What is Lever Network (LEV) | What is Lever Network token | What is Lever token | What is LEV token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the Lever Network project and LEV token

Since exploding in 2020, Decentralized Finance (or DeFi) has been gaining great attention and popularity, which can often be seen in mainstream media’s headlines. With the exponential growth, DeFi has recorded a total value locked (TVL) of $41.29 Billion with lending and DEX products taking up almost 90%. (via DeFi Pulse)

Lending and trading are two of the pillar businesses in the current DeFi space with the most TVL. However, they are practically isolated from each other, leading to extremely low capital efficiency. Rare lending protocols support sport or even margin trading and most DEXes don’t provide loans. Also, even though users get transferable and tradable deposit certificates after depositing in lending protocols, there are few platforms to actually facilitate the financial use of them.

Therefore, Lever is developed to bridge the gap between lending protocols and DEXes, increasing capital efficiency in DeFi.

Welcome to LEVER

Lever is essentially an open-source margin trading platform where you can lend, borrow and perform leveraged trading to either buy long/sell short an asset in just one place.

For lenders/borrowers, you can lend your idle crypto assets (including your deposit certificates from other lending protocols) to earn interest or use them as collateral to take out loans.

And for traders, after making a margin deposit in the margin pool, you will be able to open either long or short positions in a supported asset in Lever with up to 3X leverage. The platform makes use of external AMMs like Uniswap to provide surplus liquidity for margin traders to open positions of any size.

Using Lever, you can comfortably leverage your available capital for larger gains.

Why Lever?

Key features of Lever are explained as follow:

Efficient Asset Utilization: On Lever users can lend their idle crypto assets to others and enjoy higher interest rates.

Quick and convenient trading experience: Borrowing and trading are seamlessly integrated within Lever. Traders can easily open a long or short position in just one step. In the future version of Lever, Market Order, Limit Order and Stop Order will also be supported.

Enormous liquidity: Relying on AMMs like Uniswap, Sushiswap, Pancakeswap, and 1inch, Lever is able to provide deep liquidity for your trade. Also, it is able to effectively reduce the slippage when opening or closing large positions.

Much more tokens can be shorted: In addition to WBTC and ETH, more DEFI and ERC20 assets like SNX, UNI and AAVE can be shorted. Lever also offers a visualized operation interface for position management.

More collateral options for loans: Outside of common native tokens like ETH, DAI and USDC, Lever allows users to take out loans by using deposit certificates from other lending protocols, such as aTokens from Aave and cTokens from Compound.

Market Problems

As mentioned above, according to our observation, the problems in DeFi mainly lays in the following aspects:

  • Gaps between lending products and DEXes. The activities of borrowing and trading of assets often happen in two separate places. Users will have to go through a strenuous process of taking out loans from lending platforms first then to trade on their preferred exchanges.
  • Inefficient utilization of users deposited assets. Usually, users will get tokenized deposit certificates after making deposits in lending protocols, such as aTokens from AAVE and cTokens from Compound. These tokens represent the value of their underlying assets, but can rarely be reutilized for investment or trading.
  • Rare DeFi products provide margin trading. Margin trading can effectively amplify traders’ gains. It’s popular in the traditional finance market and also has a huge demand in the DeFi space. Though there are a few protocols that offer this service, their liquidity is not enough.

Solution and Features

  1. _Quick & Convenient Trading _— Borrowing and trading are seamlessly integrated within Lever. Traders can easily borrow and trade assets in just one place. Lever also offers a visualized operation interface for position management.
  2. _High Capital Efficiency _— Other than native tokens, lenders can deposit AAVE’s aTokens and Compound’s cTokens to earn extra interest in Lever. This makes double interest possible, as lenders can first deposit their assets in AAVE/Compound, then use the aTokens/cTokens they receive to redeposit in Lever. Moreover, these tokens can also be used as collateral to take out loans.
  3. Margin Trading and Enormous Liquidity. Thanks to Lever’s powerful margin pool, traders can easily open leveraged positions to either long or short an asset. In addition to WBTC and ETH, many DEFI and ERC20 assets like SNX, UNI and AAVE now can be shorted at Lever. Furthermore, by relying on AMMs like Uniswap, Lever can provide enough liquidity and reduce slippage for positions of any size.

Benefits of Margin Trading

1. Buy long or sell short certain assets with leverage.

Users are mainly borrowing for unexpected expenses, leveraging their holdings or for new investment opportunities.

For instance, if you are long holding asset A and are bullish on asset B, in this case, you can deposit your asset A in Lever as collateral and borrow a stablecoin like USDT or DAI with or without leverage depending on your preference, then swap it to asset B. Once both prices go up, your gains will be amplified.

