Devil  Moya

Devil Moya


How to Create Server Side Rendered React application using Next.js

Setting up a server side rendered app with the default code generated by Create React App is not easy. You have to do lots of changes to the default code to get anything working. Getting it to work exactly the way you want is even harder, so developers came up with some solutions. One of the best options is Next.js.

In this story, we will build an address book app, which uses those libraries, plus React Bootstrap, which has great integration with those libraries above to create forms. To start we need to run Next.js CLI to scaffold the app. We run npx create-next-app to create the app project folder with the initial files. The app will have a home page to display the contacts and let us open a modal to add a contact. There will be a table that displays all the contacts and Edit and Delete buttons on each row to edit or delete each contact. The contacts will store in a central Redux store to store the contacts in a central place, making them easy to access. React Router will be used for routing. Contacts will be saved in the back end spawned using the JSON server package.

For form validation, then you need to use a third-party library. Formik and Yup work great together to allow us to take care of most form validation needs. Formik let us build the forms and display the errors, and handle form value changes, which is another thing we have to do all my hand otherwise. Yup let us write a schema for validating our form fields. It can check almost anything, with common validation code like email and required fields available as built-in functions. It can also check for fields that depend on other fields, like the postal code format depending on the country. Bootstrap forms can be used seamlessly with Formik and Yup.

Once that is done, we have to install some libraries. To install the libraries we mentioned above, we run npm i axios bootstrap formik react-bootstrap react-redux react-router-dom yup . Axios is the HTTP client that we use for making HTTP requests to back end. react-router-dom is the package name for the latest version of React Router.

Now that we have all the libraries installed, we can start building the app. We create a store folder and create a file called actionCreator.js in it and add the following:

import { SET_CONTACTS } from './actions';

const setContacts = (contacts) => {
    return {
        type: SET_CONTACTS,
        payload: contacts

export { setContacts };

This is the action creator for creating the action for storing the contacts in the store.

We create another file called actions.js in the same folder and add:


export { SET_CONTACTS };

This just have the type constant for dispatching the action.

Then in the store folder, we create index.js and add:

import { contactsReducer } from "./reducers";
import { createStore, combineReducers } from "redux";

const addressBookApp = combineReducers({
  contacts: contactsReducer,

const makeStore = (initialState, options) => {
  return createStore(addressBookApp, initialState);

export { makeStore };

We will use it in the main entry point file, which will be called _app.js in the pages folder to allow us to use the same Redux store in this multi-page, server side rendered app.

Then we make a file called reducers.js , and add:

import { SET_CONTACTS } from './actions';

function contactsReducer(state = {}, action) {
    switch (action.type) {
        case SET_CONTACTS:
            state = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(action.payload));
            return state;
            return state

export { contactsReducer };

This is the reducer where we store the contacts that we dispatch by calling the prop provided by the mapDispatchToProps function in our components.

Next we add some code files to the pages folder.

In index.js , we replace what is existing with the following:

import React from "react";
import Head from "next/head";
import { Router, Route } from "react-router-dom";
import { createMemoryHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import Navbar from "react-bootstrap/Navbar";
import Nav from "react-bootstrap/Nav";
import HomePage from "./HomePage";
import { contactsReducer } from "../store/reducers";
import { Provider } from "react-redux";
import { createStore, combineReducers } from "redux";

const history = createHistory();

const addressBookApp = combineReducers({
  contacts: contactsReducer,

const store = createStore(addressBookApp);

const Home = () => (
      <title>Address Book</title>
    <div className="App">
      <Router history={history}>
        <Navbar bg="primary" expand="lg" variant="dark">
          <Navbar.Brand href="#home">Address Book App</Navbar.Brand>
          <Navbar.Toggle aria-controls="basic-navbar-nav" />
          <Navbar.Collapse id="basic-navbar-nav">
            <Nav className="mr-auto">
              <Nav.Link href="/">Home</Nav.Link>
        <Route path="/" exact component={HomePage} />
    <style jsx>{`
      .App {
        text-align: center;

export default Home;

This is where we add the navigation bar and show our routes routed by the React Router. In the styles element, we replace the existing code with:

.App {
  text-align: center;

to center some text.

