Building a Vue SPA With Laravel

Building a Vue SPA With Laravel


Prerequisite

  1. Fundamental of Laravel
  2. Fundamental of Vue
  3. Fundamental of VueRouter

1. Install <a href="https://laravel.com/docs/5.7" title="" target="_blank">Laravel</a>

composer global require "laravel/installer"

This command allows you to install the Laravel installer, so you can create a new laravel project easily in the future.

Once it completed downloaded. Enter the following command.

laravel new <any-projects-name-you-want>

You just have to wait until it completes to download.

1.1 Remove preset scaffolding Optional

This is the optional step.

We are not using the <a href="https://laravel.com/docs/5.7/frontend" title="" target="_blank">scaffolding</a> in this tutorial. Therefore, I am going to remove it to keep the folder structure as neat as possible.

Simply enter the command below.

php artisan preset none

After removing the scaffolding, remember to run npm install to install all the dependencies.

Thanks to <a href="https://medium.com/@johnlevan" title="" target="_blank">John LeVan</a>

2. Install Vue, VueRouter and Vuetify

npm install vue vue-router vuetify

By enter this command, Vue, Vue Router and Vuetify will be downloaded into your node_modules folder.

3. Create app.blade.php

Rename welcome.blade.php to app.blade.php under resources/views directory.

Remove the code and tweak it like the screenshot below.

The reason to do so is to keep your code simple and clean.

We included Vuetify CSS because we will be using it later. You can find the the code easily from <a href="https://vuetifyjs.com/en/getting-started/quick-start#cdn-install" title="" target="_blank">here</a>.

You need to add <meta> of CSRF. Axios need to fetch the CSRF from the meta and insert it into Axios header. If you don’t do so, you are not allow to submit your form by using POST method.

You can get the line of code from this <a href="https://l.morioh.com/b0a3f595aa?r=https://laravel.com/docs/5.7/csrf#csrf-x-csrf-token" title="" target="_blank">Laravel CSRF</a>.

4. Modify Laravel routes

Go to routes/ directory and open the web.php.

Replace the default with the code below.

Route::get('/{any}', '[email protected]')->where('any', '.*');

Without this line of code in the web.php, your Vue Router can’t work properly.

5. Create Controller

After updating the web.php file, we need to create a SinglePageControllerto handle the route.

Go to your terminal and enter the command below:

php artisan make:controller SinglePageController

You will see the controller are created under app/Http/Controllers/ directory.

Open the SinglePageController.php file and add the line of codes below into the class.

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">public function index() { return view('app'); }

</pre>

6. Modify app.js

Open your app.js file under resources/js/ and tweak the script as screenshot below.

I prefer to use import for my own preferences.

Read this <a href="https://l.morioh.com/b0a3f595aa?r=https://stackoverflow.com/questions/31354559/using-node-js-require-vs-es6-import-export" title="" target="_blank">post</a> from Stack Overflow if you want to know more about import and require

If you run npm run watch now, you will receive an error message from the Toast.

This is because we still haven’t create the routes.js and App.vue.

7. Structure the js directory

We have to create some folders into the resources/js/ directory.

Although we are not using the folder now, but I always keep this as a habit when I am setting up for SPA by using Laravel.

We are creating a layoutspagesviews and stores folder. By right, I also need to create a routes folder but I will skip this for now in this tutorial.

8. Setup Vue Components

We need to create some components now.

Let’s create Home.vue and About.vue under resources/js/components/ directory.

You can delete the ExampleComponent.vue component if you want to. Since we are not using it.

We just need to create a very simple template here.

And now, we need to create App.vue under resources/js/views/. This would be the main file that used to render those files which fall under those directories which we created earlier.

You might find these HTML tags are very complex. You can ignore them for now because those HTML tags are used for Vuetify.

The most important part of the scripts is the <router-view>. This is where you see your content of the component.

If you npm run watch, you will realize the error about App.vue is missing. This is because we have created the file.

9. Setup Vue Router

We need to create a route in order for us to navigate.

You will need to create a routes.js file under resources/js/ directory.

Then you just need to input the code as shown below.

As you can see we import the components we created earlier under resources/js/components/

If you compile the file by enter the command of npm run watch now, you will receive an error, because the compiler does not understand what does the @ used for.

10. Setup webpack.mix.js

Let’s go to webpack.mix.js at your root directory.

We need to define the @ in order to tell the compiler what does the @ uses for.

After adding the alias in webpack.mix.js, then the compiler would understand the @ is represent resources/.

Why we want to do so? In the future your directory might have a lot of levels. This is to save your time to typing ../ instead you just need to type @.

Now, re-run your npm run watch again.

Because your compiler need to re-compile the webpack you adjusted in order to understand the alias.

You will see this in a while.

11. Let’s run and see the result.

Let run the command below, php artisan serve

By doing so, your website is now live on your localhost, <a href="http://localhost:8000](http://localhost:8000)" target="_blank">http://localhost:8000</a>.

