1573440522

# Python 3: Top 50 Tips & Tricks

• Python iterable tricks.
• Python comprehension tricks.
• Python unpacking tricks.
• Python itertools tricks.
• Python collections tricks.
• Python other tricks.
• Python easter eggs.
• Python tricks to understand the context.

## 1. Python Iterables tricks

Creating a sequence of numbers (zero to ten with skips).

``````>>> range(0,10,2)
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

``````

Summing a sequence of numbers (calculating the sum of zero to ten with skips).

``````>>> l = range(0,10,2)
>>> sum(l)
20
``````

Checking whether any element in the sequence is Truthful (checking whether any elements between zero and ten with skips are even).

``````>>> any(a % 2==0 for a in range(0,10,2))
True
``````

Checking whether all elements in the sequence are Truthful (checking whether all elements between zero and ten with skips are even).

``````
>>> all(a % 2==0 for a in range(0,10,2))
True
``````

Cumulative summing a sequence of numbers (calculating the cumulative sum of zero to ten with skips).

``````>>> import numpy as np
>>> res = list(np.cumsum(range(0,10,2)))
>>> res
[ 0,  2,  6, 12, 20]
``````

Given each iterable we construct a tuple by adding an index.

``````>>> a = ['Hello', 'world', '!']
>>> list(enumerate(a))
[(0, 'Hello'), (1, 'world'), (2, '!')]
``````

Concatenating iterable to a single string.

``````>>> a = ["python","really", "rocks"]
>>> " ".join(a)
'python really rocks'
``````

Combining two iterable of tuples or pivot nested iterables.

``````# Combining two iterables
>>> a = [1, 2, 3]
>>> b = ['a', 'b', 'c']
>>> z = zip(a, b)
>>> z
[(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c')]

# Pivoting list of tuples
>>> zip(*z)
[(1, 2, 3), ('a', 'b', 'c')]
``````

Getting min/max from iterable (with/without specific function).

``````# Getting maximum from iterable
>>> a = [1, 2, -3]
>>> max(a)
2

# Getting maximum from iterable
>>> min(a)
1

# Bot min/max has key value to allow to get maximum by appliing function
>>> max(a,key=abs)
3
``````

Getting sorted iterable (can sort by “compare” function).

``````>>> a = [1, 2, -3]
>>> sorted(a)
[-3, 1, 2]

>>> sorted(a,key=abs)
[1, 2, -3]
``````

Splitting a single string to list.

``````>>> s = "a,b,c"
>>> s.split(",")
["a", "b", "c"]
``````

Initializing a list filled with some repetitive number.

``````>> [1]* 10
[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
``````

Merging/Upserting two dictionaries.

``````>>> a = {"a":1, "b":1}
>>> b = {"b":2, "c":1}
>>> a.update(b)
>>> a
{"a":1, "b":2, "c":1}
``````

Naming and saving slices of iterables.

``````
# Naming slices (slice(start, end, step))
>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> LASTTHREE = slice(-3, None)
>>> LASTTHREE
slice(-3, None, None)
>>> a[LASTTHREE]
[3, 4, 5]
``````

Finding the index of an item in a list.

``````>>> a = ["foo", "bar", "baz"]
>>> a.index("bar")
1
``````

Finding the index of the min/max item in an iterable.

``````>>> a = [2, 3, 1]
>>> min(enumerate(a),key=lambda x: x[1])[0]
2
``````

Rotating iterable by k elements.

``````>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4]
>>> k = 2
>>> a[-2:] + a[:-2]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
``````

Removing useless characters on the end/start/both of your string.

``````>>> name = "//George//"
>>> name.strip("/")
'George'
>>> name.rstrip("/")
'//George'
>>> name.lstrip("/")
'George//'
``````

Reversing an iterable wit order (string, list etc).

``````# Reversing string
>>> s = "abc"
>>> s[::-1]
"cba"

# Reversing list
>>> l = ["a", "b", "c"]
>>> l[::-1]
["c", "b", "a"]
``````

## 2. Python branching tricks

Multiple predicates short-cut.

``````>>> n = 10
>>> 1 < n < 20
True
``````

For-else construct useful when searched for something and find it.

``````# For example assume that I need to search through a list and process each item until a flag item is found and
# then stop processing. If the flag item is missing then an exception needs to be raised.

for i in mylist:
if i == theflag:
break
process(i)
else:
raise ValueError("List argument missing terminal flag.")
``````

Trenary operator.

``````>>> "Python ROCK" if True else " I AM GRUMPY"
"Python ROCK"
``````

Try-catch-else construct.

``````try:
foo()
except Exception:
print("Exception occured")
else:
print("Exception didnt occur")
finally:
print("Always gets here")
``````

While-else construct.

``````i = 5

while i > 1:
print("Whil-ing away!")
i -= 1
if i == 3:
break
else:
print("Finished up!")
``````

## 3. Python comprehensions tricks

List comprehension.

``````>>> m = [x ** 2 for x in range(5)]
>>> m
[0, 1, 4, 9, 16]
``````

Set comprehension.

``````>>> m = {x ** 2 for x in range(5)}
>>> m
{0, 1, 4, 9, 16}
``````

Dict comprehension.

``````>>> m = {x: x ** 2 for x in range(5)}
>>> m
{0: 0, 1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16}
``````

Generator comprehension.

``````# A generator comprehension is the lazy version of a list comprehension.
>>> m = (x ** 2 for x in range(5))
>>> m
<generator object <genexpr> at 0x108efe408>
>>> list(m)
[0, 1, 4, 9, 16]

>>> m = (x ** 2 for x in range(5))
>>> next(m)
0
>>> list(m)
[1, 4, 9, 16]
``````

List comprehension with the current and previous value.

``````>>> a = [1, 2, 4,2]
>>> [y - x for x,y in zip(a,a[1:])]
[1, 2, -2]
``````

Note: all comprehension can use predicates with if statement.