Next we build our contact form. This is the most logic heavy part of our app. We create a file called ContactForm.js in the components folder and add:

import React from 'react';
import { Formik } from 'formik';
import Form from 'react-bootstrap/Form';
import Col from 'react-bootstrap/Col';
import InputGroup from 'react-bootstrap/InputGroup';
import Button from 'react-bootstrap/Button';
import * as yup from 'yup';
import { COUNTRIES } from '../helpers/exports';
import PropTypes from 'prop-types';
import { addContact, editContact, getContacts } from '../helpers/requests';
import { connect } from 'react-redux';
import { setContacts } from '../store/actionCreators';

const schema = yup.object({
  firstName: yup.string().required('First name is required'),
  lastName: yup.string().required('Last name is required'),
  address: yup.string().required('Address is required'),
  city: yup.string().required('City is required'),
  region: yup.string().required('Region is required'),
  country: yup.string().required('Country is required').default('Afghanistan'),
  postalCode: yup
    .when('country', {
      is: 'United States',
      then: yup.string().matches(/^[0-9]{5}(?:-[0-9]{4})?$/, 'Invalid postal code'),
    .when('country', {
      is: 'Canada',
      then: yup.string().matches(/^[A-Za-z]\d[A-Za-z][ -]?\d[A-Za-z]\d$/, 'Invalid postal code'),
  phone: yup
    .when('country', {
      is: country => ["United States", "Canada"].includes(country),
      then: yup.string().matches(/^[2-9]\d{2}[2-9]\d{2}\d{4}$/, 'Invalid phone nunber')
  email: yup.string().email('Invalid email').required('Email is required'),
  age: yup.number()
    .required('Age is required')
    .min(0, 'Minimum age is 0')
    .max(200, 'Maximum age is 200'),

function ContactForm({
}) {
  const handleSubmit = async (evt) => {
    const isValid = await schema.validate(evt);
    if (!isValid) {
    if (!edit) {
      await addContact(evt);
    else {
      await editContact(evt);
    const response = await getContacts();
return (
    <div className="form">
        initialValues={contact || {}}
        }) => (
            <Form noValidate onSubmit={handleSubmit}>
                <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="firstName">
                  <Form.Label>First name</Form.Label>
                    placeholder="First Name"
                    value={values.firstName || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.firstName && errors.firstName}
                  <Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
                <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="lastName">
                  <Form.Label>Last name</Form.Label>
                    placeholder="Last Name"
                    value={values.lastName || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.firstName && errors.lastName}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
                <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="address">
                      value={values.address || ''}
                      isInvalid={touched.address && errors.address}
                    <Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
                <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="city">
                    value={ || ''}
                    isInvalid={ &&}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
                <Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="region">
                    value={values.region || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.region && errors.region}
                  <Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
<Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="country">
                    value={ || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.region &&}>
                    { => <option key={c} value={c}>{c}</option>)}
                  <Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
<Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="postalCode">
                  <Form.Label>Postal Code</Form.Label>
                    placeholder="Postal Code"
                    value={values.postalCode || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.postalCode && errors.postalCode}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
<Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="phone">
                    value={ || ''}
                    isInvalid={ &&}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
<Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="email">
                    value={ || ''}
                    isInvalid={ &&}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
<Form.Group as={Col} md="12" controlId="age">
                    value={values.age || ''}
                    isInvalid={touched.age && errors.age}
<Form.Control.Feedback type="invalid">
              <Button type="submit" style={{ 'marginRight': '10px' }}>Save</Button>
              <Button type="button" onClick={edit ? onCancelEdit : onCancelAdd}>Cancel</Button>