Some of you might ask why I want to post the screenshot but not sharing the code.

Well, simply because I want all of you to code by yourself and memorize it.

I hope you enjoy my tutorial.

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Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 1: Setting up

The birth of the internet has since redefined content accessibility for the better, causing a distinct rise in content consumption across the globe. The average user of the internet consumes and produces some form of content formally or informally.

An example of an effort at formal content creation is when an someone makes a blog post about their work so that a targeted demographic can easily find their website. This type of content is usually served and managed by a CMS (Content Management System). Some popular ones are WordPress, Drupal, and SilverStripe.

A CMS helps content creators produce content in an easily consumable format. In this tutorial series, we will consider how to build a simple CMS from scratch using Laravel and Vue.

Our CMS will be able to make new posts, update existing posts, delete posts that we do not need anymore, and also allow users make comments to posts which will be updated in realtime using Pusher. We will also be able to add featured images to posts to give them some visual appeal.

When we are done, we will be able to have a CMS that looks like this:


Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.
The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.

Installing the Laravel CLI

If you already have the Laravel CLI installed on your machine, please skip this section.

The first thing we need to do is install the Laravel CLI, and the Laravel dependencies. The CLI will be instrumental in creating new Laravel projects whenever we need to create one. Laravel requires PHP and a few other tools and extensions, so we need to first install these first before installing the CLI.

Here’s a list of the dependencies as documented on the official Laravel documentation:

Let’s install them one at a time.


Installing PHP

An equivalent for Windows users could be to download and install XAMPP here. XAMPP comes with a UI for installing most of the other things you have to install manually below. Hence, Windows users may skip the next few steps until the Installing Composer sub-heading.

Open a fresh instance of the terminal and paste the following command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux Users $ sudo apt-get install php7.2
# Mac users
$ brew install php72

</pre>

As at the time of writing this article, PHP 7.2 is the latest stable version of PHP so the command above installs it on your machine.

On completion, you can check that PHP has been installed to your machine with the following command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php -v

</pre>

Installing the Mbstring extension

To install the mbstring extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux users
$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mbstring

# Mac users
# You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.

</pre>

To check if the mbstring extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php -m | grep mbstring

</pre>

Installing the XML PHP extension

To install the XML extension for PHP, paste the following command in the open terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux users
$ sudo apt-get install php-xml

# Mac users
# You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.

</pre>

To check if the xml extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php -m | grep xml

</pre>

Installing the ZIP PHP extension

To install the zip extension for PHP, paste the following command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux users
$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-zip

# Mac users
# You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.

</pre>

To check if the zip extension has been installed successfully, you can run the command below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php -m | grep zip

</pre>

Installing curl

Windows users may need to download curl from here.

To install curl, paste the following command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux users
$ sudo apt-get install curl

# Mac users using Homebrew (https://brew.sh)
$ brew install curl

</pre>

To verify that curl has been installed successfully, run the following command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ curl --version

</pre>

Installing Composer

Windows users can download and install Composer here. After the installation is complete, start a fresh instance of the command prompt as administrator and run this command anytime you need composer:
php composer.phar

Now that we have curl installed on our machine, let’s pull in Composer with this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

</pre>

For us to run Composer in the future without calling sudo, we may need to change the permission, however you should only do this if you have problems installing packages:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ sudo chown -R $USER ~/.composer/

</pre>

Installing the Laravel installer

At this point, we can already create a new Laravel project using Composer’s create-project command, which looks like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel project-name

</pre>

But we will go one step further and install the Laravel installer using composer:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ composer global require "laravel/installer"

</pre>

If you are on Windows, you may need to run the previous command in an advanced terminal such as PowerShell or the Gitbash terminal. Windows users can also skip the steps below.

After the installation, we will need to add the PATH to the bashrc file so that our terminal can recognize the laravel command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ echo 'export PATH="$HOME/.composer/vendor/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc

</pre>

Creating the CMS project

Now that we have the official Laravel CLI installed on our machine, let’s create our CMS project using the installer. In your terminal window, cd to the project directory you want to create the project in and run the following command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ laravel new cms

</pre>

At the time of writing this article, the latest version of Laravel is 5.6

We will navigate into the project directory and serve the application using PHP’s web server:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ cd cms
$ php artisan serve

</pre>

Now, when we visit http://127.0.0.1:8000/, we will see the default Laravel template:


Setting up the database

In this series, we will be using MySQL as our database system so a prerequisite for this section is that you have MySQL installed on your machine.

You can follow the steps below to install and configure MySQL:

  • Linux users - check here for a detailed guide.
  • Mac users, you can just run the command brew install mysql.
  • Windows users who installed XAMPP, as suggested earlier, do not need to install MySQL as it comes preinstalled.

You will also need a special driver that makes it possible for PHP to work with MySQL, you can install it with this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> # Linux users
$ sudo apt-get install php7.2-mysql

# Mac Users
# You don't have to do anything as it is installed automatically.

</pre>

Load the project directory in your favorite text editor and there should be a .env file in the root of the folder. This is where Laravel stores its environment variables.

