1560220227

# Python Data Structures

Data structures are a way of organizing and storing data so that they can be accessed and worked with efficiently. They define the relationship between the data, and the operations that can be performed on the data. There are many various kinds of data structures defined that make it easier for the data scientists and the computer engineers, alike to concentrate on the main picture of solving larger problems rather than getting lost in the details of data description and access.

In this tutorial, you’ll learn about the various Python data structures and see how they are implemented:

In DataCamp’s free Intro to Python for Data Science course, you can learn more about using Python specifically in the data science context. The course gives an introduction to the basic concepts of Python. With it, you’ll discover methods, functions, and the NumPy package.

## Abstract Data Type and Data Structures

As you read in the introduction, data structures help you to focus on the bigger picture rather than getting lost in the details. This is known as data abstraction.

Now, data structures are actually an implementation of Abstract Data Types or ADT. This implementation requires a physical view of data using some collection of programming constructs and basic data types.

Generally, data structures can be divided into two categories in computer science: primitive and non-primitive data structures. The former are the simplest forms of representing data, whereas the latter are more advanced: they contain the primitive data structures within more complex data structures for special purposes.

## Primitive Data Structures

These are the most primitive or the basic data structures. They are the building blocks for data manipulation and contain pure, simple values of a data. Python has four primitive variable types:

• Integers
• Float
• Strings
• Boolean

### Integers

You can use an integer represent numeric data, and more specifically, whole numbers from negative infinity to infinity, like 4, 5, or -1.

### Float

“Float” stands for ‘floating point number’. You can use it for rational numbers, usually ending with a decimal figure, such as 1.11 or 3.14.

Take a look at the following DataCamp Light Chunk and try out some of the integer and float operations!

Note that in Python, you do not have to explicitly state the type of the variable or your data. That is because it is a dynamically typed language. Dynamically typed languages are the languages where the type of data an object can store is mutable.

### String

Strings are collections of alphabets, words or other characters. In Python, you can create strings by enclosing a sequence of characters within a pair of single or double quotes. For example: `'cake'`, `"cookie"`, etc.

You can also apply the `+` operations on two or more strings to concatenate them, just like in the example below:

``````x = 'Cake'
x + ' & ' + y

``````
``````'Cake & Cookie'

``````

Here are some other basic operations that you can perform with strings; For example, you can use `*` to repeat a string a certain number of times:

``````# Repeat x * 2
'CakeCake'

``````

You can also slice strings, which means that you select parts of strings:

``````# Range Slicing
z1 = x[2:]

print(z1)

# Slicing
z2 = y[0] + y[1]

print(z2)

``````
``````ke
Co

``````

Note that strings can also be alpha-numeric characters, but that the `+` operation still is used to concatenate strings.

``````x = '4'
y = '2'

x + y

``````
``````'42'

``````

Python has many built-in methods or helper functions to manipulate strings. Replacing a substring, capitalising certain words in a paragraph, finding the position of a string within another string are some common string manipulations. Check out some of these:

• Capitalize strings
``````str.capitalize('cookie')

``````
``````'Cookie'

``````
• Retrieve the length of a string in characters. Note that the spaces also count towards the final result:
``````str1 = "Cake 4 U"
str2 = "404"
len(str1)

``````
``````8

``````
• Check whether a string consists of only digits
``````str1.isdigit()

``````
``````False

``````
``````str2.isdigit()

``````
``````True

``````
• Replace parts of strings with other strings
``````str1.replace('4 U', str2)

``````
``````'Cake 404'

``````
• Find substrings in other strings; Returns the lowest index or position within the string at which the substring is found:
``````str1 = 'cookie'
str2 = 'cook'
str1.find(str2)

``````
``````0

``````
• The substring `'cook'` is found at the start of `'cookie'`. As a result, you refer to the position within `'cookie'` at which you find that substring. In this case, `0` is returned because you start counting positions from 0!
``````str1 = 'I got you a cookie'
str2 = 'cook'
str1.find(str2)

``````
``````12

``````
• Similarly, the substring `'cook'` is found at position 12 within `'I got you a cookie'`. Remember that you start counting from 0 and that spaces count towards the positions!

You can find an exhaustive list of string methods in Python here.