## 4. Python unpacking tricks

Unpack variables from iterable.

``````# One can unpack all iterables (tuples, list etc)
>>> a, b, c = 1, 2, 3
>>> a, b, c
(1, 2, 3)

>>> a, b, c = [1, 2, 3]
>>> a, b, c
(1, 2, 3)
``````

Swap variables values.

``````>>> a, b = 1, 2
>>> a, b = b, a
>>> a, b
(2, 1)
``````

Unpack variables from iterable without indicating all elements.

``````>>> a, *b, c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> a
1
>>> b
[2, 3, 4]
>>> c
5
``````

Unpack variables using the splat operator.

``````>>> def test(x, y, z):
>>> 	print(x, y, z)
>>> res = test(*[10, 20, 30])
10 20 30
>>> res = test(**{'x': 1, 'y': 2, 'z': 3} )
10 20 30
``````

## 5. Python Itertools tricks

Flatten iterables.

``````>>> a = [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]]
>>> list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(a))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
``````

Creating cartesian products from iterables.

``````>>> for p in itertools.product([1, 2, 3], [4, 5]):
>>>    print(''.join(str(x) for x in p))

(1, 4)
(1, 5)
(2, 4)
(2, 5)
(3, 4)
(3, 5)
``````

Creating permutation from iterable.

``````>>> for p in itertools.permutations([1, 2, 3, 4]):
>>>      print(''.join(str(x) for x in p))
123
132
213
231
312
321
``````

Creating ngram from iterable.

``````>>> from itertools import islice
>>> def n_grams(a, n):
...     z = (islice(a, i, None) for i in range(n))
...     return zip(*z)
...
>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
>>> n_grams(a, 3)
[(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5), (4, 5, 6)]
>>> n_grams(a, 2)
[(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6)]
>>> n_grams(a, 4)
[(1, 2, 3, 4), (2, 3, 4, 5), (3, 4, 5, 6)]
``````

Combining two iterables of tuples with padding or pivot nested iterable with padding.

``````>>> import itertools as it
>>> x = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> y = ['a', 'b', 'c']
>>> list(zip(x, y))
[(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c')]

>>> list(it.zip_longest(x, y))
[(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c'), (4, None), (5, None)]
``````

Creating a combination of k things from an iterable of n

``````>>> import itertools
>>> bills = [20, 20, 20, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 5, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
>>> list(itertools.combinations(bills, 3))
[(20, 20, 20), (20, 20, 10), (20, 20, 10), ... ]
``````

Creating accumulated results of iterable given a function

``````>>> import itertools
>>> list(itertools.accumulate([9, 21, 17, 5, 11, 12, 2, 6], min))
[9, 9, 9, 5, 5, 5, 2, 2]
``````

Creating an iterator that returns elements from the iterable as long as the predicate is true

``````>>> import itertools
>>> itertools.takewhile(lambda x: x < 3, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
[0, 1, 2]

>>> it.dropwhile(lambda x: x < 3, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4])
[3, 4]
``````

Creating an iterator that filters elements from iterable returning only those for which the predicate is `_False_`

``````>>> import itertools
# keeping only false values
>>> list(itertools.filterfalse(bool, [None, False, 1, 0, 10]))
[None, False, 0]
``````

Creating an iterator that computes the function using arguments obtained from the iterable of iterables

``````>>> import itertools
>>> import operator
>>> a = [(2, 6), (8, 4), (7, 3)]
>>> list(itertools.starmap(operator.mul, a))
[12, 32, 21]
``````

## 6. Python collections tricks

Set basic operations.

``````>>> A = {1, 2, 3, 3}
>>> A
set([1, 2, 3])
>>> B = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
>>> B
set([3, 4, 5, 6, 7])
>>> A | B
set([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7])
>>> A & B
set([3])
>>> A - B
set([1, 2])
>>> B - A
set([4, 5, 6, 7])
>>> A ^ B
set([1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7])
>>> (A ^ B) == ((A - B) | (B - A))
True
``````

Counter data structure (an unordered collection where elements are stored as dictionary keys and their counts are stored as dictionary values).

``````import collections

>>> A = collections.Counter([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7])
>>> A
Counter({3: 4, 1: 2, 2: 2, 4: 1, 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1})
>>> A.most_common(1)
[(3, 4)]
>>> A.most_common(3)
[(3, 4), (1, 2), (2, 2)]
``````

Default dictionary structure (a subclass of dictionary that retrieves default value when non-existing key getting accessed).

``````>>> import collections
>>> m = collections.defaultdict(int)
>>> m['a']
0

>>> m = collections.defaultdict(str)
>>> m['a']
''
>>> m['b'] += 'a'
>>> m['b']
'a'

>>> m = collections.defaultdict(lambda: '[default value]')
>>> m['a']
'[default value]'
>>> m['b']
'[default value]'

>>> m = collections.defaultdict(list)
>>> m['a']
[]
``````

Ordered dict structure (a subclass of dictionary that keeps order).

``````>>> from collections import OrderedDict

>>> d = OrderedDict.fromkeys('abcde')
>>> d.move_to_end('b')
>>> ''.join(d.keys())
'acdeb'

>>> d.move_to_end('b', last=False)
>>> ''.join(d.keys())
'bacde'
``````