Create a new MySQL database and call it laravelcms. In the .env file, update the database configuration keys as seen below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
DB_PORT=3306
DB_DATABASE=laravelcms
DB_USERNAME=YourUsername
DB_PASSWORD=YourPassword

</pre>

Replace the DB_USERNAME and DB_PASSWORD with your MySQL database credentials.

Setting up user roles

Like most content management systems, we are going to have a user role system so that our blog can have multiple types of users; the admin and regular user. The admin should be able to create a post and perform other CRUD operations on a post. The regular user, on the other hand, should be able to view and comment on a post.

For us to implement this functionality, we need to implement user authentication and add a simple role authorization system.


Setting up user authentication

Laravel provides user authentication out of the box, which is great, and we can key into the feature by running a single command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:auth

</pre>

The above will create all that’s necessary for authentication in our application so we do not need to do anything extra.


Setting up role authorization

We need a model for the user roles so let’s create one and an associated migration file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:model Role -m

</pre>

In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRolesTable class with this snippet:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <?php // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_roles_table.php

// [...]

class CreateRolesTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('roles', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table-&gt;increments('id');
            $table-&gt;string('name');
            $table-&gt;string('description');
            $table-&gt;timestamps();
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('roles');
    }
}

</pre>

We intend to create a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models so let’s add a relationship method on both models.

Open the User model and add the following method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/User.php
public function roles()
{
return $this->belongsToMany(Role::class);
}
</pre>

Open the Role model and include the following method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Role.php
public function users()
{
return $this->belongsToMany(User::class);
}
</pre>

We are also going to need a pivot table to associate each user with a matching role so let’s create a new migration file for the role_user table:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:migration create_role_user_table

</pre>

In the database/migrations folder, find the newly created migration file and update the CreateRoleUserTable class with this snippet:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_role_user_table.php
<?php

// [...]

class CreateRoleUserTable extends Migration
{

    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('role_user', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table-&gt;increments('id');
            $table-&gt;integer('role_id')-&gt;unsigned();
            $table-&gt;integer('user_id')-&gt;unsigned();
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('role_user');
    }
}

</pre>

Next, let’s create seeders that will populate the users and roles tables with some data. In your terminal, run the following command to create the database seeders:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:seeder RoleTableSeeder
$ php artisan make:seeder UserTableSeeder

</pre>

In the database/seeds folder, open the RoleTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./database/seeds/RoleTableSeeder.php
<?php

use App\Role;
use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

class RoleTableSeeder extends Seeder
{
    public function run()
    {
        $role_regular_user = new Role;
        $role_regular_user-&gt;name = 'user';
        $role_regular_user-&gt;description = 'A regular user';
        $role_regular_user-&gt;save();

        $role_admin_user = new Role;
        $role_admin_user-&gt;name = 'admin';
        $role_admin_user-&gt;description = 'An admin user';
        $role_admin_user-&gt;save();
    }
}

</pre>

Open the UserTableSeeder.php file and replace the contents with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./database/seeds/UserTableSeeder.php
<?php

use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Hash;
use App\User;
use App\Role;

class UserTableSeeder extends Seeder
{

    public function run()
    {
        $user = new User;
        $user-&gt;name = 'Samuel Jackson';
        $user-&gt;email = '[email protected]';
        $user-&gt;password = bcrypt('samuel1234');
        $user-&gt;save();
        $user-&gt;roles()-&gt;attach(Role::where('name', 'user')-&gt;first());

        $admin = new User;
        $admin-&gt;name = 'Neo Ighodaro';
        $admin-&gt;email = '[email protected]';
        $admin-&gt;password = bcrypt('neo1234');
        $admin-&gt;save();
        $admin-&gt;roles()-&gt;attach(Role::where('name', 'admin')-&gt;first());
    }
}

</pre>

We also need to update the DatabaseSeeder class. Open the file and update the run method as seen below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
<?php

// [...]

class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
{
    public function run()
    {
        $this-&gt;call([
            RoleTableSeeder::class, 
            UserTableSeeder::class,
        ]);
    }
}

</pre>

Next, let’s update the User model. We will be adding a checkRoles method that checks what role a user has. We will return a 404 page where a user doesn’t have the expected role for a page. Open the User model and add these methods:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/User.php
public function checkRoles($roles)
{
if ( ! is_array($roles)) {
$roles = [$roles];
}

    if ( ! $this-&gt;hasAnyRole($roles)) {
        auth()-&gt;logout();
        abort(404);
    }
}

public function hasAnyRole($roles): bool
{
    return (bool) $this-&gt;roles()-&gt;whereIn('name', $roles)-&gt;first();
}

public function hasRole($role): bool
{
    return (bool) $this-&gt;roles()-&gt;where('name', $role)-&gt;first();
}

</pre>

Let’s modify the RegisterController.php file in the Controllers/Auth folder so that a default role, the user role, is always attached to a new user at registration.

