How to Install and Configure Kubectl: A Tutorial

What is Kubectl?

Kubectl is a command-line tool for Kubernetes. It allows us to execute Kubernetes operations via the API. We can use Kubectl to deploy apps, check logs as well as manage all the other resources of the cluster.

Kubernetes uses an HTTP-based REST API which is the actual Kubernetes user interface employed to manage it. This means that every Kubernetes operation is represented as an API endpoint and can be carried out based on an HTTP-request sent to the endpoint.

In this article, we will review Kubectl, and outline its installation, configuration, and use.

What is Kubernetes?

The name Kubernetes has its origins from the original Greek term for helmsman or pilot. Kubernetes, or ‘k8s’ (pronounced “Kate’s”) is an open-source software tool that was created by Google and is used for scaling, deploying and coordinating containerized applications into easy to manage groups. It supports multiple containerization technologies as well as orchestrates hardware virtualization.

To manage a Kubernetes server cluster effectively, we utilize kubectl as the command-line tool of choice. Basically, kubectl communicates with the master Kubernetes node(s) which in turn submits commands to the worker nodes to manage the cluster. A Kubernetes cluster basically consists of two types of resources.

  • Master server – a master server organizes the cluster
  • Node server – Nodes are the workers that contain and run the applications

Each node contains a Kubelet, which is the agent for managing the node and communicating with the master. We can use kubectl to deploy, explore, review and remove Kubernetes objects (like nodes, images or containers).

Initially, Kubernetes was designed and developed by Google engineers to employ and utilize containers for its workload management. Google generates more than 2 billion containers deployments a week which was provided for by their internal platform code-named Borg (the predecessor to Kubernetes). During Borg’s development, the experience gained was one of the main factors that influenced a significant part of Kubernetes current technologies. Currently, Kubernetes is maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.

How to Install Kubectl?

The easiest way to install kubectl is to use one of the default package managers for a Linux OS.

Debian/Ubuntu

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y apt-transport-https gnupg2

curl -s https://packages.cloud.google.com/apt/doc/apt-key.gpg | sudo apt-key add -

echo "deb https://apt.kubernetes.io/ kubernetes-xenial main" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/kubernetes.list

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install -y kubectl

#tutorials #choco #cluster #debian #docker #hyper-v #hyperkit #hypervisor #kubectl #kubernetes #mac #ubuntu #virtual box #virtual environment #virtual machines #virtualized #vm #vm driver #vt-x #windows 10 #windows 8

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How to Install and Configure Kubectl: A Tutorial

Background Fetch for React Native Apps

react-native-background-fetch

Background Fetch is a very simple plugin which attempts to awaken an app in the background about every 15 minutes, providing a short period of background running-time. This plugin will execute your provided callbackFn whenever a background-fetch event occurs.

There is no way to increase the rate which a fetch-event occurs and this plugin sets the rate to the most frequent possible — you will never receive an event faster than 15 minutes. The operating-system will automatically throttle the rate the background-fetch events occur based upon usage patterns. Eg: if user hasn't turned on their phone for a long period of time, fetch events will occur less frequently or if an iOS user disables background refresh they may not happen at all.

:new: Background Fetch now provides a scheduleTask method for scheduling arbitrary "one-shot" or periodic tasks.

iOS

  • There is no way to increase the rate which a fetch-event occurs and this plugin sets the rate to the most frequent possible — you will never receive an event faster than 15 minutes. The operating-system will automatically throttle the rate the background-fetch events occur based upon usage patterns. Eg: if user hasn't turned on their phone for a long period of time, fetch events will occur less frequently.
  • scheduleTask seems only to fire when the device is plugged into power.
  • ⚠️ When your app is terminated, iOS no longer fires events — There is no such thing as stopOnTerminate: false for iOS.
  • iOS can take days before Apple's machine-learning algorithm settles in and begins regularly firing events. Do not sit staring at your logs waiting for an event to fire. If your simulated events work, that's all you need to know that everything is correctly configured.
  • If the user doesn't open your iOS app for long periods of time, iOS will stop firing events.

Android

Installing the plugin

⚠️ If you have a previous version of react-native-background-fetch < 2.7.0 installed into react-native >= 0.60, you should first unlink your previous version as react-native link is no longer required.