Deques structure (Deques are a generalization of stacks and queues).

``````>>> import collection
>>> Q = collections.deque()
>>> Q.append(1)
>>> Q.appendleft(2)
>>> Q.extend([3, 4])
>>> Q.extendleft([5, 6])
>>> Q
deque([6, 5, 2, 1, 3, 4])
>>> Q.pop()
4
>>> Q.popleft()
6
>>> Q
deque([5, 2, 1, 3])
>>> Q.rotate(3)
>>> Q
deque([2, 1, 3, 5])
>>> Q.rotate(-3)
>>> Q
deque([5, 2, 1, 3])

>>> last_three = collections.deque(maxlen=3)
>>> for i in range(4):
...     last_three.append(i)
...     print ', '.join(str(x) for x in last_three)
...
0
0, 1
0, 1, 2
1, 2, 3
2, 3, 4
``````

Named tuples structure (create tuple-like objects that have fields accessible by attribute lookup as well as being indexable and iterable).

``````>>> import collections
>>> Point = collections.namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
>>> p = Point(x=1.0, y=2.0)
>>> p
Point(x=1.0, y=2.0)
>>> p.x
1.0
>>> p.y
2.0
``````

Use A Dictionary To Store A Switch.

``````
>>> func_dict = {'sum': lambda x, y: x + y, 'subtract': lambda x, y: x - y}
>>> func_dict['sum'](9,3)
12
>>> func_dict['subtract'](9,3)
6
``````

Data classes structure

``````>>> from dataclasses import dataclass

>>> @dataclass
>>> class DataClassCard:
>>>    rank: str
>>>    suit: str

>>> queen_of_hearts = DataClassCard('Q', 'Hearts')
>>> queen_of_hearts.rank
'Q'
>>> queen_of_hearts
DataClassCard(rank='Q', suit='Hearts')
>>> queen_of_hearts == DataClassCard('Q', 'Hearts')
True
``````

## 7. Other Python tricks

Generating uuid.

``````# This creates a randomized 128-bit number that will almost certainly be unique.
# In fact, there are over 2¹²² possible UUIDs that can be generated. That’s over five undecillion (or 5,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000).

>>> import uuid
>>> user_id = uuid.uuid4()
>>> user_id
UUID('7c2faedd-805a-478e-bd6a-7b26210425c7')
``````

Memoization using LRU cache.

``````import functools

@functools.lru_cache(maxsize=128)
def fibonacci(n):
if n == 0:
return 0
elif n == 1:
return 1
return fibonacci(n - 1) + fibonacci(n - 2)
``````

Suppression of expressions

``````>>> from contextlib import suppress
>>> with contextlib.suppress(ZeroDivisionError):
>>>     10/0
# No exception raised
``````

An elegant way to deal with a file path (3.4≥)

``````>>> from pathlib import Path
>>> data_folder = Path("source_data/text_files/")

>>> file_to_open = data_folder / "raw_data.txt"
>>> file_to_open.name
"raw_data.txt"
>>> file_to_open.suffix
"txt"
>>>file_to_open.stem
"raw_data"

# Files functions
>>> f = open(file_to_open)
# content of the file
>>> file_to_open.exists()
True
``````

Creating decorator to separate concerns

``````>>>from functools import wraps

>>>    @wraps(wrapped)
>>>    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
>>>        return wrapped(*args, **kwargs) + ' sandwich'
>>>    return wrapper

>>>def ham():
>>>    return 'ham'

>>>ham()
'ham sandwich'
``````

Using yield to create a simple iterator

``````>>> def foo(lst):
>>>   for x in lst:
>>>       yield x
>>>       yield x*2

>>> a = [1, 3]
>>> list(foo(a))
[1, 2, 3, 6]
``````

## 8. Python easter eggs

Anti-gravity

``````import antigravity

antigravity.fly()
``````

The Zen of Python

``````>>> import this
The Zen of Python, by Tim Peters
Beautiful is better than ugly.
Explicit is better than implicit.
Simple is better than complex.
Complex is better than complicated.
Flat is better than nested.
Sparse is better than dense.
Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules.
Although practicality beats purity.
Errors should never pass silently.
Unless explicitly silenced.
In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess.
There should be one and preferably only one obvious way to do it.
Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch.
Now is better than never.
Although never is often better than *right* now.
If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea.
If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea.
Namespaces are one honking great idea let's do more of those!
``````

List object attributes

``````>>> dir()
['__annotations__', '__builtins__', '__doc__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__', '__spec__']
>>> dir("Hello World")
['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getitem__', '__getnewargs__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__init_subclass__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mod__', '__mul__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__rmod__', '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'capitalize', 'casefold', 'center', 'count', 'encode', 'endswith', 'expandtabs', 'find', 'format', 'format_map', 'index', 'isalnum', 'isalpha', 'isascii', 'isdecimal', 'isdigit', 'isidentifier', 'islower', 'isnumeric', 'isprintable', 'isspace', 'istitle', 'isupper', 'join', 'ljust', 'lower', 'lstrip', 'maketrans', 'partition', 'replace', 'rfind', 'rindex', 'rjust', 'rpartition', 'rsplit', 'rstrip', 'split', 'splitlines', 'startswith', 'strip', 'swapcase', 'title', 'translate', 'upper', 'zfill']
``````

## Summary

_If you think I should add any more or have suggestions please do let me know in the comments. Thank for reading !

#Python #Python3 #Python Tricks #Coding #Programming

1653475560

## A Pure PHP Implementation Of The MessagePack Serialization Format

msgpack.php

A pure PHP implementation of the MessagePack serialization format.