Open the RegisterController and update the create action with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/Auth/RegisterController.php
protected function create(array $data)
{
$user = User::create([
'name' => $data['name'],
'email' => $data['email'],
'password' => bcrypt($data['password']),
]);

    $user-&gt;roles()-&gt;attach(\App\Role::where('name', 'user')-&gt;first());

    return $user;
}

</pre>

Now let’s migrate and seed the database so that we can log in with the sample accounts. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed

</pre>

In order to test that our roles work as they should, we will make an update to the HomeController.php file. Open the HomeController and update the index method as seen below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
public function index(Request $request)
{
$request->user()->checkRoles('admin');

    return view('home');
}

</pre>

Now, only administrators should be able to see the dashboard. In a more complex application, we would use a middleware to do this instead.

We can test that this works by serving the application and logging in both user accounts; Samuel Jackson and Neo Ighodaro.

Remember that in our UserTableSeeder.php file, we defined Samuel as a regular user and Neo as an admin, so Samuel should see a 404 error after logging in and Neo should be able to see the homepage.


Testing the application

Let’s serve the application with this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

When we try logging in with Samuel’s credentials, we should see this:

On the other hand, we will get logged in with Neo’s credentials because he has an admin account:

We will also confirm that whenever a new user registers, he is assigned a role and it is the role of a regular user. We will create a new user and call him Greg, he should see a 404 error right after:

It works just as we wanted it to, however, it doesn’t really make any sense for us to redirect a regular user to a 404 page. Instead, we will edit the HomeController so that it redirects users based on their roles, that is, it redirects a regular user to a regular homepage and an admin to an admin dashboard.

Open the HomeController.php file and update the index method as seen below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/HomeController.php
public function index(Request $request)
{
if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
return redirect('/');
}

    if ($request-&gt;user()-&gt;hasRole('admin')){
        return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
    }
}

</pre>

If we serve our application and try to log in using the admin account, we will hit a 404 error because we do not have a controller or a view for the admin/dashboard route. In the next article, we will start building the basic views for the CMS.


Conclusion

In this tutorial, we learned how to install a fresh Laravel app on our machine and pulled in all the needed dependencies. We also learned how to configure the Laravel app to work with a MySQL database. We also created our models and migrations files and seeded the database using database seeders.

In the next part of this series, we will start building the views for the application.

The source code for this project is available on Github.


Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 2: Implementing posts

In the previous part of this series, we set up user authentication and role authorization but we didn’t create any views for the application yet. In this section, we will create the Post model and start building the frontend for the application.

Our application allows different levels of accessibility for two kinds of users; the regular user and admin. In this chapter, we will focus on building the view that the regular users are permitted to see.

Before we build any views, let’s create the Post model as it is imperative to rendering the view.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

Setting up the Post model

We will create the Post model with an associated resource controller and a migration file using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:model Post -mr

</pre>

We added the r flag because we want the controller to be a resource controller. The m flag will generate a migration for the model.

Let’s navigate into the database/migrations folder and update the CreatePostsTable class that was generated for us:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/database/migrations/*_create_posts_table.php
<?php

// [...]

class CreatePostsTable extends Migration
{
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('posts', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table-&gt;increments('id');
            $table-&gt;integer('user_id')-&gt;unsigned();
            $table-&gt;string('title');
            $table-&gt;text('body');
            $table-&gt;binary('image')-&gt;nullable();
            $table-&gt;timestamps();
        });
    }

    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('posts');
    }
}

</pre>

We included a user_id property because we want to create a relationship between the User and Post models. A Post also has an image field, which is where its associated image’s address will be stored.


Creating a database seeder for the Post table

We will create a new seeder file for the posts table using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:seeder PostTableSeeder

</pre>

Let’s navigate into the database/seeds folder and update the PostTableSeeder.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/database/seeds/PostsTableSeeder.php
<?php

use App\Post;
use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

class PostTableSeeder extends Seeder
{
    public function run()
    {
        $post = new Post;
        $post-&gt;user_id = 2;
        $post-&gt;title = "Using Laravel Seeders";
        $post-&gt;body = "Laravel includes a simple method of seeding your database with test data using seed classes. All seed classes are stored in the database/seeds directory. Seed classes may have any name you wish, but probably should follow some sensible convention, such as UsersTableSeeder, etc. By default, a DatabaseSeeder class is defined for you. From this class, you may use the  call method to run other seed classes, allowing you to control the seeding order.";
        $post-&gt;save();

        $post = new Post;
        $post-&gt;user_id = 2;
        $post-&gt;title = "Database: Migrations";
        $post-&gt;body = "Migrations are like version control for your database, allowing your team to easily modify and share the application's database schema. Migrations are typically paired with Laravel's schema builder to easily build your application's database schema. If you have ever had to tell a teammate to manually add a column to their local database schema, you've faced the problem that database migrations solve.";
        $post-&gt;save();
    }
}

</pre>

When we run this seeder, it will create two new posts and assign both of them to the admin user whose ID is 2. We are attaching both posts to the admin user because the regular users are only allowed to view posts and make comments; they can’t create a post.