2. Earn more passive incomes.

Other than receiving interest on your deposit, you can earn LEV token rewards through Lever’s liquidity mining program.

How to Perform Margin Trading?

Here is a guide to margin trading on Lever:

1. Deposit: First you need to deposit any supported asset in Lever. The platform supports various assets to be used as collateral, which can start earning interest after depositing.

2. Margin: After depositing, simply head to the “Margin” section and click on “Sell(Short)”/“Buy(Long)” for the asset pair you want to trade.

3. Opening a Position: Set the amount you need based on your available deposit that would be used as collateral for the loan. Then select the leverage ratio, the system will automatically convert the maximum amount that can be used for this trade.

Lever VS CEXs

The advantages of Lever over CEXes are as follow:

Lever VS dYdX

Similar to Lever, dYdX is also a decentralized exchange offering margin trading. Here is a competitive analysis of the two.

Would you like to earn TOKEN right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy LEV token ?

LEV token is now live on the Ethereum mainnet and Binance mainnet. The token address for LEV is 0xbc194e6f748a222754c3e8b9946922c09e7d4e91. Be cautious not to purchase any other token with a smart contract different from this one (as this can be easily faked). We strongly advise to be vigilant and stay safe throughout the launch. Don’t let the excitement get the best of you.

Just be sure you have enough ETH or BNB in your wallet to cover the transaction fees.

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step

You need a wallet address to Connect to Uniswap or Pancakeswap Decentralized Exchange, we use Metamask wallet

If you don’t have a Metamask wallet, read this article and follow the steps

What is Metamask wallet | How to Create a wallet and Use

Transfer $ETH to your new Metamask wallet from your existing wallet

Next step

Connect Metamask wallet to Uniswap or Pancakeswap Decentralized Exchange and Buy, Swap LEV token

Contract: 0xbc194e6f748a222754c3e8b9946922c09e7d4e91

Read more:
What is Uniswap | Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Uniswap
What is Pancakeswap | Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Pancakeswap

The top exchange for trading in LEV token is currently Uniswap, Pancakeswap

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once LEV gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
  ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
  ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
  ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
  ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information LEV

WebsiteExplorerSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Message BoardDocumentationCoinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #lev #lever network

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

What is Lever Network (LEV) | What is Lever Network token | What is Lever token | What is LEV token

What is Lever Network (LEV) | What is Lever Network token | What is Lever token | What is LEV token

In this article, we’ll discuss information about the Lever Network project and LEV token

Since exploding in 2020, Decentralized Finance (or DeFi) has been gaining great attention and popularity, which can often be seen in mainstream media’s headlines. With the exponential growth, DeFi has recorded a total value locked (TVL) of $41.29 Billion with lending and DEX products taking up almost 90%. (via DeFi Pulse)

Lending and trading are two of the pillar businesses in the current DeFi space with the most TVL. However, they are practically isolated from each other, leading to extremely low capital efficiency. Rare lending protocols support sport or even margin trading and most DEXes don’t provide loans. Also, even though users get transferable and tradable deposit certificates after depositing in lending protocols, there are few platforms to actually facilitate the financial use of them.

Therefore, Lever is developed to bridge the gap between lending protocols and DEXes, increasing capital efficiency in DeFi.

Welcome to LEVER

Lever is essentially an open-source margin trading platform where you can lend, borrow and perform leveraged trading to either buy long/sell short an asset in just one place.

For lenders/borrowers, you can lend your idle crypto assets (including your deposit certificates from other lending protocols) to earn interest or use them as collateral to take out loans.

And for traders, after making a margin deposit in the margin pool, you will be able to open either long or short positions in a supported asset in Lever with up to 3X leverage. The platform makes use of external AMMs like Uniswap to provide surplus liquidity for margin traders to open positions of any size.

Using Lever, you can comfortably leverage your available capital for larger gains.

Why Lever?

Key features of Lever are explained as follow:

Efficient Asset Utilization: On Lever users can lend their idle crypto assets to others and enjoy higher interest rates.

Quick and convenient trading experience: Borrowing and trading are seamlessly integrated within Lever. Traders can easily open a long or short position in just one step. In the future version of Lever, Market Order, Limit Order and Stop Order will also be supported.

Enormous liquidity: Relying on AMMs like Uniswap, Sushiswap, Pancakeswap, and 1inch, Lever is able to provide deep liquidity for your trade. Also, it is able to effectively reduce the slippage when opening or closing large positions.