## Installation

The recommended way to install the library is through Composer:

``````composer require rybakit/msgpack
``````

## Usage

### Packing

To pack values you can either use an instance of a `Packer`:

``````\$packer = new Packer();
\$packed = \$packer->pack(\$value);
``````

or call a static method on the `MessagePack` class:

``````\$packed = MessagePack::pack(\$value);
``````

In the examples above, the method `pack` automatically packs a value depending on its type. However, not all PHP types can be uniquely translated to MessagePack types. For example, the MessagePack format defines `map` and `array` types, which are represented by a single `array` type in PHP. By default, the packer will pack a PHP array as a MessagePack array if it has sequential numeric keys, starting from `0` and as a MessagePack map otherwise:

``````\$mpArr1 = \$packer->pack([1, 2]);               // MP array [1, 2]
\$mpArr2 = \$packer->pack([0 => 1, 1 => 2]);     // MP array [1, 2]
\$mpMap1 = \$packer->pack([0 => 1, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {0: 1, 2: 3}
\$mpMap2 = \$packer->pack([1 => 2, 2 => 3]);     // MP map {1: 2, 2: 3}
\$mpMap3 = \$packer->pack(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]); // MP map {a: 1, b: 2}
``````

However, sometimes you need to pack a sequential array as a MessagePack map. To do this, use the `packMap` method:

``````\$mpMap = \$packer->packMap([1, 2]); // {0: 1, 1: 2}
``````

Here is a list of type-specific packing methods:

``````\$packer->packNil();           // MP nil
\$packer->packBool(true);      // MP bool
\$packer->packInt(42);         // MP int
\$packer->packFloat(M_PI);     // MP float (32 or 64)
\$packer->packFloat32(M_PI);   // MP float 32
\$packer->packFloat64(M_PI);   // MP float 64
\$packer->packStr('foo');      // MP str
\$packer->packBin("\x80");     // MP bin
\$packer->packArray([1, 2]);   // MP array
\$packer->packMap(['a' => 1]); // MP map
\$packer->packExt(1, "\xaa");  // MP ext
``````

Check the "Custom types" section below on how to pack custom types.

#### Packing options

The `Packer` object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the packing process (defaults are in bold):

The type detection mode (`DETECT_STR_BIN`/`DETECT_ARR_MAP`) adds some overhead which can be noticed when you pack large (16- and 32-bit) arrays or strings. However, if you know the value type in advance (for example, you only work with UTF-8 strings or/and associative arrays), you can eliminate this overhead by forcing the packer to use the appropriate type, which will save it from running the auto-detection routine. Another option is to explicitly specify the value type. The library provides 2 auxiliary classes for this, `Map` and `Bin`. Check the "Custom types" section below for details.

Examples:

``````// detect str/bin type and pack PHP 64-bit floats (doubles) to MP 32-bit floats
\$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::DETECT_STR_BIN | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32);

// these will throw MessagePack\Exception\InvalidOptionException
\$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_STR | PackOptions::FORCE_BIN);
\$packer = new Packer(PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT32 | PackOptions::FORCE_FLOAT64);
``````

### Unpacking

To unpack data you can either use an instance of a `BufferUnpacker`:

``````\$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();

\$unpacker->reset(\$packed);
\$value = \$unpacker->unpack();
``````

or call a static method on the `MessagePack` class:

``````\$value = MessagePack::unpack(\$packed);
``````

If the packed data is received in chunks (e.g. when reading from a stream), use the `tryUnpack` method, which attempts to unpack data and returns an array of unpacked messages (if any) instead of throwing an `InsufficientDataException`:

``````while (\$chunk = ...) {
\$unpacker->append(\$chunk);
if (\$messages = \$unpacker->tryUnpack()) {
return \$messages;
}
}
``````

If you want to unpack from a specific position in a buffer, use `seek`:

``````\$unpacker->seek(42); // set position equal to 42 bytes
\$unpacker->seek(-8); // set position to 8 bytes before the end of the buffer
``````

To skip bytes from the current position, use `skip`:

``````\$unpacker->skip(10); // set position to 10 bytes ahead of the current position
``````

To get the number of remaining (unread) bytes in the buffer:

``````\$unreadBytesCount = \$unpacker->getRemainingCount();
``````

To check whether the buffer has unread data:

``````\$hasUnreadBytes = \$unpacker->hasRemaining();
``````

If needed, you can remove already read data from the buffer by calling:

``````\$releasedBytesCount = \$unpacker->release();
``````

With the `read` method you can read raw (packed) data:

``````\$packedData = \$unpacker->read(2); // read 2 bytes
``````

Besides the above methods `BufferUnpacker` provides type-specific unpacking methods, namely:

``````\$unpacker->unpackNil();   // PHP null
\$unpacker->unpackBool();  // PHP bool
\$unpacker->unpackInt();   // PHP int
\$unpacker->unpackFloat(); // PHP float
\$unpacker->unpackStr();   // PHP UTF-8 string
\$unpacker->unpackBin();   // PHP binary string
\$unpacker->unpackArray(); // PHP sequential array
\$unpacker->unpackMap();   // PHP associative array
\$unpacker->unpackExt();   // PHP MessagePack\Type\Ext object
``````

#### Unpacking options

The `BufferUnpacker` object supports a number of bitmask-based options for fine-tuning the unpacking process (defaults are in bold):

1. The binary MessagePack format has unsigned 64-bit as its largest integer data type, but PHP does not support such integers, which means that an overflow can occur during unpacking.

