Sheldon  Grant

Sheldon Grant

1671539549

Pseudo-classes in CSS

What are Pseudo-classes in CSS?

A Pseudo-class in CSS defines the special state of an element. It is a keyword that we use after the selector to apply the style based on the state of the element.

For example, the active pseudo-class can be used on an anchor tag (<a>) to add extra styling if the link is active

So, CSS Pseudo-class helps you apply styles based on the state of the content ( like active when a link is active), the mouse events (like hover when the user hovers over an element), and many more.

Syntax of a Pseudo-class

The CSS Pseudo classes follow the below syntax:

selector:pseudo-class {
property: value;
}

Commonly used CSS Pseudo-classes

:visited Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class is used to add styling when a link is already been visited by the user. In this below example we will see how the color and background of the link change when it is visited

:hover Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class is used to add special effects and design when the user hovers over an element i.e. when a user places a mouse pointer over the element. We generally use the :hover pseudo-class with buttons and links to highlight them on hover. In the below example we will see how a button changes its color and background on hover.

:focus Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class is used to select an element when it receives focus i.e. when a user clicks on it. The :focus pseudo-class is used with input fields in the forms, when the user clicks on the input field it gets focus.

In this example, we will see how the style of the input field change when the user clicks on it.

:disabled Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class describes the disabled state of the element, you can add any style to the disabled element for a better representation. In the below example we will define specific color and opacity to the disabled element.

:active Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class is used to add styling when a user clicks on the element i.e. when the element is in an active state. It is generally used in navbar links that highlight which particular menu option is currently active.

In the below example we will show how a paragraph changes its color in an active state.

:invalid Pseudo-class

This pseudo-class matches whether the content entered by the user is valid or not. We apply it to the input elements to add error state styling when the input is invalid.

In the below example we will see how the invalid class comes into action when a user enters a name instead of an email in the email type input field.

Important CSS Pseudo-classes

Pseudo-classesDescriptionExample
:validMatches every <input> element with valid contentinput:valid
:hoverMatches element on mouse hoverbutton:hover
:focusMatches <input> element when it is focusedinput:focus
:invalidMatches every <input> element with invalid contentinput:invalid
:checkedMatches every checked <input> elementinput:checked
:activeMatches the active state of a linka:active
:visitedMatches the visited linka:visited
:disabledMatches every disabled <input> elementinput:disabled
:enabledMatches every enabled <input> elementinput:enabled
:requiredMatches every required <input> elementinput:required

CSS Pseudo-classes

Conclusion

In this blog, we got to know about the concept of CSS Pseudo-class and how it is implemented. However, we discussed only a few important pseudo-classes. To explore more about CSS Pseudo-classes follow the below-mentioned link of MDN Docs.

MDN Docs : https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/Pseudo-classes

For more updates on such topics, please follow our LinkedIn page- Front-end Studio.

Original article source at: https://blog.knoldus.com/

#css #classes 

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Pseudo-classes in CSS
Lawrence  Lesch

Lawrence Lesch

1662107520

Superdom: Better and Simpler ES6 DOM Manipulation

Superdom

You have dom. It has all the DOM virtually within it. Use that power:

// Fetch all the page links
let links = dom.a.href;

// Links open in a new tab
dom.a.target = '_blank';

Only for modern browsers

Getting started

Simply use the CDN via unpkg.com:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/superdom@1"></script>

Or use npm or bower:

npm|bower install superdom --save

Select

It always returns an array with the matched elements. Get all the elements that match the selector:

// Simple element selector into an array
let allLinks = dom.a;

// Loop straight on the selection
dom.a.forEach(link => { ... });

// Combined selector
let importantLinks = dom['a.important'];

There are also some predetermined elements, such as id, class and attr:

// Select HTML Elements by id:
let main = dom.id.main;

// by class:
let buttons = dom.class.button;

// or by attribute:
let targeted = dom.attr.target;
let targeted = dom.attr['target="_blank"'];

Generate

Use it as a function or a tagged template literal to generate DOM fragments:

// Not a typo; tagged template literals
let link = dom`<a href="https://google.com/">Google</a>`;

// It is the same as
let link = dom('<a href="https://google.com/">Google</a>');

Delete elements

Delete a piece of the DOM

// Delete all of the elements with the class .google
delete dom.class.google;   // Is this an ad-block rule?

Attributes

You can easily manipulate attributes right from the dom node. There are some aliases that share the syntax of the attributes such as html and text (aliases for innerHTML and textContent). There are others that travel through the dom such as parent (alias for parentNode) and children. Finally, class behaves differently as explained below.

Get attributes

The fetching will always return an array with the element for each of the matched nodes (or undefined if not there):

// Retrieve all the urls from the page
let urls = dom.a.href;     // #attr-list
  // ['https://google.com', 'https://facebook.com/', ...]

// Get an array of the h2 contents (alias of innerHTML)
let h2s = dom.h2.html;     // #attr-alias
  // ['Level 2 header', 'Another level 2 header', ...]