### Boolean

This built-in data type that can take up the values: `True` and `False`, which often makes them interchangeable with the integers 1 and 0. Booleans are useful in conditional and comparison expressions, just like in the following examples:

``````x = 4
y = 2
x == y

``````
``````False

``````
``````x > y

``````
``````True

``````
``````x = 4 y = 2
z = (x==y) # Comparison expression (Evaluates to false)
if z: # Conditional on truth/false value of 'z'

``````
``````No Cookie

``````

## Data Type Conversion

Sometimes, you will find yourself working on someone else’s code and you’ll need to convert an integer to a float or vice versa, for example. Or maybe you find out that you have been using an integer when what you really need is a float. In such cases, you can convert the data type of variables!

To check the type of an object in Python, use the built-in `type()` function, just like in the lines of code below:

``````i = 4.0
type(i)

``````
``````float

``````

When you change the type of an entity from one data type to another, this is called “typecasting”. There can be two kinds of data conversions possible: implicit termed as coercion and explicit, often referred to as casting.

### Implicit Data Type Conversion

This is an automatic data conversion and the compiler handles this for you. Take a look at the following examples:

``````# A float
x = 4.0

# An integer
y = 2

# Divide `x` by `y`
z = x/y

# Check the type of `z`
type(z)

``````
``````float

``````

In the example above, you did not have to explicitly change the data type of y to perform float value division. The compiler did this for you implicitly.

That’s easy!

### Explicit Data Type Conversion

This type of data type conversion is user defined, which means you have to explicitly inform the compiler to change the data type of certain entities. Consider the code chunk below to fully understand this:

``````x = 2
y = "The Godfather: Part "
fav_movie = y + x

``````
``````---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                     Traceback (most recent call last)
in ()
1 x = 2
2 y = "The Godfather: Part "
----> 3 fav_movie = y + x

TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly

``````

The above example gave you an error because the compiler does not understand that you are trying to perform concatenation or addition, because of the mixed data types. You have an integer and a string that you’re trying to add together.

There’s an obvious mismatch.

To solve this, you’ll first need to convert the `int` to a `string` to then be able to perform concatenation.

Note that it might not always be possible to convert a data type to another. Some built-in data conversion functions that you can use here are: `int()`, `float()`, and `str()`.

``````x = 2
y = "The Godfather: Part "
fav_movie = (y) + str(x)
print(fav_movie)

``````
``````The Godfather: Part 2

``````

## Non-Primitive Data Structures

Non-primitive types are the sophisticated members of the data structure family. They don’t just store a value, but rather a collection of values in various formats.

In the traditional computer science world, the non-primitive data structures are divided into:

• Arrays

• Lists

• Files

### Array

First off, arrays in Python are a compact way of collecting basic data types, all the entries in an array must be of the same data type. However, arrays are not all that popular in Python, unlike the other programming languages such as C++ or Java.

In general, when people talk of arrays in Python, they are actually referring to lists. However, there is a fundamental difference between them and you will see this in a bit. For Python, arrays can be seen as a more efficient way of storing a certain kind of list. This type of list has elements of the same data type, though.

In Python, arrays are supported by the `array` module and need to be imported before you start inititalizing and using them. The elements stored in an array are constrained in their data type. The data type is specififed during the array creation and specified using a type code, which is a single character like the `I` you see in the example below:

``````import array
as arr a = arr.array("I",[3,6,9])
type(a)

``````
``````array.array

``````

Python Array documentation page provides more information about the various type codes available and the functionalities provided by the `array` module.

### List

Lists in Python are used to store collection of heterogeneous items. These are mutable, which means that you can change their content without changing their identity. You can recognize lists by their square brackets `[` and `]` that hold elements, separated by a comma `,`. Lists are built into Python: you do not need to invoke them separately.

``````x = [] # Empty list
type(x)

``````
``````list

``````
``````x1 = [1,2,3]
type(x1)

``````
``````list

``````
``````x2 = list([1,'apple',3])
type(x2)

``````
``````list

``````
``````print(x2[1])

``````
``````apple

``````
``````x2[1] = 'orange'
print(x2)

``````
``````[1, 'orange', 3]

``````

Note: like you have seen in the above example with `x1`, lists can also hold homogeneous items and hence satisfying the storage functionality of an array. This is fine unless you want to apply some specific operations to this collection.

