs that can solve any computational problem.


What is Solidity?

Solidity is a smart contract programming language for the Ethereum blockchain. It was developed by the Ethereum Foundation to enable developers to build decentralized applications (dapps) on the Ethereum blockchain. Solidity is a statically typed, contract-oriented programming language. C++, Python, and JavaScript influence it. Solidity is designed to target the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Solidity is used to write smart contracts, self-executing contracts that live on the Ethereum blockchain. A smart contract is like a traditional contract, but it is written in code and stored on the blockchain. Solidity is a compiler that translates Solidity code into Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) bytecode. The EVM is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts. Solidity is still under active development and still needs to be stable. However, it is already being used by several projects, including Augur, Gnosis, and Maker.


Bitcoin vs. Ethereum

The world of cryptocurrency is vast and ever-changing. With new coins and tokens being released all the time, it can take time to keep track of everything that’s going on. Two of the most popular and well-known cryptocurrencies are Bitcoin and Ethereum. Though they are both digital currencies, they have a few key differences. Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to be created and remains the most well-known. It was built in 2009 as a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Bitcoin is decentralized, meaning there is no central authority or mediator. Transactions are verified by a network of nodes and recorded on a public blockchain.

Ethereum was created in 2015 and is often referred to as a “world computer.” It is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts. These applications run exactly as programmed without any possibility of fraud or third-party interference. Ethereum also has its cryptocurrency, called Ether. Another difference is that Ethereum has a Turing complete language which allows for the creation of decentralized applications. Bitcoin does not have this capability. Finally, the block time for Ethereum is much faster than Bitcoin. This means that transactions on the Ethereum network confirm much quicker than those on the Bitcoin network.

Bitcoin vs. EthereumSource –


In this article, we have discussed Ethereum Protocol in detail. There are many applications of Ethereum. It is also used to power the decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem. DeFi applications are built on Ethereum and enable users to lend, borrow, trade, and invest without a central intermediary. Ethereum is used as a platform to launch other cryptocurrencies. Its primary applications are decentralized applications and initial coin offerings (ICOs). An ICO is a fundraising method where new projects sell their underlying crypto tokens in exchange for bitcoin and Ether. ICOs are a form of crowdfunding and have become a popular way to raise capital for new blockchain projects.

A growing number of companies also use Ethereum technology to power their businesses. Some of the most notable are Microsoft, JPMorgan, and Amazon. These companies use Ethereum to build decentralized applications (dapps) and create smart contracts. Ethereum is a versatile platform that can be used for various purposes, and these companies are just beginning to scratch the surface of its potential. Microsoft is using Ethereum to develop a decentralized identity system. This system will allow users to control their data and identities. JPMorgan is using Ethereum to build a blockchain platform for its business operations while Amazon is using Ethereum to create a decentralized marketplace.

Original article sourced at:

#blockchain #eth #Network #bitcoin 

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Cryptocurrencies Used in Blockchain Network
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


5 Blockchain Applications That Have Transformed the World of Technology

The blockchain is the decentralized database of the blocks of information, which gets recorded in the chain format and linked in a secured crypto graphical manner. This technology ensures proper safety of the data due to its secure nature, and it totally changes how people carry out transactions. It also brings about a faster and secure process of validating information needed to establish reliability.

Though blockchain technology came into the market to carry out only digital transactions, it is now used in various industries like supply chain, finance, health care, and many more.

The blockchain technology has made its position in mobile app development as well. Blockchain applications are transparent and accountable. From getting easy access to medical records and buying insurance, you can see blockchain applications everywhere.

Here are some of the areas where you can see the use of blockchain applications and how they have changed various industries.

1. Ripple

Ripple is useful for increasing banking transactions. The implementation of blockchain technology in the financial sector is much more profound than any other sector. Ripple proves this. It is one of the greatest tools to record and complete financial transactions.

It develops a large network despite strict physical boundaries. As there is no such third-party involvement present, the cost of these transactions is lower than usual. At the same time, the network also remains transparent and quite secured.

It is normally seen that financial transactions that happen globally are

error-prone and take a lot of time. In addition to this, when the transaction

fees and exchange rates get added up, the total cost usually gets high.

However, Ripple offers real-time international transactions without spending too much money. It has the network of about 200+ institutions making the process affordable, secure, and fast for all sorts of international transactions.