ContactForm.propTypes = {
  edit: PropTypes.bool,
  onSave: PropTypes.func,
  onCancelAdd: PropTypes.func,
  onCancelEdit: PropTypes.func,
  contact: PropTypes.object

const mapStateToProps = state => {
  return {
    contacts: state.contacts,
const mapDispatchToProps = dispatch => ({
  setContacts: contacts => dispatch(setContacts(contacts))

export default connect(

We use Formik to facilitate building our contact form here, with our Boostrap Form component nested in the Formik component so that we can use Formik’s handleChange , handleSubmit , values , touched and errors parameters. handleChange is a function that let us update the form field data from the inputs without writing the code ourselves. handleSubmit is the function that we passed into the onSubmit handler of the Formik component. The parameter in the function is the data we entered, with the field name as the key, as defined by the name attribute of each field and the value of each field as the value of those keys. Notice that in each value prop, we have ||'' so we do not get undefined values and prevent uncontrolled form warnings from getting triggered.

To display form validation messages, we have to pass in the isInvalid prop to each Form.Control component. The schema object is what Formik will check against for form validation. The argument in the required function is the validation error message. The second argument of the matches , min and max functions are also validation messages.

The parameter of the ContactForm function are props, which we will pass in from the HomePage component that we will build later. The handleSubmit function checks if the data is valid, then if it is then it will proceed to saving according to whether it is adding or editing a contact. Then when saving is successful we set the contacts in the store and call onSave prop, which is a function to close the modal the form is in. The modal will be defined in the home page.

mapStateToProps is a function provided by React Redux so that we can map the state directly to the props of our component as the function name suggests. mapDispatchToProps allows us to call function in the props of the component called setContacts to dispatch the action as we defined in actionCreators.js .

Next we create a file called exports.js after creating the helpers folder, and put:

export const COUNTRIES = [
  "Antigua &amp; Barbuda",
  "Bosnia &amp; Herzegovina",
  "British Virgin Islands",
  "Burkina Faso",
  "Cape Verde",
  "Cayman Islands",
  "Cook Islands",
  "Costa Rica",
  "Cote D Ivoire",
  "Cruise Ship",
  "Czech Republic",
  "Dominican Republic",
  "El Salvador",
  "Equatorial Guinea",
  "Falkland Islands",
  "Faroe Islands",
  "French Polynesia",
  "French West Indies",
  "Guinea Bissau",
  "Hong Kong",
  "Isle of Man",
  "Kyrgyz Republic",
  "Netherlands Antilles",
  "New Caledonia",
  "New Zealand",
  "Papua New Guinea",
  "Puerto Rico",
  "Saint Pierre &amp; Miquelon",
  "San Marino",
  "Saudi Arabia",
  "Sierra Leone",
  "South Africa",
  "South Korea",
  "Sri Lanka",
  "St Kitts &amp; Nevis",
  "St Lucia",
  "St Vincent",
  "St. Lucia",
  "Timor L'Este",
  "Trinidad &amp; Tobago",
  "Turks &amp; Caicos",
  "United Arab Emirates",
  "United Kingdom",
  "United States",
  "United States Minor Outlying Islands",
  "Virgin Islands (US)",

These are countries for the countries field in the form.

Then we make a file called requests.js in the same folder, and add:

const APIURL = 'http://localhost:3000';
const axios = require('axios');

export const getContacts = () => axios.get(`${APIURL}/contacts`);

export const addContact = (data) =>`${APIURL}/contacts`, data);

export const editContact = (data) => axios.put(`${APIURL}/contacts/${}`, data);

export const deleteContact = (id) => axios.delete(`${APIURL}/contacts/${id}`);

These are functions are making our HTTP requests to the back end to save and delete contacts.

In HomePage.js , we put:

import React from 'react';
import { useState, useEffect } from 'react';
import Table from 'react-bootstrap/Table'
import ButtonToolbar from 'react-bootstrap/ButtonToolbar';
import Button from 'react-bootstrap/Button';
import Modal from 'react-bootstrap/Modal'
import ContactForm from './ContactForm';
import './HomePage.css';
import { connect } from 'react-redux';
import { getContacts, deleteContact } from './requests';