Python provides many methods to manipulate and work with lists. Adding new items to a list, removing some items from a list, sorting or reversing a list are common list manipulations. Let’s see some of them in action:

• Add `11` to the `list_num` list with `append()`. By default, this number will be added to the end of the list.
``````list_num = [1,2,45,6,7,2,90,23,435]
list_char = ['c','o','o','k','i','e']

list_num.append(11) # Add 11 to the list, by default adds to the last position
print(list_num)

``````
``````[1, 2, 45, 6, 7, 2, 90, 23, 435, 11]

``````
• Use `insert()` to insert `11` at index or position 0 in the `list_num` list
``````list_num.insert(0, 11)
print(list_num)

``````
``````[11, 1, 2, 45, 6, 7, 2, 90, 23, 435, 11]

``````
• Remove the first occurence of `'o'` from `list_char` with the help of `remove()`
``````list_char.remove('o')
print(list_char)

``````
``````['c', 'o', 'k', 'i', 'e']

``````
• Remove the item at index `-2` from `list_char`
``````list_char.pop(-2) # Removes the item at the specified position
print(list_char)

``````
``````['c', 'o', 'k', 'e']

``````
``````list_num.sort() # In-place sorting
print(list_num)

``````
``````[1, 2, 2, 6, 7, 11, 11, 23, 45, 90, 435]

``````
``````list.reverse(list_num)
print(list_num)

``````
``````[435, 90, 45, 23, 11, 11, 7, 6, 2, 2, 1]

``````

If you want to know more about Python lists, you can easily walk through the 18 Most Common Python List Questions tutorial!

### Arrays versus Lists

Now that you have seen lists in Python, you maybe wondering why you need arrays at all. The reason is that they are fundamentally different in terms of the operations one can perform on them. With arrays, you can perform an operations on all its item individually easily, which may not be the case with lists. Here is an illustration:

``````array_char = array.array("u",["c","a","t","s"])
array_char.tostring()
print(array_char)

``````
``````array('u', 'cats')

``````

You were able to apply `tostring()` function of the `array_char` because Python is aware that all the items in an array are of the same data type and hence the operation behaves the same way on each element. Thus, arrays can be very useful when dealing with a large collection of homogeneous data types. Since Python does not have to remember the data type details of each element individually; for some uses arrays may be faster and uses less memory when compared to lists.

It is also worthwhile to mention the NumPy array while we are on the topic of arrays. NumPy arrays are very heavily used in the data science world to work with multidimensional arrays. They are more efficient than the array module and Python lists in general. Reading and writing elements in a NumPy array is faster, and they support “vectorized” operations such as elementwise addition. Also, NumPy arrays work efficiently with large sparse datasets. To learn more, check out DataCamp’s Python Numpy Array Tutorial.

Here is some code to get you started on NumPy Array:

``````import numpy as np

arr_a = np.array([3, 6, 9])
arr_b = arr_a/3 # Performing vectorized (element-wise) operations
print(arr_b)

``````
``````[ 1. 2. 3.]

``````
``````arr_ones = np.ones(4)
print(arr_ones)

``````
``````[ 1. 1. 1. 1.]

``````
``````multi_arr_ones = np.ones((3,4)) # Creating 2D array with 3 rows and 4 columns print(multi_arr_ones)

``````
``````[[ 1. 1. 1. 1.]
[ 1. 1. 1. 1.]
[ 1. 1. 1. 1.]]

``````

Traditionally, the list data structure can be further categorised into linear and non-linear data structures. `Stacks` and `Queues` are called “linear data structures”, whereas `Graphs` and `Trees`are “non-linear data structures”. These structures and their concepts can be relatively complex but are used extensively due to their resemblance to real world models. You will get a glimpse of these topics in this tutorial.

Note: in a linear data structure, the data items are organized sequentially or, in other words, linearly. The data items are traversed serially one after another and all the data items in a linear data structure can be traversed during a single run. However, in non-linear data structures, the data items are not organized sequentially. That means the elements could be connected to more than one element to reflect a special relationship among these items. All the data items in a non-linear data structure may not be traversed during a single run.

### Stacks

A stack is a container of objects that are inserted and removed according to the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) concept. Think of a scenario where at a dinner party where there is a stack of plates, plates are always added or removed from the top of the pile. In computer science, this concept is used for evaluating expressions and syntax parsing, scheduling algortihms/routines, etc.