2. Make sure the GMP extension is enabled.

3. Make sure the Decimal extension is enabled.

Examples:

``````\$packedUint64 = "\xcf"."\xff\xff\xff\xff"."\xff\xff\xff\xff";

\$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker(\$packedUint64);
var_dump(\$unpacker->unpack()); // string(20) "18446744073709551615"

\$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker(\$packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_GMP);
var_dump(\$unpacker->unpack()); // object(GMP) {...}

\$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker(\$packedUint64, UnpackOptions::BIGINT_AS_DEC);
var_dump(\$unpacker->unpack()); // object(Decimal\Decimal) {...}
``````

### Custom types

In addition to the basic types, the library provides functionality to serialize and deserialize arbitrary types. This can be done in several ways, depending on your use case. Let's take a look at them.

#### Type objects

If you need to serialize an instance of one of your classes into one of the basic MessagePack types, the best way to do this is to implement the CanBePacked interface in the class. A good example of such a class is the `Map` type class that comes with the library. This type is useful when you want to explicitly specify that a given PHP array should be packed as a MessagePack map without triggering an automatic type detection routine:

``````\$packer = new Packer();

\$packedMap = \$packer->pack(new Map([1, 2, 3]));
\$packedArray = \$packer->pack([1, 2, 3]);
``````

More type examples can be found in the src/Type directory.

#### Type transformers

As with type objects, type transformers are only responsible for serializing values. They should be used when you need to serialize a value that does not implement the CanBePacked interface. Examples of such values could be instances of built-in or third-party classes that you don't own, or non-objects such as resources.

A transformer class must implement the CanPack interface. To use a transformer, it must first be registered in the packer. Here is an example of how to serialize PHP streams into the MessagePack `bin` format type using one of the supplied transformers, `StreamTransformer`:

``````\$packer = new Packer(null, [new StreamTransformer()]);

\$packedBin = \$packer->pack(fopen('/path/to/file', 'r+'));
``````

More type transformer examples can be found in the src/TypeTransformer directory.

#### Extensions

In contrast to the cases described above, extensions are intended to handle extension types and are responsible for both serialization and deserialization of values (types).

An extension class must implement the Extension interface. To use an extension, it must first be registered in the packer and the unpacker.

The MessagePack specification divides extension types into two groups: predefined and application-specific. Currently, there is only one predefined type in the specification, Timestamp.

Timestamp

The Timestamp extension type is a predefined type. Support for this type in the library is done through the `TimestampExtension` class. This class is responsible for handling `Timestamp` objects, which represent the number of seconds and optional adjustment in nanoseconds:

``````\$timestampExtension = new TimestampExtension();

\$packer = new Packer();
\$packer = \$packer->extendWith(\$timestampExtension);

\$unpacker = new BufferUnpacker();
\$unpacker = \$unpacker->extendWith(\$timestampExtension);

\$packedTimestamp = \$packer->pack(Timestamp::now());
\$timestamp = \$unpacker->reset(\$packedTimestamp)->unpack();

\$seconds = \$timestamp->getSeconds();
\$nanoseconds = \$timestamp->getNanoseconds();
``````

When using the `MessagePack` class, the Timestamp extension is already registered:

``````\$packedTimestamp = MessagePack::pack(Timestamp::now());
\$timestamp = MessagePack::unpack(\$packedTimestamp);
``````

Application-specific extensions

In addition, the format can be extended with your own types. For example, to make the built-in PHP `DateTime` objects first-class citizens in your code, you can create a corresponding extension, as shown in the example. Please note, that custom extensions have to be registered with a unique extension ID (an integer from `0` to `127`).

More extension examples can be found in the examples/MessagePack directory.

## Exceptions

If an error occurs during packing/unpacking, a `PackingFailedException` or an `UnpackingFailedException` will be thrown, respectively. In addition, an `InsufficientDataException` can be thrown during unpacking.

An `InvalidOptionException` will be thrown in case an invalid option (or a combination of mutually exclusive options) is used.

## Tests

Run tests as follows:

``````vendor/bin/phpunit
``````

Also, if you already have Docker installed, you can run the tests in a docker container. First, create a container:

``````./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -
``````

The command above will create a container named `msgpack` with PHP 8.1 runtime. You may change the default runtime by defining the `PHP_IMAGE` environment variable:

``````PHP_IMAGE='php:8.0-cli' ./dockerfile.sh | docker build -t msgpack -
``````

See a list of various images here.

Then run the unit tests:

``````docker run --rm -v \$PWD:/msgpack -w /msgpack msgpack
``````

#### Fuzzing

To ensure that the unpacking works correctly with malformed/semi-malformed data, you can use a testing technique called Fuzzing. The library ships with a help file (target) for PHP-Fuzzer and can be used as follows:

``````php-fuzzer fuzz tests/fuzz_buffer_unpacker.php
``````

#### Performance

To check performance, run:

``````php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php
``````