function HomePage() {
  const [openAddModal, setOpenAddModal] = useState(false);
  const [openEditModal, setOpenEditModal] = useState(false);
  const [initialized, setInitialized] = useState(false);
  const [selectedId, setSelectedId] = useState(0);
  const [selectedContact, setSelectedContact] = useState({});
  const [contacts, setContacts] = useState([]);
  const openModal = () => {
  const closeModal = () => {
  const cancelAddModal = () => {
  const editContact = (contact) => {
  const cancelEditModal = () => {
  const getData = async () => {
    const response = await getContacts();
  const deleteSelectedContact = async (id) => {
    await deleteContact(id);
  useEffect(() => {
    if (!initialized) {
  return (
    <div className="home-page">
      <Modal show={openAddModal} onHide={closeModal} >
        <Modal.Header closeButton>
          <Modal.Title>Add Contact</Modal.Title>
          <ContactForm edit={false} onSave={closeModal.bind(this)} onCancelAdd={cancelAddModal} />
<Modal show={openEditModal} onHide={closeModal}>
        <Modal.Header closeButton>
          <Modal.Title>Edit Contact</Modal.Title>
          <ContactForm edit={true} onSave={closeModal.bind(this)} contact={selectedContact} onCancelEdit={cancelEditModal} />
      <ButtonToolbar onClick={openModal}>
        <Button variant="outline-primary">Add Contact</Button>
      <br />
      <Table striped bordered hover>
            <th>First Name</th>
            <th>Last Name</th>
            <th>Postal Code</th>
          { => (
            <tr key={}>
                <Button variant="outline-primary" onClick={editContact.bind(this, c)}>Edit</Button>
                <Button variant="outline-primary" onClick={deleteSelectedContact.bind(this,}>Delete</Button>

const mapStateToProps = state => {
  return {
    contacts: state.contacts,

export default connect(

It has the table to display the contacts and buttons to add, edit, and delete contacts. It gets data on the first load with the getData function call in the useEffect’s callback function. useEffect’s callback is called on every render so we want to set a initialized flag and check that it loads only if it’s true .

Note that we pass in all the props in this component to the ContactForm component. To pass an argument a onClick handler function, we have to call bind on the function and pass in the argument for the function as a second argument to bind . For example, in this file, we have editContact.bind(this, c) , where c is the contact object. The editContact function is defined as follows:

const editContact = (contact) => {

c is the contact parameter we pass in.

In the styles block, we have:

.home-page {
  padding: 20px;

to add some padding.

In index.js in the pages folder, we replace the existing code with:

import React from "react";
import Head from "next/head";
import { Router, Route } from "react-router-dom";
import { createMemoryHistory as createHistory } from "history";
import Navbar from "react-bootstrap/Navbar";
import Nav from "react-bootstrap/Nav";
import HomePage from "./HomePage";
import { contactsReducer } from "../store/reducers";
import { Provider } from "react-redux";
import { createStore, combineReducers } from "redux";

const history = createHistory();

const addressBookApp = combineReducers({
  contacts: contactsReducer,

const store = createStore(addressBookApp);

const Home = () => (
      <title>Address Book</title>
    <div className="App">
      <Router history={history}>
        <Navbar bg="primary" expand="lg" variant="dark">
          <Navbar.Brand href="#home">Address Book App</Navbar.Brand>
          <Navbar.Toggle aria-controls="basic-navbar-nav" />
          <Navbar.Collapse id="basic-navbar-nav">
            <Nav className="mr-auto">
              <Nav.Link href="/">Home</Nav.Link>
        <Route path="/" exact component={HomePage} />
    <style jsx>{`
      .App {
        text-align: center;

export default Home;

This is the entry point of the app, we add the navigation menu here and also the route for the home page here. Since we do not have an index.html in a server side rendered app, we render the head tag of the page by putting the Head component here, along with the title and link components inside the Head . We include these to change the title and add the Bootstrap stylesheet respectively.