Stacks can be implemented using lists in Python. When you add elements to a stack, it is known as a push operation, whereas when you remove or delete an element it is called a pop operation. Note that you have actually have a `pop()` method at your disposal when you’re working with stacks in Python:

``````# Bottom -> 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> 5 (Top)
stack = [1,2,3,4,5]
stack.append(6) # Bottom -> 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> 5 -> 6 (Top)
print(stack)

``````
``````[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

``````
``````stack.pop() # Bottom -> 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 -> 5 (Top)
stack.pop() # Bottom -> 1 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 (Top)
print(stack)

``````
``````[1, 2, 3, 4]

``````

### Queue

A queue is a container of objects that are inserted and removed according to the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) principle. An excellent example of a queue in the real world is the line at a ticket counter where people are catered according to their arrival sequence and hence the person who arrives first is also the first to leave. Queues can be of many different kinds.

Lists are not efficient to implement a queue, because `append()` and `pop()` from the end of a list is not fast and incur a memory movement cost. Also, insertion at the end and deletion from the beginning of a list is not so fast since it requires a shift in the element positions.

### Graphs

A graph in mathematics and computer science are networks consisting of nodes, also called vertices which may or may not be connected to each other. The lines or the path that connects two nodes is called an edge. If the edge has a particular direction of flow, then it is a directed graph, with the direction edge being called an arc. Else if no directions are specified, the graph is called an undirected graph.

This may sound all very theoretical and can get rather complex when you dig deeper. However, graphs are an important concept specially in Data Science and are often used to model real life problems. Social networks, molecular studies in chemistry and biology, maps, recommender system all rely on graph and graph theory principles.

Here, you will find a simple graph implementation using a Python Dictionary to help you get started:

``````graph = { "a" : ["c", "d"],
"b" : ["d", "e"],
"c" : ["a", "e"],
"d" : ["a", "b"],
"e" : ["b", "c"]
}

def define_edges(graph):
edges = []
for vertices in graph:
for neighbour in graph[vertices]:
edges.append((vertices, neighbour))
return edges

print(define_edges(graph))

``````
``````[('a', 'c'), ('a', 'd'), ('b', 'd'), ('b', 'e'), ('c', 'a'), ('c', 'e'), ('e', 'b'), ('e', 'c'), ('d', 'a'), ('d', 'b')]

``````

You can do some cool stuff with graphs such as trying to find of there exists a path between two nodes, or finding the shortest path between two nodes, determining cycles in the graph.

The famous “travelling salesman problem” is, in fact, about finding the shortest possible route that visits every node exactly once and returns to the starting point. Sometimes the nodes or arcs of a graph have been assigned weights or costs, you can think of this as assigning difficulty level to walk and you are interested in finding the cheapest or the easiest path.

### Trees

A tree in the real world is a living being with its roots in the ground and the branches that hold the leaves, fruit out in the open. The branches of the tree spread out in a somewhat organized way. In computer science, trees are used to describe how data is sometimes organized, except that the root is on the top and the branches, leaves follow, spreading towards the bottom and the tree is drawn inverted compared to the real tree.

To introduce a little more notation, the root is always at the top of the tree. Keeping the tree metaphor, the other nodes that follow are called the branches with the final node in each branch being called leaves. You can imagine each branch as being a smaller tree in itself. The root is often called the parent and the nodes that it refers to below it called its children. The nodes with the same parent are called siblings. Do you see why this is also called a family tree?

Trees help in defining real world scenarios and are used everywhere from the gaming world to designing XML parsers and also the PDF design principle is based on trees. In data science, ‘Decision Tree based Learning’ actually forms a large area of research. Numerous famous methods exist like bagging, boosting use the tree model to generate a predictive model. Games like chess build a huge tree with all possible moves to analyse and apply heuristics to decide on an optimal move.

You can implement a tree structure using and combining the various data structures you have seen so far in this tutorial. However, for the sake of simplicity, this topic will be tackled in another post.

``````class Tree:
def __init__(self, info, left=None, right=None):
self.info = info
self.left  = left
self.right = right

def __str__(self):
return (str(self.info) + ', Left child: ' + str(self.left) + ', Right child: ' + str(self.right))

tree = Tree(1, Tree(2, 2.1, 2.2), Tree(3, 3.1))
print(tree)

``````
``````1, Left child: 2, Left child: 2.1, Right child: 2.2, Right child: 3, Left child: 3.1, Right child: None

``````

You have learnt about arrays and also seen the list data structure. However, Python provides many different flavours of data collection mechanisms, and although they might not be included in traditional data structure topics in computer science, they are worth knowing specially with regards to Python programming language:

• Tuples
• Dictionary
• Sets

### Tuples

Tuples are another standard sequence data type. The difference between tuples and list is that tuples are immutable, which means once defined you cannot delete, add or edit any values inside it. This might be useful in situations where you might to pass the control to someone else but you do not want them to manipulate data in your collection, but rather maybe just see them or perform operations separately in a copy of the data.