$ react-native unlink react-native-background-fetch

With yarn

$ yarn add react-native-background-fetch

With npm

$ npm install --save react-native-background-fetch

Setup Guides

iOS Setup

react-native >= 0.60

Android Setup

react-native >= 0.60

Example

ℹ️ This repo contains its own Example App. See /example

import React from 'react';
import {
  SafeAreaView,
  StyleSheet,
  ScrollView,
  View,
  Text,
  FlatList,
  StatusBar,
} from 'react-native';

import {
  Header,
  Colors
} from 'react-native/Libraries/NewAppScreen';

import BackgroundFetch from "react-native-background-fetch";

class App extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = {
      events: []
    };
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    // Initialize BackgroundFetch ONLY ONCE when component mounts.
    this.initBackgroundFetch();
  }

  async initBackgroundFetch() {
    // BackgroundFetch event handler.
    const onEvent = async (taskId) => {
      console.log('[BackgroundFetch] task: ', taskId);
      // Do your background work...
      await this.addEvent(taskId);
      // IMPORTANT:  You must signal to the OS that your task is complete.
      BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
    }

    // Timeout callback is executed when your Task has exceeded its allowed running-time.
    // You must stop what you're doing immediately BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId)
    const onTimeout = async (taskId) => {
      console.warn('[BackgroundFetch] TIMEOUT task: ', taskId);
      BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
    }

    // Initialize BackgroundFetch only once when component mounts.
    let status = await BackgroundFetch.configure({minimumFetchInterval: 15}, onEvent, onTimeout);

    console.log('[BackgroundFetch] configure status: ', status);
  }

  // Add a BackgroundFetch event to <FlatList>
  addEvent(taskId) {
    // Simulate a possibly long-running asynchronous task with a Promise.
    return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
      this.setState(state => ({
        events: [...state.events, {
          taskId: taskId,
          timestamp: (new Date()).toString()
        }]
      }));
      resolve();
    });
  }

  render() {
    return (
      <>
        <StatusBar barStyle="dark-content" />
        <SafeAreaView>
          <ScrollView
            contentInsetAdjustmentBehavior="automatic"
            style={styles.scrollView}>
            <Header />

            <View style={styles.body}>
              <View style={styles.sectionContainer}>
                <Text style={styles.sectionTitle}>BackgroundFetch Demo</Text>
              </View>
            </View>
          </ScrollView>
          <View style={styles.sectionContainer}>
            <FlatList
              data={this.state.events}
              renderItem={({item}) => (<Text>[{item.taskId}]: {item.timestamp}</Text>)}
              keyExtractor={item => item.timestamp}
            />
          </View>
        </SafeAreaView>
      </>
    );
  }
}

const styles = StyleSheet.create({
  scrollView: {
    backgroundColor: Colors.lighter,
  },
  body: {
    backgroundColor: Colors.white,
  },
  sectionContainer: {
    marginTop: 32,
    paddingHorizontal: 24,
  },
  sectionTitle: {
    fontSize: 24,
    fontWeight: '600',
    color: Colors.black,
  },
  sectionDescription: {
    marginTop: 8,
    fontSize: 18,
    fontWeight: '400',
    color: Colors.dark,
  },
});

export default App;

Executing Custom Tasks

In addition to the default background-fetch task defined by BackgroundFetch.configure, you may also execute your own arbitrary "oneshot" or periodic tasks (iOS requires additional Setup Instructions). However, all events will be fired into the Callback provided to BackgroundFetch#configure:

⚠️ iOS:

  • scheduleTask on iOS seems only to run when the device is plugged into power.
  • scheduleTask on iOS are designed for low-priority tasks, such as purging cache files — they tend to be unreliable for mission-critical tasks. scheduleTask will never run as frequently as you want.
  • The default fetch event is much more reliable and fires far more often.
  • scheduleTask on iOS stop when the user terminates the app. There is no such thing as stopOnTerminate: false for iOS.
// Step 1:  Configure BackgroundFetch as usual.
let status = await BackgroundFetch.configure({
  minimumFetchInterval: 15
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Event callback
  // This is the fetch-event callback.
  console.log("[BackgroundFetch] taskId: ", taskId);

  // Use a switch statement to route task-handling.
  switch (taskId) {
    case 'com.foo.customtask':
      print("Received custom task");
      break;
    default:
      print("Default fetch task");
  }
  // Finish, providing received taskId.
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Task timeout callback
  // This task has exceeded its allowed running-time.
  // You must stop what you're doing and immediately .finish(taskId)
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
});

// Step 2:  Schedule a custom "oneshot" task "com.foo.customtask" to execute 5000ms from now.
BackgroundFetch.scheduleTask({
  taskId: "com.foo.customtask",
  forceAlarmManager: true,
  delay: 5000  // <-- milliseconds
});

API Documentation

Config

Common Options

@param {Integer} minimumFetchInterval [15]

The minimum interval in minutes to execute background fetch events. Defaults to 15 minutes. Note: Background-fetch events will never occur at a frequency higher than every 15 minutes. Apple uses a secret algorithm to adjust the frequency of fetch events, presumably based upon usage patterns of the app. Fetch events can occur less often than your configured minimumFetchInterval.