Much more tokens can be shorted: In addition to WBTC and ETH, more DEFI and ERC20 assets like SNX, UNI and AAVE can be shorted. Lever also offers a visualized operation interface for position management.

More collateral options for loans: Outside of common native tokens like ETH, DAI and USDC, Lever allows users to take out loans by using deposit certificates from other lending protocols, such as aTokens from Aave and cTokens from Compound.

Market Problems

As mentioned above, according to our observation, the problems in DeFi mainly lays in the following aspects:

  • Gaps between lending products and DEXes. The activities of borrowing and trading of assets often happen in two separate places. Users will have to go through a strenuous process of taking out loans from lending platforms first then to trade on their preferred exchanges.
  • Inefficient utilization of users deposited assets. Usually, users will get tokenized deposit certificates after making deposits in lending protocols, such as aTokens from AAVE and cTokens from Compound. These tokens represent the value of their underlying assets, but can rarely be reutilized for investment or trading.
  • Rare DeFi products provide margin trading. Margin trading can effectively amplify traders’ gains. It’s popular in the traditional finance market and also has a huge demand in the DeFi space. Though there are a few protocols that offer this service, their liquidity is not enough.

Solution and Features

  1. _Quick & Convenient Trading _— Borrowing and trading are seamlessly integrated within Lever. Traders can easily borrow and trade assets in just one place. Lever also offers a visualized operation interface for position management.
  2. _High Capital Efficiency _— Other than native tokens, lenders can deposit AAVE’s aTokens and Compound’s cTokens to earn extra interest in Lever. This makes double interest possible, as lenders can first deposit their assets in AAVE/Compound, then use the aTokens/cTokens they receive to redeposit in Lever. Moreover, these tokens can also be used as collateral to take out loans.
  3. Margin Trading and Enormous Liquidity. Thanks to Lever’s powerful margin pool, traders can easily open leveraged positions to either long or short an asset. In addition to WBTC and ETH, many DEFI and ERC20 assets like SNX, UNI and AAVE now can be shorted at Lever. Furthermore, by relying on AMMs like Uniswap, Lever can provide enough liquidity and reduce slippage for positions of any size.

Benefits of Margin Trading

1. Buy long or sell short certain assets with leverage.

Users are mainly borrowing for unexpected expenses, leveraging their holdings or for new investment opportunities.

For instance, if you are long holding asset A and are bullish on asset B, in this case, you can deposit your asset A in Lever as collateral and borrow a stablecoin like USDT or DAI with or without leverage depending on your preference, then swap it to asset B. Once both prices go up, your gains will be amplified.

2. Earn more passive incomes.

Other than receiving interest on your deposit, you can earn LEV token rewards through Lever’s liquidity mining program.

How to Perform Margin Trading?

Here is a guide to margin trading on Lever:

1. Deposit: First you need to deposit any supported asset in Lever. The platform supports various assets to be used as collateral, which can start earning interest after depositing.

2. Margin: After depositing, simply head to the “Margin” section and click on “Sell(Short)”/“Buy(Long)” for the asset pair you want to trade.

3. Opening a Position: Set the amount you need based on your available deposit that would be used as collateral for the loan. Then select the leverage ratio, the system will automatically convert the maximum amount that can be used for this trade.

Lever VS CEXs

The advantages of Lever over CEXes are as follow:

Lever VS dYdX

Similar to Lever, dYdX is also a decentralized exchange offering margin trading. Here is a competitive analysis of the two.

Would you like to earn TOKEN right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

How and Where to Buy LEV token ?

LEV token is now live on the Ethereum mainnet and Binance mainnet. The token address for LEV is 0xbc194e6f748a222754c3e8b9946922c09e7d4e91. Be cautious not to purchase any other token with a smart contract different from this one (as this can be easily faked). We strongly advise to be vigilant and stay safe throughout the launch. Don’t let the excitement get the best of you.

Just be sure you have enough ETH or BNB in your wallet to cover the transaction fees.

You will have to first buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

We will use Binance Exchange here as it is one of the largest crypto exchanges that accept fiat deposits.