// Get whether any of the attributes has the value "_blank"
let hasBlank = dom.class.cta.target._blank;    // #attr-value
  // true/false

You also use these:

  • html (alias of innerHTML): retrieve a list of the htmls
  • text (alias of textContent): retrieve a list of the htmls
  • parent (alias of parentNode): travel up one level
  • children: travel down one level

Set attributes

// Set target="_blank" to all links
dom.a.target = '_blank';     // #attr-set
dom.class.tableofcontents.html = `
  <ul class="tableofcontents">
    ${dom.h2.map(h2 => `
      <li>
        <a href="#${h2.id}">
          ${h2.innerHTML}
        </a>
      </li>
    `).join('')}
  </ul>
`;

Remove an attribute

To delete an attribute use the delete keyword:

// Remove all urls from the page
delete dom.a.href;

// Remove all ids
delete dom.a.id;

Classes

It provides an easy way to manipulate the classes.

Get classes

To retrieve whether a particular class is present or not:

// Get an array with true/false for a single class
let isTest = dom.a.class.test;     // #class-one

For a general method to retrieve all classes you can do:

// Get a list of the classes of each matched element
let arrays = dom.a.class;     // #class-arrays
  // [['important'], ['button', 'cta'], ...]

// If you want a plain list with all of the classes:
let flatten = dom.a.class._flat;     // #class-flat
  // ['important', 'button', 'cta', ...]

// And if you just want an string with space-separated classes:
let text = dom.a.class._text;     // #class-text
  // 'important button cta ...'

Add a class

// Add the class 'test' (different ways)
dom.a.class.test = true;    // #class-make-true
dom.a.class = 'test';       // #class-push

Remove a class

// Remove the class 'test'
dom.a.class.test = false;    // #class-make-false

Manipulate

Did we say it returns a simple array?

dom.a.forEach(link => link.innerHTML = 'I am a link');

But what an interesting array it is; indeed we are also proxy'ing it so you can manipulate its sub-elements straight from the selector:

// Replace all of the link's html with 'I am a link'
dom.a.html = 'I am a link';

Of course we might want to manipulate them dynamically depending on the current value. Just pass it a function:

// Append ' ^_^' to all of the links in the page
dom.a.html = html => html + ' ^_^';

// Same as this:
dom.a.forEach(link => link.innerHTML = link.innerHTML + ' ^_^');

Note: this won't work dom.a.html += ' ^_^'; for more than 1 match (for reasons)

Or get into genetics to manipulate the attributes:

dom.a.attr.target = '_blank';

// Only to external sites:
let isOwnPage = el => /^https?\:\/\/mypage\.com/.test(el.getAttribute('href'));
dom.a.attr.target = (prev, i, element) => isOwnPage(element) ? '' : '_blank';

Events

You can also handle and trigger events:

// Handle click events for all <a>
dom.a.on.click = e => ...;

// Trigger click event for all <a>
dom.a.trigger.click;

Testing

We are using Jest as a Grunt task for testing. Install Jest and run in the terminal:

grunt watch

Download Details:

Author: franciscop
Source Code: https://github.com/franciscop/superdom 
License: MIT license

#javascript #es6 #dom 

Hire CSS Developer

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We build a website and we implemented CSS successfully if you are planning to Hire CSS Developer from HourlyDeveloper.io, We can fill your Page with creative colors and attractive Designs. We provide services in Web Designing, Website Redesigning and etc.

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Yashi Tyagi

1617449307

CA Classes - Best CA Classes Online

Chartered Accountancy course requires mental focus & discipline, coaching for CA Foundation, CA Inter and CA Finals are omnipresent, and some of the best faculty’s classes have moved online, in this blog, we are going to give the best way to find online videos lectures, various online websites provide the CA lectures, Smartnstudy one of the best site to CA preparation, here all faculty’s video lecture available.

check here : ca classes

#ca classes online #ca classes in delhi #ca classes app #ca pendrive classes #ca google drive classes #best ca classes online

Alayna  Rippin

Alayna Rippin

1603188000

Creating a CSS Visual Cheatsheet

The other day one of our students asked about possibility of having a CSS cheatsheet to help to decide on the best suited approach when doing this or that layout.

This evolved into the idea of making a visual CSS cheatsheet with all (most) of the common patterns we see everyday and one of the best possible conceptual implementation for them.

In the end any layout could and should be split into parts/blocks and we see every block separately.

Here is our first take on that and we would be happy to keep extending it to help us all.

Please, send you suggestions in the comments in community or via gitlab for the repeated CSS patterns with your favourite implementation for that so that we will all together make this as useful as it can be.

#css #css3 #cascading-style-sheets #web-development #html-css #css-grids #learning-css #html-css-basics

Aisu  Joesph

Aisu Joesph

1618024175

CSS Alignment Made Simple

CSS is seen as an impediment in web development for many of us. Most of the time it looks like even when you follow the rules and everything seems clear, it still doesn’t work the way you want it to.

Therefore, the purpose of this article is to make some features of CSS much easier to understand.

The thing I want to address now is the alignment of the elements.

Without further ado, here are some of the most common scenarios one might encounter when it comes to this topic and how they can be approached.

#css-center #css-position #css-flexbox #css-center-image-in-a-div #css