@param {Integer} delay (milliseconds)

ℹ️ Valid only for BackgroundFetch.scheduleTask. The minimum number of milliseconds in future that task should execute.

@param {Boolean} periodic [false]

ℹ️ Valid only for BackgroundFetch.scheduleTask. Defaults to false. Set true to execute the task repeatedly. When false, the task will execute just once.

Android Options

@config {Boolean} stopOnTerminate [true]

Set false to continue background-fetch events after user terminates the app. Default to true.

@config {Boolean} startOnBoot [false]

Set true to initiate background-fetch events when the device is rebooted. Defaults to false.

NOTE: startOnBoot requires stopOnTerminate: false.

@config {Boolean} forceAlarmManager [false]

By default, the plugin will use Android's JobScheduler when possible. The JobScheduler API prioritizes for battery-life, throttling task-execution based upon device usage and battery level.

Configuring forceAlarmManager: true will bypass JobScheduler to use Android's older AlarmManager API, resulting in more accurate task-execution at the cost of higher battery usage.

let status = await BackgroundFetch.configure({
  minimumFetchInterval: 15,
  forceAlarmManager: true
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Event callback
  console.log("[BackgroundFetch] taskId: ", taskId);
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Task timeout callback
  // This task has exceeded its allowed running-time.
  // You must stop what you're doing and immediately .finish(taskId)
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
});
.
.
.
// And with with #scheduleTask
BackgroundFetch.scheduleTask({
  taskId: 'com.foo.customtask',
  delay: 5000,       // milliseconds
  forceAlarmManager: true,
  periodic: false
});

@config {Boolean} enableHeadless [false]

Set true to enable React Native's Headless JS mechanism, for handling fetch events after app termination.

  • 📂 index.js (MUST BE IN index.js):
import BackgroundFetch from "react-native-background-fetch";

let MyHeadlessTask = async (event) => {
  // Get task id from event {}:
  let taskId = event.taskId;
  let isTimeout = event.timeout;  // <-- true when your background-time has expired.
  if (isTimeout) {
    // This task has exceeded its allowed running-time.
    // You must stop what you're doing immediately finish(taskId)
    console.log('[BackgroundFetch] Headless TIMEOUT:', taskId);
    BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
    return;
  }
  console.log('[BackgroundFetch HeadlessTask] start: ', taskId);

  // Perform an example HTTP request.
  // Important:  await asychronous tasks when using HeadlessJS.
  let response = await fetch('https://reactnative.dev/movies.json');
  let responseJson = await response.json();
  console.log('[BackgroundFetch HeadlessTask] response: ', responseJson);

  // Required:  Signal to native code that your task is complete.
  // If you don't do this, your app could be terminated and/or assigned
  // battery-blame for consuming too much time in background.
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
}

// Register your BackgroundFetch HeadlessTask
BackgroundFetch.registerHeadlessTask(MyHeadlessTask);

@config {integer} requiredNetworkType [BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_NONE]

Set basic description of the kind of network your job requires.

If your job doesn't need a network connection, you don't need to use this option as the default value is BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_NONE.

NetworkTypeDescription
BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_NONEThis job doesn't care about network constraints, either any or none.
BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_ANYThis job requires network connectivity.
BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_CELLULARThis job requires network connectivity that is a cellular network.
BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_UNMETEREDThis job requires network connectivity that is unmetered. Most WiFi networks are unmetered, as in "you can upload as much as you like".
BackgroundFetch.NETWORK_TYPE_NOT_ROAMINGThis job requires network connectivity that is not roaming (being outside the country of origin)

@config {Boolean} requiresBatteryNotLow [false]

Specify that to run this job, the device's battery level must not be low.

This defaults to false. If true, the job will only run when the battery level is not low, which is generally the point where the user is given a "low battery" warning.

@config {Boolean} requiresStorageNotLow [false]

Specify that to run this job, the device's available storage must not be low.