Let’s open the DatabaseSeeder and update it with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/database/seeds/DatabaseSeeder.php
<?php

use Illuminate\Database\Seeder;

class DatabaseSeeder extends Seeder
{
    public function run()
    {
        $this-&gt;call([
            RoleTableSeeder::class,
            UserTableSeeder::class,
            PostTableSeeder::class,
        ]);
    }
}

</pre>

We created the RoleTableSeeder and UserTableSeeder files in the previous chapter.

We will use this command to migrate our tables and seed the database:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed

</pre>

Defining the relationships

Just as we previously created a many-to-many relationship between the User and Role models, we need to create a different kind of relationship between the Post and User models.

We will define the relationship as a one-to-many relationship because a user will have many posts but a post will only ever belong to one user.

Open the User model and include the method below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/User.php
public function posts()
{
return $this->hasMany(Post::class);
}
</pre>

Open the Post model and include the method below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Post.php
public function user()
{
return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
}
</pre>

Setting up the routes

At this point in our application, we do not have a front page with all the posts listed. Let’s create so anyone can see all of the created posts. Asides from the front page, we also need a single post page in case a user needs to read a specific post.

Let’s include two new routes to our routes/web.php file:

  • The first route will match requests to the root of our application and will be handled by the [email protected] action:
<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> Route::get('/', '[email protected]');
</pre>
In the routes/web.php file, there will already be a route definition for the / address, you will have to replace it with the new route definition above.
  • The second route will handle requests for specific Post items and will be handled by the [email protected] action:
<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');
</pre>

With these two new routes added, here’s what the routes/web.php file should look like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./routes/web.php
<?php

Auth::routes();
Route::get('/posts/{post}', '[email protected]');
Route::get('/home', '[email protected]')-&gt;name('home');
Route::get('/', '[email protected]');

</pre>

Setting up the Post controller

In this section, we want to define the handler action methods that we registered in the routes/web.php file so that our application know how to render the matching views.

First, let’s add the all() method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function all()
{
return view('landing', [
'posts' => Post::latest()->paginate(5)
]);
}
</pre>

Here, we want to retrieve five created posts per page and send to the landing view. We will create this view shortly.

Next, let’s add the single() method to the controller:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function single(Post $post)
{
return view('single', compact('post'));
}
</pre>

In the method above, we used a feature of Laravel named route model binding to map the URL parameter to a Post instance with the same ID. We are returning a single view, which we will create shortly. This will be the view for the single post page.


Building our views

Laravel uses a templating engine called Blade for its frontend. We will use Blade to build these parts of the frontend before switching to Vue in the next chapter.

Navigate to the resources/views folder and create two new Blade files:

  1. landing.blade.php
  2. single.blade.php

These are the files that will load the views for the landing page and single post page. Before we start writing any code in these files, we want to create a simple layout template that our page views can use as a base.

In the resources/views/layouts folder, create a Blade template file and call it master.blade.php. This is where we will define the inheritable template for our single and landing pages.

Open the master.blade.php file and update it with this code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">
<meta name="description" content="">
<meta name="author" content="Neo Ighodaro">
<title>LaravelCMS</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<style>
body {
padding-top: 54px;
}
@media (min-width: 992px) {
body {
padding-top: 56px;
}
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-dark bg-dark fixed-top">
<div class="container">
<a class="navbar-brand" href="/">LaravelCMS</a>
<div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarResponsive">
<ul class="navbar-nav ml-auto">
@if (Route::has('login'))
@auth
<li class="nav-item">
<a class="nav-link" href="{{ url('/home') }}">Home</a>
</li>
<li class="nav-item">
<a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('logout') }}"
onclick="event.preventDefault();
document.getElementById('logout-form').submit();">
Log out
</a>
<form id="logout-form" action="{{ route('logout') }}" method="POST" style="display: none;">
@csrf
</form>
</li>
@else
<li class="nav-item">
<a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('login') }}">Login</a>
</li>
<li class="nav-item">
<a class="nav-link" href="{{ route('register') }}">Register</a>
</li>
@endauth
@endif
</ul>
</div>
</div>
</nav>

    &lt;div id="app"&gt;
        @yield('content')
    &lt;/div&gt;

    &lt;footer class="py-5 bg-dark"&gt;
      &lt;div class="container"&gt;
        &lt;p class="m-0 text-center text-white"&gt;Copyright &amp;copy; LaravelCMS 2018&lt;/p&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
    &lt;/footer&gt;
  &lt;/body&gt;
&lt;/html&gt;

</pre>

Now we can inherit this template in the landing.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> {{-- File: ./resources/views/landing.blade.php --}}
@extends('layouts.master')

@section('content')
&lt;div class="container"&gt;
  &lt;div class="row align-items-center"&gt;
    &lt;div class="col-md-8 mx-auto"&gt;
      &lt;h1 class="my-4 text-center"&gt;Welcome to the Blog &lt;/h1&gt;