Once you finished the KYC process. You will be asked to add a payment method. Here you can either choose to provide a credit/debit card or use a bank transfer, and buy one of the major cryptocurrencies, usually either Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Binance (BNB)…

SIGN UP ON BINANCE

Step by Step Guide : What is Binance | How to Create an account on Binance (Updated 2021)

Next step

You need a wallet address to Connect to Uniswap or Pancakeswap Decentralized Exchange, we use Metamask wallet

If you don’t have a Metamask wallet, read this article and follow the steps

What is Metamask wallet | How to Create a wallet and Use

Transfer $ETH to your new Metamask wallet from your existing wallet

Next step

Connect Metamask wallet to Uniswap or Pancakeswap Decentralized Exchange and Buy, Swap LEV token

Contract: 0xbc194e6f748a222754c3e8b9946922c09e7d4e91

Read more:
What is Uniswap | Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Uniswap
What is Pancakeswap | Beginner’s Guide on How to Use Pancakeswap

The top exchange for trading in LEV token is currently Uniswap, Pancakeswap

There are a few popular crypto exchanges where they have decent daily trading volumes and a huge user base. This will ensure you will be able to sell your coins at any time and the fees will usually be lower. It is suggested that you also register on these exchanges since once LEV gets listed there it will attract a large amount of trading volumes from the users there, that means you will be having some great trading opportunities!

Top exchanges for token-coin trading. Follow instructions and make unlimited money

https://www.binance.com
  ☞ https://www.bittrex.com
  ☞ https://www.poloniex.com
  ☞ https://www.bitfinex.com
  ☞ https://www.huobi.com

Find more information LEV

WebsiteExplorerSocial ChannelSocial Channel 2Message BoardDocumentationCoinmarketcap

🔺DISCLAIMER: The Information in the post isn’t financial advice, is intended FOR GENERAL INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. Trading Cryptocurrency is VERY risky. Make sure you understand these risks and that you are responsible for what you do with your money.

🔥 If you’re a beginner. I believe the article below will be useful to you

⭐ ⭐ ⭐ What You Should Know Before Investing in Cryptocurrency - For Beginner ⭐ ⭐ ⭐

I hope this post will help you. Don’t forget to leave a like, comment and sharing it with others. Thank you!

#blockchain #bitcoin #lev #lever network

Words Counted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor.

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

 

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: abitdodgy
Source code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails 

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658068560

WordsCounted: A Ruby Natural Language Processor

WordsCounted

We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars.

-- Oscar Wilde

WordsCounted is a Ruby NLP (natural language processor). WordsCounted lets you implement powerful tokensation strategies with a very flexible tokeniser class.

Features

  • Out of the box, get the following data from any string or readable file, or URL:
    • Token count and unique token count
    • Token densities, frequencies, and lengths
    • Char count and average chars per token
    • The longest tokens and their lengths
    • The most frequent tokens and their frequencies.
  • A flexible way to exclude tokens from the tokeniser. You can pass a string, regexp, symbol, lambda, or an array of any combination of those types for powerful tokenisation strategies.
  • Pass your own regexp rules to the tokeniser if you prefer. The default regexp filters special characters but keeps hyphens and apostrophes. It also plays nicely with diacritics (UTF and unicode characters): Bayrūt is treated as ["Bayrūt"] and not ["Bayr", "ū", "t"], for example.
  • Opens and reads files. Pass in a file path or a url instead of a string.

Installation

Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'words_counted'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install words_counted

Usage

Pass in a string or a file path, and an optional filter and/or regexp.

counter = WordsCounted.count(
  "We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars."
)

# Using a file
counter = WordsCounted.from_file("path/or/url/to/my/file.txt")

.count and .from_file are convenience methods that take an input, tokenise it, and return an instance of WordsCounted::Counter initialized with the tokens. The WordsCounted::Tokeniser and WordsCounted::Counter classes can be used alone, however.

API

WordsCounted

WordsCounted.count(input, options = {})

Tokenises input and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.count("Hello Beirut!")

Accepts two options: exclude and regexp. See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp respectively.

WordsCounted.from_file(path, options = {})

Reads and tokenises a file, and initializes a WordsCounted::Counter object with the resulting tokens.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("hello_beirut.txt")

Accepts the same options as .count.

Tokeniser

The tokeniser allows you to tokenise text in a variety of ways. You can pass in your own rules for tokenisation, and apply a powerful filter with any combination of rules as long as they can boil down into a lambda.

Out of the box the tokeniser includes only alpha chars. Hyphenated tokens and tokens with apostrophes are considered a single token.

#tokenise([pattern: TOKEN_REGEXP, exclude: nil])

tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise

# With `exclude`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello Beirut!").tokenise(exclude: "hello")

# With `pattern`
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("I <3 Beirut!").tokenise(pattern: /[a-z]/i)

See Excluding tokens from the analyser and Passing in a custom regexp for more information.

Counter

The WordsCounted::Counter class allows you to collect various statistics from an array of tokens.