This defaults to false. If true, the job will only run when the device is not in a low storage state, which is generally the point where the user is given a "low storage" warning.

@config {Boolean} requiresCharging [false]

Specify that to run this job, the device must be charging (or be a non-battery-powered device connected to permanent power, such as Android TV devices). This defaults to false.

@config {Boolean} requiresDeviceIdle [false]

When set true, ensure that this job will not run if the device is in active use.

The default state is false: that is, the for the job to be runnable even when someone is interacting with the device.

This state is a loose definition provided by the system. In general, it means that the device is not currently being used interactively, and has not been in use for some time. As such, it is a good time to perform resource heavy jobs. Bear in mind that battery usage will still be attributed to your application, and shown to the user in battery stats.


Methods

Method NameArgumentsReturnsNotes
configure{FetchConfig}, callbackFn, timeoutFnPromise<BackgroundFetchStatus>Configures the plugin's callbackFn and timeoutFn. This callback will fire each time a background-fetch event occurs in addition to events from #scheduleTask. The timeoutFn will be called when the OS reports your task is nearing the end of its allowed background-time.
scheduleTask{TaskConfig}Promise<boolean>Executes a custom task. The task will be executed in the same Callback function provided to #configure.
statuscallbackFnPromise<BackgroundFetchStatus>Your callback will be executed with the current status (Integer) 0: Restricted, 1: Denied, 2: Available. These constants are defined as BackgroundFetch.STATUS_RESTRICTED, BackgroundFetch.STATUS_DENIED, BackgroundFetch.STATUS_AVAILABLE (NOTE: Android will always return STATUS_AVAILABLE)
finishString taskIdVoidYou MUST call this method in your callbackFn provided to #configure in order to signal to the OS that your task is complete. iOS provides only 30s of background-time for a fetch-event -- if you exceed this 30s, iOS will kill your app.
startnonePromise<BackgroundFetchStatus>Start the background-fetch API. Your callbackFn provided to #configure will be executed each time a background-fetch event occurs. NOTE the #configure method automatically calls #start. You do not have to call this method after you #configure the plugin
stop[taskId:String]Promise<boolean>Stop the background-fetch API and all #scheduleTask from firing events. Your callbackFn provided to #configure will no longer be executed. If you provide an optional taskId, only that #scheduleTask will be stopped.

Debugging

iOS

🆕 BGTaskScheduler API for iOS 13+

  • ⚠️ At the time of writing, the new task simulator does not yet work in Simulator; Only real devices.
  • See Apple docs Starting and Terminating Tasks During Development
  • After running your app in XCode, Click the [||] button to initiate a Breakpoint.
  • In the console (lldb), paste the following command (Note: use cursor up/down keys to cycle through previously run commands):
e -l objc -- (void)[[BGTaskScheduler sharedScheduler] _simulateLaunchForTaskWithIdentifier:@"com.transistorsoft.fetch"]
  • Click the [ > ] button to continue. The task will execute and the Callback function provided to BackgroundFetch.configure will receive the event.

Simulating task-timeout events

  • Only the new BGTaskScheduler api supports simulated task-timeout events. To simulate a task-timeout, your fetchCallback must not call BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId):
let status = await BackgroundFetch.configure({
  minimumFetchInterval: 15
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Event callback.
  // This is the task callback.
  console.log("[BackgroundFetch] taskId", taskId);
  //BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId); // <-- Disable .finish(taskId) when simulating an iOS task timeout
}, async (taskId) => {  // <-- Event timeout callback
  // This task has exceeded its allowed running-time.
  // You must stop what you're doing and immediately .finish(taskId)
  print("[BackgroundFetch] TIMEOUT taskId:", taskId);
  BackgroundFetch.finish(taskId);
});
  • Now simulate an iOS task timeout as follows, in the same manner as simulating an event above:
e -l objc -- (void)[[BGTaskScheduler sharedScheduler] _simulateExpirationForTaskWithIdentifier:@"com.transistorsoft.fetch"]

Old BackgroundFetch API

  • Simulate background fetch events in XCode using Debug->Simulate Background Fetch
  • iOS can take some hours or even days to start a consistently scheduling background-fetch events since iOS schedules fetch events based upon the user's patterns of activity. If Simulate Background Fetch works, your can be sure that everything is working fine. You just need to wait.