We have to add a file called _app.js in the pages folder to let us use our Redux store in all our components since this is not a normal client side rendered app. This file overrides the default App class in Next.js . The class is used for loading initialization code in our pages. There is no ReactDOM.render call with the topmost component where we can wrap the Provider component around it to let us use our Redux store everywhere, so we have to add:

// pages/_app.js
import React from "react";
import { Provider } from "react-redux";
import App, { Container } from "next/app";
import withRedux from "next-redux-wrapper";
import { contactsReducer } from "../store/reducers";
import { createStore, combineReducers } from "redux";

const addressBookApp = combineReducers({
  contacts: contactsReducer,

const makeStore = (initialState, options) => {
  return createStore(addressBookApp, initialState);

class MyApp extends App {
  static async getInitialProps({ Component, ctx }) {
    const pageProps = Component.getInitialProps
      ? await Component.getInitialProps(ctx)
      : {};
    return { pageProps };
  render() {
    const { Component, pageProps, store } = this.props;
    return (
        <Provider store={store}>
          <Component {...pageProps} />

export default withRedux(makeStore)(MyApp);

to wrap our Redux store around all our components. Component is any component in our app. We use the next-redux-wrapper package to pass the store object down to all of our components by allowing us to wrap Provider with the store prop around our components.

Now we can run the app by running npm run build then npm run start -- --port 3001 .

To start back end, we first install the json-server package by running npm i json-server . Them go to our project folder and run:

json-server --watch db.json

In db.json , change the text to:

  "contacts": [

so that we have the contacts endpoints defined in requests.js available.

At the end, we have the following:

Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

#React #Nextjs #JavaScript #Programming #Webdev

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How to Create Server Side Rendered React application using Next.js
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick


How native is React Native? | React Native vs Native App Development

If you are undertaking a mobile app development for your start-up or enterprise, you are likely wondering whether to use React Native. As a popular development framework, React Native helps you to develop near-native mobile apps. However, you are probably also wondering how close you can get to a native app by using React Native. How native is React Native?

In the article, we discuss the similarities between native mobile development and development using React Native. We also touch upon where they differ and how to bridge the gaps. Read on.

A brief introduction to React Native

Let’s briefly set the context first. We will briefly touch upon what React Native is and how it differs from earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is a popular JavaScript framework that Facebook has created. You can use this open-source framework to code natively rendering Android and iOS mobile apps. You can use it to develop web apps too.

Facebook has developed React Native based on React, its JavaScript library. The first release of React Native came in March 2015. At the time of writing this article, the latest stable release of React Native is 0.62.0, and it was released in March 2020.

Although relatively new, React Native has acquired a high degree of popularity. The “Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2019” report identifies it as the 8th most loved framework. Facebook, Walmart, and Bloomberg are some of the top companies that use React Native.

The popularity of React Native comes from its advantages. Some of its advantages are as follows:

  • Performance: It delivers optimal performance.
  • Cross-platform development: You can develop both Android and iOS apps with it. The reuse of code expedites development and reduces costs.
  • UI design: React Native enables you to design simple and responsive UI for your mobile app.
  • 3rd party plugins: This framework supports 3rd party plugins.
  • Developer community: A vibrant community of developers support React Native.

Why React Native is fundamentally different from earlier hybrid frameworks

Are you wondering whether React Native is just another of those hybrid frameworks like Ionic or Cordova? It’s not! React Native is fundamentally different from these earlier hybrid frameworks.

React Native is very close to native. Consider the following aspects as described on the React Native website:

  • Access to many native platforms features: The primitives of React Native render to native platform UI. This means that your React Native app will use many native platform APIs as native apps would do.
  • Near-native user experience: React Native provides several native components, and these are platform agnostic.
  • The ease of accessing native APIs: React Native uses a declarative UI paradigm. This enables React Native to interact easily with native platform APIs since React Native wraps existing native code.

Due to these factors, React Native offers many more advantages compared to those earlier hybrid frameworks. We now review them.