2. Etherisc

This blockchain application helps in automating flight insurance. Insurance is another area where blockchain is gaining popularity. Through this application, insurers can make smart contracts rather than getting involved in the traditional contracts that are usually complex. Etherisc is the blockchain application that helps customers buy flight insurance. If the flight gets canceled or delayed, they do not have to wait for months to get the payment back. This application ensures an on-time payout.

#blockchain #blockchain-technology #blockchain-development #blockchain-use-cases #blockchain-a #blockchain-technologies #technology #decentralization

Devin Pinto


Blockchain Certification | Blockchain Training Course | Blockchain Council

In all the market sectors, Blockchain technology has contributed to the redesign. The improvements that were once impossible have been pushed forward. Blockchain is one of the leading innovations with the ability to influence the various sectors of the industry. It also has the ability to be one of the career-influencing innovations at the same time. We have seen an increasing inclination towards the certification of the Blockchain in recent years, and there are obvious reasons behind it. Blockchain has everything to offer, from good packages to its universal application and futuristic development. Let’s address the reasons why one should go for Blockchain certification.

5 advantages of certification by Blockchain:

1. Lucrative packages- Everyone who completes their education or upskills themselves wants to end up with a good bundle, not only is one assured of a good learning experience with Blockchain, but the packages are drool-worthy at the same time. A Blockchain developer’s average salary varies between $150,000 and $175,000 per annum. Comparatively, a software developer gets a $137,000 per year salary. For a Blockchain developer, the San Francisco Bay area provides the highest bundle, amounting to $162,288 per annum. There’s no point arguing that learning about Blockchain is a smart decision with such lucrative packages.

2. Growing industry- When you select any qualification course, it becomes important that you choose a growing segment or industry that promises potential in the future. You should anticipate all of these with Blockchain. The size of the blockchain market is expected to rise from USD 3.0 billion in 2020 to USD 39.7 billion by 2025. This will see an incredible 67.3 percent CAGR between 2020-2025. To help business processes, several businesses are outsourcing Blockchain technologies. This clearly demonstrates that there will be higher demand in the future for Blockchain developers and certified Blockchain professionals.

3. Universal application- One of the major reasons for the success of Blockchain is that it has a global application. It is not sector-specific. Blockchain usage cases are discovered by almost all market segments. In addition, other innovations such as AI, big data, data science and much more are also supported by Blockchain. It becomes easier to get into a suitable industry once you know about Blockchain.

**4. Work protection-**Surely you would like to invest in an ability that ensures job security. You had the same chance for Blockchain. Since this is the technology of the future, understanding that Blockchain can keep up with futuristic developments will help in a successful and safe job.

**5.**After a certain point of your professional life, you are expected to learn about new abilities that can help enhance your skills. Upskilling is paramount. Upskilling oneself has become the need for the hour, and choosing a path that holds a lot of potential for the future is the best way to do this. For all computer geeks and others who want to gain awareness of emerging technology, Blockchain is a good option.

Concluding thoughts- opting for Blockchain certification is a successful career move with all these advantages. You will be able to find yourself in a safe and secured work profile once you have all the knowledge and information. Link for Blockchain certification programme with the Blockchain Council.

#blockchain certificate #blockchain training #blockchain certification #blockchain developers #blockchain #blockchain council

Cryptocurrency Exchange Software Development Company - Exchange Solution

Cryptocurrency is the subject of hot talk these days, news, blogs, TV channels and even plenty of big financial institutes are talking about cryptocurrencies. And now everyone has to accept the world is revolutionizing in front of our eyes, all thanks to cryptocurrency app development. If you now miss out on the bandwagon, then you will be left out and won’t be able to recover in the upcoming days, as your competition will grow.

So here is a great business idea of launching a cryptocurrency exchange platform development in India that will help you make a lot of profit in the market. But, now the question is how we can create unique cryptocurrency software. The internet is full of information on how to develop unique cryptocurrency software and apps for Android, thus it is really challenging to find out the right information.

Steps to Develop Unique Cryptocurrency Software and App For Android

We will explain the whole process step by step to make it understandable to you.

Define Your Idea

The idea of developing cryptocurrency software might seem fun to you. However, in reality, it requires a strategic plan and a lot of effort. To smoothen this process, you need to make a document in which you explain the ideology of the development and the problems that need to be solved with your cryptocurrency software.

Design Cryptocurrency Software

Once you have defined the cryptocurrency idea, the next significant thing that comes into action is designing your cryptocurrency software. In order to develop a successful cryptocurrency software, you need to develop software that not only remains attractive but also remains user friendly on multiple devices.