Android

  • Observe plugin logs in $ adb logcat:
$ adb logcat *:S ReactNative:V ReactNativeJS:V TSBackgroundFetch:V
  • Simulate a background-fetch event on a device (insert <your.application.id>) (only works for sdk 21+:
$ adb shell cmd jobscheduler run -f <your.application.id> 999
  • For devices with sdk <21, simulate a "Headless JS" event with (insert <your.application.id>)
$ adb shell am broadcast -a <your.application.id>.event.BACKGROUND_FETCH

Download Details:
Author: transistorsoft
Source Code: https://github.com/transistorsoft/react-native-background-fetch
License: MIT license

#react  #reactnative  #mobileapp  #javascript 

Willie  Beier

Willie Beier

1596728880

Tutorial: Getting Started with R and RStudio

In this tutorial we’ll learn how to begin programming with R using RStudio. We’ll install R, and RStudio RStudio, an extremely popular development environment for R. We’ll learn the key RStudio features in order to start programming in R on our own.

If you already know how to use RStudio and want to learn some tips, tricks, and shortcuts, check out this Dataquest blog post.

Table of Contents

#data science tutorials #beginner #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials

Jeromy  Lowe

Jeromy Lowe

1599097440

Data Visualization in R with ggplot2: A Beginner Tutorial

A famous general is thought to have said, “A good sketch is better than a long speech.” That advice may have come from the battlefield, but it’s applicable in lots of other areas — including data science. “Sketching” out our data by visualizing it using ggplot2 in R is more impactful than simply describing the trends we find.

This is why we visualize data. We visualize data because it’s easier to learn from something that we can see rather than read. And thankfully for data analysts and data scientists who use R, there’s a tidyverse package called ggplot2 that makes data visualization a snap!

In this blog post, we’ll learn how to take some data and produce a visualization using R. To work through it, it’s best if you already have an understanding of R programming syntax, but you don’t need to be an expert or have any prior experience working with ggplot2

#data science tutorials #beginner #ggplot2 #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tutorial #tutorials

Tutorial: Loading and Cleaning Data with R and the tidyverse

1. Characteristics of Clean Data and Messy Data

What exactly is clean data? Clean data is accurate, complete, and in a format that is ready to analyze. Characteristics of clean data include data that are:

  • Free of duplicate rows/values
  • Error-free (e.g. free of misspellings)
  • Relevant (e.g. free of special characters)
  • The appropriate data type for analysis
  • Free of outliers (or only contain outliers have been identified/understood), and
  • Follows a “tidy data” structure

Common symptoms of messy data include data that contain:

  • Special characters (e.g. commas in numeric values)
  • Numeric values stored as text/character data types
  • Duplicate rows
  • Misspellings
  • Inaccuracies
  • White space
  • Missing data
  • Zeros instead of null values

2. Motivation

In this blog post, we will work with five property-sales datasets that are publicly available on the New York City Department of Finance Rolling Sales Data website. We encourage you to download the datasets and follow along! Each file contains one year of real estate sales data for one of New York City’s five boroughs. We will work with the following Microsoft Excel files:

  • rollingsales_bronx.xls
  • rollingsales_brooklyn.xls
  • rollingsales_manhattan.xls
  • rollingsales_queens.xls
  • rollingsales_statenisland.xls

As we work through this blog post, imagine that you are helping a friend launch their home-inspection business in New York City. You offer to help them by analyzing the data to better understand the real-estate market. But you realize that before you can analyze the data in R, you will need to diagnose and clean it first. And before you can diagnose the data, you will need to load it into R!

3. Load Data into R with readxl

Benefits of using tidyverse tools are often evident in the data-loading process. In many cases, the tidyverse package readxl will clean some data for you as Microsoft Excel data is loaded into R. If you are working with CSV data, the tidyverse readr package function read_csv() is the function to use (we’ll cover that later).

Let’s look at an example. Here’s how the Excel file for the Brooklyn borough looks:

The Brooklyn Excel file

Now let’s load the Brooklyn dataset into R from an Excel file. We’ll use the readxlpackage. We specify the function argument skip = 4 because the row that we want to use as the header (i.e. column names) is actually row 5. We can ignore the first four rows entirely and load the data into R beginning at row 5. Here’s the code:

library(readxl) # Load Excel files
brooklyn <- read_excel("rollingsales_brooklyn.xls", skip = 4)

Note we saved this dataset with the variable name brooklyn for future use.