#token_count

Returns the token count of a given string.

counter.token_count #=> 15

#token_frequency

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimensional array where each element is a token and its frequency. The array is sorted by frequency in descending order.

counter.token_frequency

[
  ["the", 2],
  ["are", 2],
  ["we",  1],
  # ...
  ["all", 1]
]

#most_frequent_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its frequency.

counter.most_frequent_tokens

{ "are" => 2, "the" => 2 }

#token_lengths

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its length. The array is sorted by length in descending order.

counter.token_lengths

[
  ["looking", 7],
  ["gutter",  6],
  ["stars",   5],
  # ...
  ["in",      2]
]

#longest_tokens

Returns a hash where each key-value pair is a token and its length.

counter.longest_tokens

{ "looking" => 7 }

#token_density([ precision: 2 ])

Returns a sorted (unstable) two-dimentional array where each element contains a token and its density as a float, rounded to a precision of two. The array is sorted by density in descending order. It accepts a precision argument, which must be a float.

counter.token_density

[
  ["are",     0.13],
  ["the",     0.13],
  ["but",     0.07 ],
  # ...
  ["we",      0.07 ]
]

#char_count

Returns the char count of tokens.

counter.char_count #=> 76

#average_chars_per_token([ precision: 2 ])

Returns the average char count per token rounded to two decimal places. Accepts a precision argument which defaults to two. Precision must be a float.

counter.average_chars_per_token #=> 4

#uniq_token_count

Returns the number of unique tokens.

counter.uniq_token_count #=> 13

Excluding tokens from the tokeniser

You can exclude anything you want from the input by passing the exclude option. The exclude option accepts a variety of filters and is extremely flexible.

  1. A space-delimited string. The filter will normalise the string.
  2. A regular expression.
  3. A lambda.
  4. A symbol that names a predicate method. For example :odd?.
  5. An array of any combination of the above.
tokeniser =
  WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
    "Magnificent! That was magnificent, Trevor."
  )

# Using a string
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: "was magnificent")
# => ["that", "trevor"]

# Using a regular expression
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: /trevor/)
# => ["magnificent", "that", "was", "magnificent"]

# Using a lambda
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: ->(t) { t.length < 4 })
# => ["magnificent", "that", "magnificent", "trevor"]

# Using symbol
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new("Hello! محمد")
tokeniser.tokenise(exclude: :ascii_only?)
# => ["محمد"]

# Using an array
tokeniser = WordsCounted::Tokeniser.new(
  "Hello! اسماءنا هي محمد، كارولينا، سامي، وداني"
)
tokeniser.tokenise(
  exclude: [:ascii_only?, /محمد/, ->(t) { t.length > 6}, "و"]
)
# => ["هي", "سامي", "وداني"]

Passing in a custom regexp

The default regexp accounts for letters, hyphenated tokens, and apostrophes. This means twenty-one is treated as one token. So is Mohamad's.

/[\p{Alpha}\-']+/

You can pass your own criteria as a Ruby regular expression to split your string as desired.

For example, if you wanted to include numbers, you can override the regular expression:

counter = WordsCounted.count("Numbers 1, 2, and 3", pattern: /[\p{Alnum}\-']+/)
counter.tokens
#=> ["numbers", "1", "2", "and", "3"]

Opening and reading files

Use the from_file method to open files. from_file accepts the same options as .count. The file path can be a URL.

counter = WordsCounted.from_file("url/or/path/to/file.text")

Gotchas

A hyphen used in leu of an em or en dash will form part of the token. This affects the tokeniser algorithm.

counter = WordsCounted.count("How do you do?-you are well, I see.")
counter.token_frequency

[
  ["do",   2],
  ["how",  1],
  ["you",  1],
  ["-you", 1], # WTF, mate!
  ["are",  1],
  # ...
]

In this example -you and you are separate tokens. Also, the tokeniser does not include numbers by default. Remember that you can pass your own regular expression if the default behaviour does not fit your needs.

A note on case sensitivity

The program will normalise (downcase) all incoming strings for consistency and filters.

Roadmap

Ability to open URLs

def self.from_url
  # open url and send string here after removing html
end

Are you using WordsCounted to do something interesting? Please tell me about it.

Gem Version 

RubyDoc documentation.

Demo

Visit this website for one example of what you can do with WordsCounted.


Contributors

See contributors.

Contributing

  1. Fork it
  2. Create your feature branch (git checkout -b my-new-feature)
  3. Commit your changes (git commit -am 'Add some feature')
  4. Push to the branch (git push origin my-new-feature)
  5. Create new Pull Request

Author: Abitdodgy
Source Code: https://github.com/abitdodgy/words_counted 
License: MIT license

#ruby #nlp 

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PAID NETWORK Review, Is it worth Investing in? Token Sale Coming Soon !!

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