#android app #frontend #ios app #mobile app development #benefits of react native #is react native good for mobile app development #native vs #pros and cons of react native #react mobile development #react native development #react native experience #react native framework #react native ios vs android #react native pros and cons #react native vs android #react native vs native #react native vs native performance #react vs native #why react native #why use react native

Easter  Deckow

Easter Deckow


PyTumblr: A Python Tumblr API v2 Client



Install via pip:

$ pip install pytumblr

Install from source:

$ git clone
$ cd pytumblr
$ python install


Create a client

A pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:

client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient(
) # Grabs the current user information

Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:

  1. The built-in tool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
  2. The Tumblr API console at
  3. Get sample login code at

Supported Methods

User Methods # get information about the authenticating user
client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user
client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user
client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user

client.follow('') # follow a blog
client.unfollow('') # unfollow a blog, reblogkey) # like a post
client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post

Blog Methods

client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog
client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog
client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog
client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog
client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog
client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows
client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog
client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog

Post Methods

Creating posts

PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.

The default supported types are described below.

  • state - a string, the state of the post. Supported types are published, draft, queue, private
  • tags - a list, a list of strings that you want tagged on the post. eg: ["testing", "magic", "1"]
  • tweet - a string, the string of the customized tweet you want. eg: "Man I love my mega awesome post!"
  • date - a string, the customized GMT that you want
  • format - a string, the format that your post is in. Support types are html or markdown
  • slug - a string, the slug for the url of the post you want

We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.

Creating a photo post

Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload

#Creates a photo post using a source URL
client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"],

#Creates a photo post using a local filepath
client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"],
                    tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]",

#Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths
client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown",
                    data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"],
                    caption="## Mega sweet kittens")

Creating a text post

Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html

#Creating a text post
client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")

Creating a quote post

Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported

#Creating a quote post
client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")

Creating a link post

  • title - a string, the title of post that you want. Supports HTML entities.
  • url - a string, the url that you want to create a link post for.
  • description - a string, the desciption of the link that you have
#Create a link post
client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="",
                   description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")

Creating a chat post

Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)

#Create a chat post
chat = """John: Testing can be fun!
Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you.
John: Aw.
client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])

Creating an audio post

Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr

#Creating an audio file
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3")

#lets use soundcloud!
client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="")

Creating a video post

Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload

#Creating an upload from YouTube
client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.",

#Creating a video post from local file
client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/")

Editing a post

Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.

client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated")
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")

Reblogging a Post

Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.

client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")

Deleting a post

Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id

client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(

A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):

client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)

Getting notes for a post

In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')

The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.

data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])

Tagged Methods

# get posts with a given tag
client.tagged(tag, **params)

Using the interactive console

This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).

You'll need pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:

$ python

and away you go! Tokens are stored in ~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.

Running tests

The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:

python test

Author: tumblr
Source Code:
License: Apache-2.0 license

#python #api 

Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


Eva  Murphy

Eva Murphy


Google analytics Setup with Next JS, React JS using Router Events - 14

In this video, we are going to implement Google Analytics to our Next JS application. Tracking page views of an application is very important.

Google analytics will allow us to track analytics information.

App link:

You can find me on:

#next js #js #react js #react #next #google analytics

Beth  Cooper

Beth Cooper


Easy Activity Tracking for Models, Similar to Github's Public Activity


public_activity provides easy activity tracking for your ActiveRecord, Mongoid 3 and MongoMapper models in Rails 3 and 4.

Simply put: it can record what happens in your application and gives you the ability to present those recorded activities to users - in a similar way to how GitHub does it.

!! WARNING: README for unreleased version below. !!

You probably don't want to read the docs for this unreleased version 2.0.

For the stable 1.5.X readme see:


Here is a simple example showing what this gem is about:

Example usage



Ryan Bates made a great screencast describing how to integrate Public Activity.


A great step-by-step guide on implementing activity feeds using public_activity by Ilya Bodrov.