      @foreach ($posts as $post)
      &lt;div class="card mb-4"&gt;
        &lt;img class="card-img-top" src=" {!! !empty($post-&gt;image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post-&gt;image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt="Card image cap"&gt;
        &lt;div class="card-body"&gt;
          &lt;h2 class="card-title text-center"&gt;{{ $post-&gt;title }}&lt;/h2&gt;
          &lt;p class="card-text"&gt; {{ str_limit($post-&gt;body, $limit = 280, $end = '...') }} &lt;/p&gt;
          &lt;a href="/posts/{{ $post-&gt;id }}" class="btn btn-primary"&gt;Read More &amp;rarr;&lt;/a&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
        &lt;div class="card-footer text-muted"&gt;
          Posted {{ $post-&gt;created_at-&gt;diffForHumans() }} by
          &lt;a href="#"&gt;{{ $post-&gt;user-&gt;name }} &lt;/a&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
      @endforeach

    &lt;/div&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
@endsection

</pre>

Let’s do the same with the single.blade.php file, open it and update it with this code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
@extends('layouts.master')

@section('content')
&lt;div class="container"&gt;
  &lt;div class="row"&gt;
    &lt;div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto"&gt;
      &lt;h3 class="mt-4"&gt;{{ $post-&gt;title }} &lt;span class="lead"&gt; by &lt;a href="#"&gt; {{ $post-&gt;user-&gt;name }} &lt;/a&gt;&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/h3&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;p&gt;Posted {{ $post-&gt;created_at-&gt;diffForHumans() }} &lt;/p&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;img class="img-fluid rounded" src=" {!! !empty($post-&gt;image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post-&gt;image :  'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!} " alt=""&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;p class="lead"&gt;{{ $post-&gt;body }}&lt;/p&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;div class="card my-4"&gt;
        &lt;h5 class="card-header"&gt;Leave a Comment:&lt;/h5&gt;
        &lt;div class="card-body"&gt;
          &lt;form&gt;
            &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
              &lt;textarea class="form-control" rows="3"&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt;
            &lt;/div&gt;
            &lt;button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary"&gt;Submit&lt;/button&gt;
          &lt;/form&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
    &lt;/div&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
@endsection

</pre>

Testing the application

We can test the application to see that things work as we expect. When we serve the application, we expect to see a landing page and a single post page. We also expect to see two posts because that’s the number of posts we seeded into the database.

We will serve the application using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

We can visit this address to see the application:

We have used simple placeholder images here because we haven’t built the admin dashboard that allows CRUD operations to be performed on posts.

In the coming chapters, we will add the ability for an admin to include a custom image when creating a new post.


Conclusion

In this chapter, we created the Post model and defined a relationship on it to the User model. We also built the landing page and single page.

In the next part of this series, we will develop the API that will be the medium for communication between the admin user and the post items.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.


Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 3: Building an API

In the previous part of this series, we initialized the posts resource and started building the frontend of the CMS. We designed the front page that shows all the posts and the single post page using Laravel’s templating engine, Blade.

In this part of the series, we will start building the API for the application. We will create an API for CRUD operations that an admin will perform on posts and we will test the endpoints using Postman.

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.
  • Postman installed on your machine.

Building the API using Laravel’s API resources

The Laravel framework makes it very easy to build APIs. It has an API resources feature that we can easily adopt in our project. You can think of API resources as a transformation layer between Eloquent models and the JSON responses that will be sent back by our API.


Allowing mass assignment on specified fields

Since we are going to be performing CRUD operations on the posts in the application, we have to explicitly specify that it’s permitted for some fields to be mass-assigned data. For security reasons, Laravel prevents mass assignment of data to model fields by default.

Open the Post.php file and include this line of code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Post.php
protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'title', 'body', 'image'];
</pre>

Defining API routes

We will use the apiResource()method to generate only API routes. Open the routes/api.php file and add the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./routes/api.php
Route::apiResource('posts', 'PostController');

</pre>

Because we will be handling the API requests on the /posts URL using the PostController, we will have to include some additional action methods in our post controller.

Creating the Post resource

At the beginning of this section, we already talked about what Laravel’s API resources are. Here, we create a resource class for our Post model. This will enable us to retrieve Post data and return formatted JSON format.

To create a resource class for our Post model run the following command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:resource PostResource

</pre>

A new PostResource.php file will be available in the app/Http/Resources directory of our application. Open up the PostResource.php file and replace the toArray() method with the following:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Resources/PostResource.php
public function toArray($request)
{
return [
'id' => $this->id,
'title' => $this->title,
'body' => $this->body,
'image' => $this->image,
'created_at' => (string) $this->created_at,
'updated_at' => (string) $this->updated_at,
];
}
</pre>

The job of this toArray() method is to convert our P``ost resource into an array. As seen above, we have specified the fields on our Post model, which we want to be returned as JSON when we make a request for posts.