4. View the Data with tidyr::glimpse()

The tidyverse offers a user-friendly way to view this data with the glimpse() function that is part of the tibble package. To use this package, we will need to load it for use in our current session. But rather than loading this package alone, we can load many of the tidyverse packages at one time. If you do not have the tidyverse collection of packages, install it on your machine using the following command in your R or R Studio session:

install.packages("tidyverse")

Once the package is installed, load it to memory:

library(tidyverse)

Now that tidyverse is loaded into memory, take a “glimpse” of the Brooklyn dataset:

glimpse(brooklyn)
## Observations: 20,185
## Variables: 21
## $ BOROUGH <chr> "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "3", "…
## $ NEIGHBORHOOD <chr> "BATH BEACH", "BATH BEACH", "BA…
## $ `BUILDING CLASS CATEGORY` <chr> "01 ONE FAMILY DWELLINGS", "01 …
## $ `TAX CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "…
## $ BLOCK <dbl> 6359, 6360, 6364, 6367, 6371, 6…
## $ LOT <dbl> 70, 48, 74, 24, 19, 32, 65, 20,…
## $ `EASE-MENT` <lgl> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT PRESENT` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "…
## $ ADDRESS <chr> "8684 15TH AVENUE", "14 BAY 10T…
## $ `APARTMENT NUMBER` <chr> NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA, NA,…
## $ `ZIP CODE` <dbl> 11228, 11228, 11214, 11214, 112…
## $ `RESIDENTIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1…
## $ `COMMERCIAL UNITS` <dbl> 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0…
## $ `TOTAL UNITS` <dbl> 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1…
## $ `LAND SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 1933, 2513, 2492, 1571, 2320, 3…
## $ `GROSS SQUARE FEET` <dbl> 4080, 1428, 972, 1456, 1566, 22…
## $ `YEAR BUILT` <dbl> 1930, 1930, 1950, 1935, 1930, 1…
## $ `TAX CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "1", "…
## $ `BUILDING CLASS AT TIME OF SALE` <chr> "S1", "A5", "A5", "A9", "A9", "…
## $ `SALE PRICE` <dbl> 1300000, 849000, 0, 830000, 0, …
## $ `SALE DATE` <dttm> 2020-04-28, 2020-03-18, 2019-0…

The glimpse() function provides a user-friendly way to view the column names and data types for all columns, or variables, in the data frame. With this function, we are also able to view the first few observations in the data frame. This data frame has 20,185 observations, or property sales records. And there are 21 variables, or columns.

#data science tutorials #beginner #r #r tutorial #r tutorials #rstats #tidyverse #tutorial #tutorials

Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick

1596584126

R Tutorial: Better Blog Post Analysis with googleAnalyticsR

In my previous role as a marketing data analyst for a blogging company, one of my most important tasks was to track how blog posts performed.

On the surface, it’s a fairly straightforward goal. With Google Analytics, you can quickly get just about any metric you need for your blog posts, for any date range.

But when it comes to comparing blog post performance, things get a bit trickier.

For example, let’s say we want to compare the performance of the blog posts we published on the Dataquest blog in June (using the month of June as our date range).

But wait… two blog posts with more than 1,000 pageviews were published earlier in the month, And the two with fewer than 500 pageviews were published at the end of the month. That’s hardly a fair comparison!

My first solution to this problem was to look up each post individually, so that I could make an even comparison of how each post performed in their first day, first week, first month, etc.

However, that required a lot of manual copy-and-paste work, which was extremely tedious if I wanted to compare more than a few posts, date ranges, or metrics at a time.

But then, I learned R, and realized that there was a much better way.

In this post, we’ll walk through how it’s done, so you can do my better blog post analysis for yourself!

What we’ll need

To complete this tutorial, you’ll need basic knowledge of R syntax and the tidyverse, and access to a Google Analytics account.

Not yet familiar with the basics of R? We can help with that! Our interactive online courses teach you R from scratch, with no prior programming experience required. Sign up and start today!

You’ll also need the dyplrlubridate, and stringr packages installed — which, as a reminder, you can do with the install.packages() command.

Finally, you will need a CSV of the blog posts you want to analyze. Here’s what’s in my dataset:

post_url: the page path of the blog post

post_date: the date the post was published (formatted m/d/yy)

category: the blog category the post was published in (optional)

title: the title of the blog post (optional)

Depending on your content management system, there may be a way for you to automate gathering this data — but that’s out of the scope of this tutorial!

For this tutorial, we’ll use a manually-gathered dataset of the past ten Dataquest blog posts.

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