Example output

``````Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0030 ........ 0.0139
false ................ 0.0037 ........ 0.0144
true ................. 0.0040 ........ 0.0137
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0052 ........ 0.0120
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0059 ........ 0.0114
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0119
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0126
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0064 ........ 0.0132
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0135
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0078 ........ 0.0200
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0212
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0203
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0111 ........ 0.0271
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0115 ........ 0.0260
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0103 ........ 0.0273
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0116 ........ 0.0326
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0118 ........ 0.0332
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0325
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0140 ........ 0.0277
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0294
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0086 ........ 0.0241
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0089 ........ 0.0225
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0085 ........ 0.0229
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0280
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0121 ........ 0.0270
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0109 ........ 0.0274
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0128 ........ 0.0346
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0339
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0135 ........ 0.0368
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0138 ........ 0.0276
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0132 ........ 0.0286
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0274
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0180 ........ 0.0285
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0284
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0275
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0283
fix string #1 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0133
fix string #2 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0216
fix string #3 ........ 0.0094 ........ 0.0222
fix string #4 ........ 0.0091 ........ 0.0241
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0122 ........ 0.0301
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0118 ........ 0.0304
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0119 ........ 0.0315
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0150 ........ 0.0388
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1545 ........ 0.1665
32-bit string ........ 0.1570 ........ 0.1756
wide char string #1 .. 0.0091 ........ 0.0236
wide char string #2 .. 0.0122 ........ 0.0313
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0100 ........ 0.0302
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0123 ........ 0.0324
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0327
16-bit binary ........ 0.0168 ........ 0.0372
32-bit binary ........ 0.1588 ........ 0.1754
fix array #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0131
fix array #2 ......... 0.0294 ........ 0.0367
fix array #3 ......... 0.0412 ........ 0.0472
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1378 ........ 0.1596
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.1865 ........ 0.2283
fix map #1 ........... 0.0725 ........ 0.1048
fix map #2 ........... 0.0319 ........ 0.0405
fix map #3 ........... 0.0356 ........ 0.0665
fix map #4 ........... 0.0465 ........ 0.0497
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2540 ........ 0.3028
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2372 ........ 0.2710
fixext 1 ............. 0.0283 ........ 0.0358
fixext 2 ............. 0.0291 ........ 0.0371
fixext 4 ............. 0.0302 ........ 0.0355
fixext 8 ............. 0.0288 ........ 0.0384
fixext 16 ............ 0.0293 ........ 0.0359
8-bit ext ............ 0.0302 ........ 0.0439
16-bit ext ........... 0.0334 ........ 0.0499
32-bit ext ........... 0.1845 ........ 0.1888
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0337 ........ 0.0547
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0335 ........ 0.0560
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0371 ........ 0.0575
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0374 ........ 0.0542
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0356 ........ 0.0533
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0362 ........ 0.0699
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0381 ........ 0.0701
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0367 ........ 0.0687
=============================================
Total                  2.7618          4.0820
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0
``````

With JIT:

``````php -n -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php
``````

Example output

``````Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

=============================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker
---------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0005 ........ 0.0054
false ................ 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
true ................. 0.0004 ........ 0.0059
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0047
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0025 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0023 ........ 0.0046
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0024 ........ 0.0045
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0081
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0043 ........ 0.0079
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0041 ........ 0.0080
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0095
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0091
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0064 ........ 0.0094
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0114
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0122
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0120
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0085 ........ 0.0159
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0157
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0086 ........ 0.0158
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0080
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0042 ........ 0.0081
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0095
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0090
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0056 ........ 0.0085
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0067 ........ 0.0107
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0066 ........ 0.0106
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0104
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0162
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0073 ........ 0.0174
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0072 ........ 0.0164
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0077 ........ 0.0161
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0135
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0135
fix string #1 ....... -0.0002 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0067
fix string #3 ........ 0.0035 ........ 0.0077
fix string #4 ........ 0.0033 ........ 0.0078
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0110
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0121
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0124
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0099 ........ 0.0146
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1522 ........ 0.1474
32-bit string ........ 0.1511 ........ 0.1483
wide char string #1 .. 0.0039 ........ 0.0084
wide char string #2 .. 0.0073 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #1 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0112
8-bit binary #2 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0123
8-bit binary #3 ...... 0.0077 ........ 0.0129
16-bit binary ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0145
32-bit binary ........ 0.1535 ........ 0.1479
fix array #1 ......... 0.0008 ........ 0.0061
fix array #2 ......... 0.0121 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0193 ........ 0.0222
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0607 ........ 0.0479
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S
complex array ........ 0.0749 ........ 0.0824
fix map #1 ........... 0.0329 ........ 0.0431
fix map #2 ........... 0.0161 ........ 0.0189
fix map #3 ........... 0.0205 ........ 0.0262
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0205
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1016 ........ 0.0927
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1096 ........ 0.1030
fixext 1 ............. 0.0157 ........ 0.0161
fixext 2 ............. 0.0175 ........ 0.0183
fixext 4 ............. 0.0156 ........ 0.0185
fixext 8 ............. 0.0163 ........ 0.0184
fixext 16 ............ 0.0164 ........ 0.0182
8-bit ext ............ 0.0158 ........ 0.0207
16-bit ext ........... 0.0203 ........ 0.0219
32-bit ext ........... 0.1614 ........ 0.1539
32-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0195 ........ 0.0249
32-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0188 ........ 0.0260
64-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0281
64-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0212 ........ 0.0291
64-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0207 ........ 0.0295
96-bit timestamp #1 .. 0.0222 ........ 0.0358
96-bit timestamp #2 .. 0.0228 ........ 0.0353
96-bit timestamp #3 .. 0.0210 ........ 0.0319
=============================================
Total                  1.6432          1.9674
Skipped                     4               4
Failed                      0               0
Ignored                     0               0
``````

You may change default benchmark settings by defining the following environment variables:

For example:

``````export MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p
export MP_BENCH_ITERATIONS=1000000
export MP_BENCH_ROUNDS=5
# a comma separated list of test names
export MP_BENCH_TESTS='complex array, complex map'
# or a group name
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='-@slow' // @pecl_comp
# or a regexp
# export MP_BENCH_TESTS='/complex (array|map)/'
``````

Another example, benchmarking both the library and the PECL extension:

``````MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php
``````