Let’s see how tuples are implemented:

``````x_tuple = 1,2,3,4,5
y_tuple = ('c','a','k','e')
x_tuple[0]

``````
``````1

``````
``````y_tuple[3]
x_tuple[0] = 0 # Cannot change values inside a tuple

``````
``````---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                              Traceback (most recent call last)
in ()
1 y_tuple[3]
----> 2 x_tuple[0] = 0 # Cannot change values inside a tuple

TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment

``````

### Dictionary

Dictionaries are exactly what you need if you want to implement something similar to a telephone book. None of the data structures that you have seen before are suitable for a telephone book.

This is when a dictionary can come in handy. Dictionaries are made up of key-value pairs. `key` is used to identify the item and the `value` holds as the name suggests, the value of the item.

``````x_dict = {'Edward':1, 'Jorge':2, 'Prem':3, 'Joe':4}
del x_dict['Joe']
x_dict

``````
``````{'Edward': 1, 'Jorge': 2, 'Prem': 3}

``````
``````x_dict['Edward'] # Prints the value stored with the key 'Edward'.

``````
``````1

``````

You can apply many other inbuilt functionalies on dictionaries:

``````len(x_dict)

``````
``````3

``````
``````x_dict.keys()

``````
``````dict_keys(['Prem', 'Edward', 'Jorge'])

``````
``````x_dict.values()

``````
``````dict_values([3, 1, 2])

``````

### Sets

Sets are a collection of distinct (unique) objects. These are useful to create lists that only hold unique values in the dataset. It is an unordered collection but a mutable one, this is very helpful when going through a huge dataset.

``````x_set = set('CAKE&COKE')

print(x_set)

``````
``````{'A', '&', 'O', 'E', 'C', 'K'}

``````
``````print(y_set) # Single unique 'o'

``````
``````{'I', 'O', 'E', 'C', 'K'}

``````
``````print(x - y) # All the elements in x_set but not in y_set

``````
``````---------------------------------------------------------------------------
NameError                              Traceback (most recent call last)

in ()
----> 1 print(x - y) # All the elements in x_set but not in y_set

NameError: name 'x' is not defined

``````
``````print(x_set|y_set) # Unique elements in x_set or y_set or both

``````
``````{'C', '&', 'E', 'A', 'O', 'K', 'I'}

``````
``````print(x_set & y_set) # Elements in both x_set and y_set

``````
``````{'O', 'E', 'K', 'C'}

``````

### Files

Files are traditionally a part of data structures. And although big data is commonplace in the data science industry, a programming language without the capability to store and retrieve previously stored information would hardly be useful. You still have to make use of the all the data sitting in files across databases and you will learn how to do this.

The syntax to read and write files in Python is similar to other programming languages but a lot easier to handle. Here are some of the basic functions that will help you to work with files using Python:

• `open()` to open files in your system, the filename is the name of the file to be opened;
• `read()` to read entire files;
• `readline()` to read one line at a time;
• `write()` to write a string to a file, and return the number of characters written; And
• `close()` to close the file.
``````# File modes (2nd argument): 'r'(read), 'w'(write), 'a'(appending), 'r+'(both reading and writing)
f = open('file_name', 'w')

# Reads one line at a time

# Writes the string to the file, returning the number of char written

f.close()

``````

The second argument in the `open()` function is the file mode. It allows you to specify whether you want to read (`r`), write (`w`), append (`a`) or both read and write (`r+`).

You Did It!

You reached the end of this tutorial! This gets you one topic closer to your dreams of conquering the data science world.

If you’re interested, DataCamp’s two-part Python Data Science Toolbox dives deeper into functions, iterators, lists, etc.

#python #web-development #data-analysis

## Buddha Community

1620466520

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you should probably think about your data architecture and possible best practices.

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you most probably need to think about your data architecture and consider possible best practices. Gaining a competitive edge, remaining customer-centric to the greatest extent possible, and streamlining processes to get on-the-button outcomes can all be traced back to an organization’s capacity to build a future-ready data architecture.

In what follows, we offer a short overview of the overarching capabilities of data architecture. These include user-centricity, elasticity, robustness, and the capacity to ensure the seamless flow of data at all times. Added to these are automation enablement, plus security and data governance considerations. These points from our checklist for what we perceive to be an anticipatory analytics ecosystem.