Online demo

You can see an actual application using this gem here:

The source code of the demo is hosted here:


Gem installation

You can install public_activity as you would any other gem:

gem install public_activity

or in your Gemfile:

gem 'public_activity'

Database setup

By default public_activity uses Active Record. If you want to use Mongoid or MongoMapper as your backend, create an initializer file in your Rails application with the corresponding code inside:

For Mongoid:

# config/initializers/public_activity.rb
PublicActivity.configure do |config|
  config.orm = :mongoid

For MongoMapper:

# config/initializers/public_activity.rb
PublicActivity.configure do |config|
  config.orm = :mongo_mapper

(ActiveRecord only) Create migration for activities and migrate the database (in your Rails project):

rails g public_activity:migration
rake db:migrate

Model configuration

Include PublicActivity::Model and add tracked to the model you want to keep track of:

For ActiveRecord:

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
  include PublicActivity::Model

For Mongoid:

class Article
  include Mongoid::Document
  include PublicActivity::Model

For MongoMapper:

class Article
  include MongoMapper::Document
  include PublicActivity::Model

And now, by default create/update/destroy activities are recorded in activities table. This is all you need to start recording activities for basic CRUD actions.

Optional: If you don't need #tracked but still want the comfort of #create_activity, you can include only the lightweight Common module instead of Model.

Custom activities

You can trigger custom activities by setting all your required parameters and triggering create_activity on the tracked model, like this:

@article.create_activity key: 'article.commented_on', owner: current_user

See this entry for more details.

Displaying activities

To display them you simply query the PublicActivity::Activity model:

# notifications_controller.rb
def index
  @activities = PublicActivity::Activity.all

And in your views:

<%= render_activities(@activities) %>

Note: render_activities is an alias for render_activity and does the same.


You can also pass options to both activity#render and #render_activity methods, which are passed deeper to the internally used render_partial method. A useful example would be to render activities wrapped in layout, which shares common elements of an activity, like a timestamp, owner's avatar etc:

<%= render_activities(@activities, layout: :activity) %>

The activity will be wrapped with the app/views/layouts/_activity.html.erb layout, in the above example.

Important: please note that layouts for activities are also partials. Hence the _ prefix.


Sometimes, it's desirable to pass additional local variables to partials. It can be done this way:

<%= render_activity(@activity, locals: {friends: current_user.friends}) %>

Note: Before 1.4.0, one could pass variables directly to the options hash for #render_activity and access it from activity parameters. This functionality is retained in 1.4.0 and later, but the :locals method is preferred, since it prevents bugs from shadowing variables from activity parameters in the database.

Activity views

public_activity looks for views in app/views/public_activity.

For example, if you have an activity with :key set to "activity.user.changed_avatar", the gem will look for a partial in app/views/public_activity/user/_changed_avatar.html.(|erb|haml|slim|something_else).

Hint: the "activity." prefix in :key is completely optional and kept for backwards compatibility, you can skip it in new projects.

If you would like to fallback to a partial, you can utilize the fallback parameter to specify the path of a partial to use when one is missing:

<%= render_activity(@activity, fallback: 'default') %>

When used in this manner, if a partial with the specified :key cannot be located it will use the partial defined in the fallback instead. In the example above this would resolve to public_activity/_default.html.(|erb|haml|slim|something_else).

If a view file does not exist then ActionView::MisingTemplate will be raised. If you wish to fallback to the old behaviour and use an i18n based translation in this situation you can specify a :fallback parameter of text to fallback to this mechanism like such:

<%= render_activity(@activity, fallback: :text) %>


Translations are used by the #text method, to which you can pass additional options in form of a hash. #render method uses translations when view templates have not been provided. You can render pure i18n strings by passing {display: :i18n} to #render_activity or #render.

Translations should be put in your locale .yml files. To render pure strings from I18n Example structure:

    create: 'Article has been created'
    update: 'Someone has edited the article'
    destroy: 'Some user removed an article!'

This structure is valid for activities with keys "activity.article.create" or "article.create". As mentioned before, "activity." part of the key is optional.


For RSpec you can first disable public_activity and add require helper methods in the rails_helper.rb with:

require 'public_activity/testing'

PublicActivity.enabled = false

In your specs you can then blockwise decide whether to turn public_activity on or off.