Example output

``````Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0031 ........ 0.0141 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0064
false ................ 0.0039 ........ 0.0154 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0053
true ................. 0.0038 ........ 0.0139 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0061 ........ 0.0110 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0065 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0029
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0045 ........ 0.0025
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0047 ........ 0.0103 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0022
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0046 ........ 0.0102 ...... 0.0038 ........ 0.0023
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0174 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0031
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0167 ...... 0.0040 ........ 0.0029
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0063 ........ 0.0168 ...... 0.0039 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0092 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0049 ........ 0.0030
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0227 ...... 0.0042 ........ 0.0046
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0123 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0051
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0136 ........ 0.0331 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0130 ........ 0.0336 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0048
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0127 ........ 0.0329 ...... 0.0051 ........ 0.0048
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0126 ........ 0.0268 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0135 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0046
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0131 ........ 0.0274 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0077 ........ 0.0236 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0087 ........ 0.0244 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0048
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0084 ........ 0.0241 ...... 0.0055 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0112 ........ 0.0271 ...... 0.0048 ........ 0.0045
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0124 ........ 0.0292 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0049
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0118 ........ 0.0270 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0050
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0137 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0058 ........ 0.0051
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0133 ........ 0.0366 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0049
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0129 ........ 0.0350 ...... 0.0052 ........ 0.0048
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0145 ........ 0.0254 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0214 ...... 0.0034 ........ 0.0025
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0287 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0050
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0143 ........ 0.0277 ...... 0.0059 ........ 0.0046
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0134 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0052
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0141 ........ 0.0281 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0144 ........ 0.0282 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0050
fix string #1 ........ 0.0036 ........ 0.0143 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0053
fix string #2 ........ 0.0107 ........ 0.0222 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0068
fix string #3 ........ 0.0116 ........ 0.0245 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0069
fix string #4 ........ 0.0105 ........ 0.0253 ...... 0.0083 ........ 0.0077
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0126 ........ 0.0318 ...... 0.0075 ........ 0.0088
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0121 ........ 0.0295 ...... 0.0076 ........ 0.0086
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0125 ........ 0.0293 ...... 0.0130 ........ 0.0093
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0159 ........ 0.0368 ...... 0.0117 ........ 0.0086
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1547 ........ 0.1686 ...... 0.1516 ........ 0.1373
32-bit string ........ 0.1558 ........ 0.1729 ...... 0.1511 ........ 0.1396
wide char string #1 .. 0.0098 ........ 0.0237 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0065
wide char string #2 .. 0.0128 ........ 0.0291 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0082
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0040 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0120 ........ 0.0058
fix array #2 ......... 0.0279 ........ 0.0390 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0165
fix array #3 ......... 0.0415 ........ 0.0463 ...... 0.0162 ........ 0.0187
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.1349 ........ 0.1628 ...... 0.0334 ........ 0.0341
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0345 ........ 0.0391 ...... 0.0143 ........ 0.0168
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0459 ........ 0.0473 ...... 0.0151 ........ 0.0163
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.2518 ........ 0.2962 ...... 0.0400 ........ 0.0490
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.2380 ........ 0.2682 ...... 0.0545 ........ 0.0579
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  1.5625          2.3866        0.7735          0.7243
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7
``````

With JIT:

``````MP_BENCH_TARGETS=pure_p,pure_u,pecl_p,pecl_u \
php -n -dextension=msgpack.so -dzend_extension=opcache.so \
-dpcre.jit=1 -dopcache.jit_buffer_size=64M -dopcache.jit=tracing -dopcache.enable=1 -dopcache.enable_cli=1 \
tests/bench.php
``````