#big data #data science #big data analytics #data analysis #data architecture #data transformation #data platform #data strategy #cloud data platform #data acquisition

1593156510

## Basic Data Types in Python | Python Web Development For Beginners

At the end of 2019, Python is one of the fastest-growing programming languages. More than 10% of developers have opted for Python development.

In the programming world, Data types play an important role. Each Variable is stored in different data types and responsible for various functions. Python had two different objects, and They are mutable and immutable objects.

I Mutable objects

II Immutable objects

III Built-in data types in Python

## Mutable objects

The Size and declared value and its sequence of the object can able to be modified called mutable objects.

Mutable Data Types are list, dict, set, byte array

## Immutable objects

The Size and declared value and its sequence of the object can able to be modified.

Immutable data types are int, float, complex, String, tuples, bytes, and frozen sets.

id() and type() is used to know the Identity and data type of the object

a**=25+**85j

type**(a)**

output**:<class’complex’>**

b**={1:10,2:“Pinky”****}**

id**(b)**

output**:**238989244168

## Built-in data types in Python

a**=str(“Hello python world”)****#str**

b**=int(18)****#int**

c**=float(20482.5)****#float**

d**=complex(5+85j)****#complex**

e**=list((“python”,“fast”,“growing”,“in”,2018))****#list**

f**=tuple((“python”,“easy”,“learning”))****#tuple**

g**=range(10)****#range**

h**=dict(name=“Vidu”,age=36)****#dict**

i**=set((“python”,“fast”,“growing”,“in”,2018))****#set**

j**=frozenset((“python”,“fast”,“growing”,“in”,2018))****#frozenset**

k**=bool(18)****#bool**

l**=bytes(8)****#bytes**

m**=bytearray(8)****#bytearray**

n**=memoryview(bytes(18))****#memoryview**

## Numbers (int,Float,Complex)

Numbers are stored in numeric Types. when a number is assigned to a variable, Python creates Number objects.

#signed interger

age**=**18

print**(age)**

Output**:**18

Python supports 3 types of numeric data.

int (signed integers like 20, 2, 225, etc.)

float (float is used to store floating-point numbers like 9.8, 3.1444, 89.52, etc.)

complex (complex numbers like 8.94j, 4.0 + 7.3j, etc.)

A complex number contains an ordered pair, i.e., a + ib where a and b denote the real and imaginary parts respectively).

## String

The string can be represented as the sequence of characters in the quotation marks. In python, to define strings we can use single, double, or triple quotes.

# String Handling

‘Hello Python’

#single (') Quoted String

“Hello Python”

# Double (") Quoted String

“”“Hello Python”“”

‘’‘Hello Python’‘’

# triple (‘’') (“”") Quoted String

In python, string handling is a straightforward task, and python provides various built-in functions and operators for representing strings.

The operator “+” is used to concatenate strings and “*” is used to repeat the string.

“Hello”+“python”

output**:****‘Hello python’**

"python "*****2

'Output : Python python ’

#python web development #data types in python #list of all python data types #python data types #python datatypes #python types #python variable type

1619510796

## Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

1626775355

## Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas.

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities.

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly.

## 5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions.

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events.

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building.

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties.

Utilized by the best

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player.

Massive community support

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions.

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking.

Progressive applications

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.

### Summary

Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential.

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

1620629020

## Getting Started With Data Lakes

### Frameworks for Efficient Enterprise Analytics

The opportunities big data offers also come with very real challenges that many organizations are facing today. Often, it’s finding the most cost-effective, scalable way to store and process boundless volumes of data in multiple formats that come from a growing number of sources. Then organizations need the analytical capabilities and flexibility to turn this data into insights that can meet their specific business objectives.

This Refcard dives into how a data lake helps tackle these challenges at both ends — from its enhanced architecture that’s designed for efficient data ingestion, storage, and management to its advanced analytics functionality and performance flexibility. You’ll also explore key benefits and common use cases.

### Introduction

As technology continues to evolve with new data sources, such as IoT sensors and social media churning out large volumes of data, there has never been a better time to discuss the possibilities and challenges of managing such data for varying analytical insights. In this Refcard, we dig deep into how data lakes solve the problem of storing and processing enormous amounts of data. While doing so, we also explore the benefits of data lakes, their use cases, and how they differ from data warehouses (DWHs).