We are also explicitly casting the dates, created_at and update_at, to strings so that they would be returned as date strings. The dates are normally an instance of Carbon.

Now that we have created a resource class for our Post model, we can start building the API’s action methods in our PostController and return instances of the PostResource where we want.


Adding the action methods to the Post controller

The usual actions performed on a post include the following:

  1. Create - the process of creating a new post.
  2. Read - the process of reading one or more posts.
  3. Update - the process of updating an already published post.
  4. Delete - the process of deleting a post.

In the last article, we already implemented a kind of ‘Read’ functionality when we defined the all and single methods. These methods allow users to browse through posts on the homepage.

In this section, we will define the methods that will resolve our API requests for creating, reading, updating and deleting posts.

The first thing we want to do is import the PostResource class at the top of the PostController.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
use App\Http\Resources\PostResource;
</pre>
Because we created the PostController as a resource controller, we already have the resource action methods included for us in the PostController.php file, we will be updating them with fitting snippets of code.

Building the handler action for the create operation

In the PostController update the store() action method with the code snippet below. It will allow us to validate and create a new post:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function store(Request $request)
{
$this->validate($request, [
'title' => 'required',
'body' => 'required',
'user_id' => 'required',
'image' => 'required|mimes:jpeg,png,jpg,gif,svg',
]);

    $post = new Post;

    if ($request-&gt;hasFile('image')) {
        $image = $request-&gt;file('image');
        $name = str_slug($request-&gt;title).'.'.$image-&gt;getClientOriginalExtension();
        $destinationPath = public_path('/uploads/posts');
        $imagePath = $destinationPath . "/" . $name;
        $image-&gt;move($destinationPath, $name);
        $post-&gt;image = $name;
    }

    $post-&gt;user_id = $request-&gt;user_id;
    $post-&gt;title = $request-&gt;title;
    $post-&gt;body = $request-&gt;body;
    $post-&gt;save();

    return new PostResource($post);
}

</pre>

Here’s a breakdown of what this method does:

  1. Receives a new request.
  2. Validates the request.
  3. Creates a new post.
  4. Returns the post as a PostResource, which in turn returns a JSON formatted response.

Building the handler action for the read operations

What we want here is to be able to read all the created posts or a single post. This is possible because the apiResource() method defines the API routes using standard REST rules.

This means that a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts, should be resolved by the index() action method. Let’s update the index method with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function index()
{
return PostResource::collection(Post::latest()->paginate(5));
}
</pre>

This method will allow us to return a JSON formatted collection of all of the stored posts. We also want to paginate the response as this will allow us to create a better view on the admin dashboard.

Following the RESTful conventions as we discussed above, a GET request to this address, http://127.0.0.1:800/api/posts/id, should be resolved by the show() action method. Let’s update the method with the fitting snippet:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function show(Post $post)
{
return new PostResource($post);
}
</pre>

Awesome, now this method will return a single instance of a post resource upon API query.


Building the handler action for the update operation

Next, let’s update the update() method in the PostController class. It will allow us to modify an existing post:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function update(Request $request, Post $post)
{
$this->validate($request, [
'title' => 'required',
'body' => 'required',
]);

    $post-&gt;update($request-&gt;only(['title', 'body']));

    return new PostResource($post);
}

</pre>

This method receives a request and a post id as parameters, then we use route model binding to resolve the id into an instance of a Post. First, we validate the $request attributes, then we update the title and body fields of the resolved post.


Building the handler action for the delete operation

Let’s update the destroy() method in the PostController class. This method will allow us to remove an existing post:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/PostController.php
public function destroy(Post $post)
{
$post->delete();

    return response()-&gt;json(null, 204);
}

</pre>

In this method, we resolve the Post instance, then delete it and return a 204 response code.

Our methods are complete. We have a method to handle our CRUD operations, however, we haven’t built the frontend for the admin dashboard.

At the end of the second article, we defined the [email protected]() action method like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> public function index(Request $request)
{
if ($request->user()->hasRole('user')) {
return view('home');
}

    if ($request-&gt;user()-&gt;hasRole('admin')) {
        return redirect('/admin/dashboard');
    }
}

</pre>

This allowed us to redirect regular users to the view home, and admin users to the URL /admin/dashboard. At this point in this series, a visit to /admin/dashboard will fail because we have neither defined it as a route with a handler Controller nor built a view for it.

Let’s create the AdminController with this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:controller AdminController

</pre>

We will add the /admin/ route to our routes/web.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> Route::get('/admin/{any}', '[email protected]')->where('any', '.*');
</pre>
Note that we wrote /admin/{any} here because we intend to serve every page of the admin dashboard using the Vue router. When we start building the admin dashboard in the next article, we will let Vue handle all the routes of the /admin pages.