Front End Development

The part of the application which is accessible to the clients. Front end development is usually done by using designing languages such as HTML, CSS, Bootstrap and Javascript. The front end application development should be done with a primary focus on the users of the application.

Back End Development

Back end development is not accessible to the users. The main job of backend development is to make various application operations possible as follows.

  • User authentication
  • Admin panel to manage application operations
  • Newsletter
  • Cryptocurrency bets and deals for the users
  • An application that can be integrated with third-party applications

Blockchain Development

Blockchain development is one of the main parts of cryptocurrency development services. This part of the application is responsible to carry out the process of data processing and trades in a secure manner.


Once the cryptocurrency application is developed successfully, the next step that comes to action is testing. The testing process makes sure that the application works logically with no glitch. Also, this process makes sure that the UI of the application is well versed.


Since cryptocurrency exchange platforms involve financial activities, it is more than important to keep this sensitive information secure from wrong people. We advise you to secure your application with the latest standards.


By seeing the popularity of cryptocurrency software, it is no longer a surprise why more and more people are joining the bandwagon of cryptocurrency. A cryptocurrency development company can develop a high-quality application for you that will bring a lot of benefits to you.

#cryptocurrency #cryptocurrency software #cryptocurrency development #cryptocurrency development company #blockchain #blockchain development

Blocktech Brew

Blocktech Brew


Cryptocurrency Development Services Can Help The Blockchain Industry

Although it is often the case that crypto coin development services are not necessary, they can be beneficial to an investor. In this blog article, learn about how crypto coin development services can help the blockchain industry grow!

What are Cryptocurrency Development Services?

Cryptocurrency is a digital asset that uses cryptography to secure its transactions and to control the creation of new units. #cryptocurrency development services help businesses and individuals create their own cryptocurrency or blockchain project. 

Cryptocurrency development services can help businesses and individuals create their own cryptocurrency or blockchain project, but there are a few things to keep in mind before hiring a development team. First, it’s important to understand what you need the development team to do. Second, it’s important to understand the various types of cryptocurrency development services available, so you can choose the right one for your needs. Third, it’s important to know how much money you want to spend on a development project, as well as how long you expect it to take. Finally, it’s important to determine who will be responsible for each step of the project – from developing the codebase to deploying the finished product. 

Why Blockchain Industry Needs Cryptocurrency Development Services

Most people are aware of Bitcoin, Ether, and other cryptocurrencies. However, not everyone understands how these digital assets work or what benefits they offer. Cryptocurrency development services can help the blockchain industry grow by helping developers create new applications and projects that use cryptocurrencies. 

Cryptocurrencies are digital assets that use cryptography to secure their transactions and to control the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized, meaning they are not subject to government or financial institution control. As a result, they have become popular among anti-establishment activists, libertarians, and others who view centralized institutions as corrupt. 

Cryptocurrencies are built on a distributed ledger called the blockchain. #blockchain is a public record of all cryptocurrency transactions. It allows for anonymous transactions and is immune to computer hacking. 

Cryptocurrency development services can help developers create new applications and projects that use cryptocurrencies. These services can include the design, development, testing, and maintenance of blockchain-based applications. Services can also include creating new cryptocurrencies or developing services that allow users to access cryptocurrencies using traditional currency. 

As the blockchain industry grows, so does the need for #cryptocurrencydevelopment services. Services such as these can help developers create new applications and projects that use cryptocurrencies

How to Start a Crypto Coin Development Service?

If you want to get into the cryptocurrency development business, there are a few things you need to know. First of all, you'll need to have a strong understanding of blockchain technology. Second, you'll need to develop the skills necessary to create a successful cryptocurrency. Third, you'll need to find a company that can help you reach your goals. In this article, we're going to teach you how to start a crypto coin development service.

When starting a #crypto #coin development service, the first thing you'll need is a strong understanding of blockchain technology. This is because blockchain is the underlying technology behind most cryptocurrencies. If you don't understand it, it's difficult to create successful cryptocurrencies. Another important factor is developing the skills necessary to create successful cryptocurrencies. These include coding skills and knowledge of cryptography. Lastly, you'll need to find a company that can help you reach your goals. This includes finding companies with experience in #cryptocurrency development and marketing. Once you've completed these steps, your business should be ready to start working on cryptocurrencies!

How to Run a Successful Crypto Coin Development Service?

Cryptocurrency development services can help the #blockchain industry grow. By providing a range of expertise and resources, these services can help developers create new cryptocurrencies and applications on the blockchain.