# file_spec.rb
PublicActivity.with_tracking do
  # your test code goes here

PublicActivity.without_tracking do
  # your test code goes here


For more documentation go here

Common examples

Set the Activity's owner to current_user by default

You can set up a default value for :owner by doing this:

  1. Include PublicActivity::StoreController in your ApplicationController like this:
class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  include PublicActivity::StoreController
  1. Use Proc in :owner attribute for tracked class method in your desired model. For example:
class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
  tracked owner:{ |controller, model| controller.current_user }

Note: current_user applies to Devise, if you are using a different authentication gem or your own code, change the current_user to a method you use.

Disable tracking for a class or globally

If you need to disable tracking temporarily, for example in tests or db/seeds.rb then you can use PublicActivity.enabled= attribute like below:

# Disable p_a globally
PublicActivity.enabled = false

# Perform some operations that would normally be tracked by p_a:
Article.create(title: 'New article')

# Switch it back on
PublicActivity.enabled = true

You can also disable public_activity for a specific class:

# Disable p_a for Article class

# p_a will not do anything here:
@article = Article.create(title: 'New article')

# But will be enabled for other classes:
# (creation of the comment will be recorded if you are tracking the Comment class)
@article.comments.create(body: 'some comment!')

# Enable it again for Article:

Create custom activities

Besides standard, automatic activities created on CRUD actions on your model (deactivatable), you can post your own activities that can be triggered without modifying the tracked model. There are a few ways to do this, as PublicActivity gives three tiers of options to be set.

Instant options

Because every activity needs a key (otherwise: NoKeyProvided is raised), the shortest and minimal way to post an activity is:

@user.create_activity :mood_changed
# the key of the action will be user.mood_changed
@user.create_activity action: :mood_changed # this is exactly the same as above

Besides assigning your key (which is obvious from the code), it will take global options from User class (given in #tracked method during class definition) and overwrite them with instance options (set on @user by #activity method). You can read more about options and how PublicActivity inherits them for you here.

Note the action parameter builds the key like this: "#{model_name}.#{action}". You can read further on options for #create_activity here.

To provide more options, you can do:

@user.create_activity action: 'poke', parameters: {reason: 'bored'}, recipient: @friend, owner: current_user

In this example, we have provided all the things we could for a standard Activity.

Use custom fields on Activity

Besides the few fields that every Activity has (key, owner, recipient, trackable, parameters), you can also set custom fields. This could be very beneficial, as parameters are a serialized hash, which cannot be queried easily from the database. That being said, use custom fields when you know that you will set them very often and search by them (don't forget database indexes :) ).

Set owner and recipient based on associations

class Comment < ActiveRecord::Base
  include PublicActivity::Model
  tracked owner: :commenter, recipient: :commentee

  belongs_to :commenter, :class_name => "User"
  belongs_to :commentee, :class_name => "User"

Resolve parameters from a Symbol or Proc

class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
  include PublicActivity::Model
  tracked only: [:update], parameters: :tracked_values
  def tracked_values
   {}.tap do |hash|
     hash[:tags] = tags if tags_changed?


Skip this step if you are using ActiveRecord in Rails 4 or Mongoid

The first step is similar in every ORM available (except mongoid):

PublicActivity::Activity.class_eval do
  attr_accessible :custom_field

place this code under config/initializers/public_activity.rb, you have to create it first.

To be able to assign to that field, we need to move it to the mass assignment sanitizer's whitelist.


If you're using ActiveRecord, you will also need to provide a migration to add the actual field to the Activity. Taken from our tests:

class AddCustomFieldToActivities < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def change
    change_table :activities do |t|
      t.string :custom_field

Assigning custom fields

Assigning is done by the same methods that you use for normal parameters: #tracked, #create_activity. You can just pass the name of your custom variable and assign its value. Even better, you can pass it to #tracked to tell us how to harvest your data for custom fields so we can do that for you.

class Article < ActiveRecord::Base
  include PublicActivity::Model
  tracked custom_field: proc {|controller, model| controller.some_helper }


If you need help with using public_activity please visit our discussion group and ask a question there:!forum/public-activity

Please do not ask general questions in the Github Issues.

Author: public-activity
Source code:
License: MIT license

#ruby  #ruby-on-rails