Example output

``````Filter: MessagePack\Tests\Perf\Filter\ListFilter
Rounds: 3
Iterations: 100000

===========================================================================
Test/Target            Packer  BufferUnpacker  msgpack_pack  msgpack_unpack
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
nil .................. 0.0001 ........ 0.0052 ...... 0.0053 ........ 0.0042
false ................ 0.0007 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0043
true ................. 0.0008 ........ 0.0060 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0021 ........ 0.0043 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0041
7-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0022 ........ 0.0044 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #1 ........ 0.0030 ........ 0.0048 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #2 ........ 0.0032 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
5-bit sint #3 ........ 0.0031 ........ 0.0046 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0040
8-bit uint #1 ........ 0.0054 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0050
8-bit uint #2 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0079 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0044
8-bit uint #3 ........ 0.0051 ........ 0.0082 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
16-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0065 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
16-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0077 ........ 0.0095 ...... 0.0064 ........ 0.0047
32-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0088 ........ 0.0119 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
32-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0117 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0039
32-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0089 ........ 0.0118 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
64-bit uint #1 ....... 0.0097 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #2 ....... 0.0095 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0045
64-bit uint #3 ....... 0.0096 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0047
8-bit int #1 ......... 0.0053 ........ 0.0083 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #2 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
8-bit int #3 ......... 0.0052 ........ 0.0080 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #1 ........ 0.0089 ........ 0.0097 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0046
16-bit int #2 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0093 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0043
16-bit int #3 ........ 0.0075 ........ 0.0094 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #1 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0122 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0044
32-bit int #2 ........ 0.0087 ........ 0.0120 ...... 0.0066 ........ 0.0046
32-bit int #3 ........ 0.0086 ........ 0.0121 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #1 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0149 ...... 0.0060 ........ 0.0045
64-bit int #2 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0062 ........ 0.0044
64-bit int #3 ........ 0.0096 ........ 0.0160 ...... 0.0063 ........ 0.0046
64-bit int #4 ........ 0.0097 ........ 0.0157 ...... 0.0061 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #1 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0153 ...... 0.0056 ........ 0.0044
64-bit float #2 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0152 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0045
64-bit float #3 ...... 0.0079 ........ 0.0155 ...... 0.0057 ........ 0.0044
fix string #1 ........ 0.0010 ........ 0.0045 ...... 0.0071 ........ 0.0044
fix string #2 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0075 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0060
fix string #3 ........ 0.0048 ........ 0.0086 ...... 0.0068 ........ 0.0060
fix string #4 ........ 0.0050 ........ 0.0088 ...... 0.0070 ........ 0.0059
8-bit string #1 ...... 0.0081 ........ 0.0129 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0062
8-bit string #2 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0128 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0065
8-bit string #3 ...... 0.0086 ........ 0.0126 ...... 0.0115 ........ 0.0065
16-bit string #1 ..... 0.0105 ........ 0.0137 ...... 0.0128 ........ 0.0068
16-bit string #2 ..... 0.1510 ........ 0.1486 ...... 0.1526 ........ 0.1391
32-bit string ........ 0.1517 ........ 0.1475 ...... 0.1504 ........ 0.1370
wide char string #1 .. 0.0044 ........ 0.0085 ...... 0.0067 ........ 0.0057
wide char string #2 .. 0.0081 ........ 0.0125 ...... 0.0069 ........ 0.0063
8-bit binary #1 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #2 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
8-bit binary #3 ........... I ............. I ........... F ............. I
16-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
32-bit binary ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix array #1 ......... 0.0014 ........ 0.0059 ...... 0.0132 ........ 0.0055
fix array #2 ......... 0.0146 ........ 0.0156 ...... 0.0155 ........ 0.0148
fix array #3 ......... 0.0211 ........ 0.0229 ...... 0.0179 ........ 0.0180
16-bit array #1 ...... 0.0673 ........ 0.0498 ...... 0.0343 ........ 0.0388
16-bit array #2 ........... S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit array .............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex array ............. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fix map #1 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #2 ........... 0.0148 ........ 0.0180 ...... 0.0156 ........ 0.0179
fix map #3 ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. I
fix map #4 ........... 0.0252 ........ 0.0201 ...... 0.0214 ........ 0.0167
16-bit map #1 ........ 0.1027 ........ 0.0836 ...... 0.0388 ........ 0.0510
16-bit map #2 ............. S ............. S ........... S ............. S
32-bit map ................ S ............. S ........... S ............. S
complex map .......... 0.1104 ........ 0.1010 ...... 0.0556 ........ 0.0602
fixext 1 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 2 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 4 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 8 .................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
fixext 16 ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
8-bit ext ................. I ............. I ........... F ............. F
16-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit ext ................ I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
32-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
64-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #1 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #2 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
96-bit timestamp #3 ....... I ............. I ........... F ............. F
===========================================================================
Total                  0.9642          1.0909        0.8224          0.7213
Skipped                     4               4             4               4
Failed                      0               0            24              17
Ignored                    24              24             0               7
``````

Note that the msgpack extension (v2.1.2) doesn't support ext, bin and UTF-8 str types.

The library is released under the MIT License. See the bundled LICENSE file for details.

Author: rybakit
Source Code: https://github.com/rybakit/msgpack.php

1619510796

## Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

1619571780

## Top 20 Most Useful Python Modules or Packages

Welcome to my blog, In this article, we will learn the top 20 most useful python modules or packages and these modules every Python developer should know.

Hello everybody and welcome back so in this article I’m going to be sharing with you 20 Python modules you need to know. Now I’ve split these python modules into four different categories to make little bit easier for us and the categories are:

1. Web Development
2. Data Science
3. Machine Learning
4. AI and graphical user interfaces.

Near the end of the article, I also share my personal favorite Python module so make sure you stay tuned to see what that is also make sure to share with me in the comments down below your favorite Python module.

#python #packages or libraries #python 20 modules #python 20 most usefull modules #python intersting modules #top 20 python libraries #top 20 python modules #top 20 python packages

1602968400

## Python Tricks Every Developer Should Know

Python is awesome, it’s one of the easiest languages with simple and intuitive syntax but wait, have you ever thought that there might ways to write your python code simpler?

In this tutorial, you’re going to learn a variety of Python tricks that you can use to write your Python code in a more readable and efficient way like a pro.

### Let’s get started

Swapping value in Python

Instead of creating a temporary variable to hold the value of the one while swapping, you can do this instead

``````>>> FirstName = "kalebu"
>>> LastName = "Jordan"
>>> FirstName, LastName = LastName, FirstName
>>> print(FirstName, LastName)
('Jordan', 'kalebu')
``````

#python #python-programming #python3 #python-tutorials #learn-python #python-tips #python-skills #python-development

1597751700

## How To Compare Tesla and Ford Company By Using Magic Methods in Python

Magic Methods are the special methods which gives us the ability to access built in syntactical features such as ‘<’, ‘>’, ‘==’, ‘+’ etc…

You must have worked with such methods without knowing them to be as magic methods. Magic methods can be identified with their names which start with __ and ends with __ like init, call, str etc. These methods are also called Dunder Methods, because of their name starting and ending with Double Underscore (Dunder).

Now there are a number of such special methods, which you might have come across too, in Python. We will just be taking an example of a few of them to understand how they work and how we can use them.

### 1. init

``````class AnyClass:
def __init__():
print("Init called on its own")
obj = AnyClass()
``````

The first example is _init, _and as the name suggests, it is used for initializing objects. Init method is called on its own, ie. whenever an object is created for the class, the init method is called on its own.

The output of the above code will be given below. Note how we did not call the init method and it got invoked as we created an object for class AnyClass.

``````Init called on its own
``````

Let’s move to some other example, add gives us the ability to access the built in syntax feature of the character +. Let’s see how,

``````class AnyClass:
def __init__(self, var):
self.some_var = var