Let’s update the AdminController.php file to use the auth middleware and include an index() action method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/AdminController.php
<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

class AdminController extends Controller
{
    public function __construct()
    {
        $this-&gt;middleware('auth');
    }

    public function index()
    {
        if (request()-&gt;user()-&gt;hasRole('admin')) {
            return view('admin.dashboard');
        }

        if (request()-&gt;user()-&gt;hasRole('user')) {
            return redirect('/home');
        }
    }
}

</pre>

In the index()action method, we included a snippet that will ensure that only admin users can visit the admin dashboard and perform CRUD operations on posts.

We will not start building the admin dashboard in this article but will test that our API works properly. We will use Postman to make requests to the application.


Testing the application

Let’s test that our API works as expected. We will, first of all, serve the application using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

We can visit http://localhost:8000 to see our application and there should be exactly two posts available; these are the posts we seeded into the database during the migration:

When testing with Postman always set the Content-Type header to application/json.

Now let’s create a new post over the API interface using Postman. Send a POST request as seen below:

Now let’s update this post we just created. In Postman, we will pass only the title and body fields to a PUT request.

To make it easy, you can just copy the payload below and use the raw request data type for the Body:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> {
"title": "We made an edit to the Post on APIs",
"body": "To a developer, 'What's an API?' might be a straightforward - if not exactly simple - question. But to anyone who doesn't have experience with code. APIs can come across as confusing or downright intimidating."
}

</pre>

We could have used the PATCH method to make this update, the PUT and PATCH HTTP verbs both work well for editing an already existing item.

Finally, let’s delete the post using Postman:

We are sure the post is deleted because the response status is 204 No Content as we specified in the PostController.


Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about Laravel’s API resources and we created a resource class for the Post model. We also used the apiResources() method to generate API only routes for our application. We wrote the methods to handle the API operations and tested them using Postman.

In the next part, we will build the admin dashboard and develop the logic that will enable the admin user to manage posts over the API.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.


Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 4: Building the dashboard

In the last article of this series, we built the API interface and used Laravel API resources to return neatly formatted JSON responses. We tested that the API works as we defined it to using Postman.

In this part of the series, we will start building the admin frontend of the CMS. This is the first part of the series where we will integrate Vue and explore Vue’s magical abilities.

When we are done with this part, our application will have some added functionalities as seen below:

The source code for this project is available here on GitHub.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.

Building the frontend

Laravel ships with Vue out of the box so we do not need to use the Vue-CLI or reference Vue from a CDN. This makes it possible for us to have all of our application, the frontend, and backend, in a single codebase.

Every newly created instance of a Laravel installation has some Vue files included by default, we can see these files when we navigate into the resources/assets/js/components folder.


Setting up Vue and VueRouter

Before we can start using Vue in our application, we need to first install some dependencies using NPM. To install the dependencies that come by default with Laravel, run the command below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm install

</pre>

We will be managing all of the routes for the admin dashboard using vue-router so let’s pull it in:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm install --save vue-router

</pre>

When the installation is complete, the next thing we want to do is open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace its contents with the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./resources/assets/js/app.js
require('./bootstrap');

import Vue from 'vue'
import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
import Read from './components/Read'

Vue.use(VueRouter)

const router = new VueRouter({
    mode: 'history',
    routes: [
        {
            path: '/admin/dashboard',
            name: 'read',
            component: Read,
            props: true
        },
    ],
});

const app = new Vue({
    el: '#app',
    router,
    components: { Homepage },
});

</pre>

In the snippet above, we imported the VueRouter and added it to the Vue application. We also imported a Homepage and a Read component. These are the components where we will write our markup so let’s create both files.

Open the resources/assets/js/components folder and create four files:

  1. Homepage.vue - this will be the parent component for the admin dashboard frontend.
  2. Read.vue - this will be component that displays all the available posts on the admin dashboard.
  3. Create.vue - this will be the component where an admin user can create a new post.
  4. Update.vue - this will be the component that displays the view where an admin user can update an existing post.
Note that we didn’t create a component file for the delete operation, this is because it is going to be possible to delete a post from the Read component. There is no need for a view.

In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined a routes array and in it, we registered a read route. During render time, this route’s path will be mapped to the Read component.

In the previous article, we specified that admin users should be shown an admin.dashboard view in the index method, however, we didn’t create this view. Let’s create the view. Open the resources/views folder and create a new folder called admin. Within the new resources/views/admin folder, create a new file and called dashboard.blade.php. This is going to be the entry point to the admin dashboard, further from this route, we will let the VueRouter handle everything else.

Open the resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file and paste in the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php -->
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
<title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<style>
html, body {
background-color: #202B33;
color: #738491;
font-family: "Open Sans";
font-size: 16px;
font-smoothing: antialiased;
overflow: hidden;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

  &lt;script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"&gt;&lt;/script&gt;
&lt;/body&gt;
&lt;/html&gt;

</pre>

Our goal here is to integrate Vue into the application, so we included the resources/assets/js/app.js file with this line of code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>

</pre>

For our app to work, we need a root element to bind our Vue instance unto. Before the <script> tag, add this snippet of code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <div id="app">
<Homepage
:user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)'
:user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'
></Homepage>
</div>
</pre>

We earlier defined the Homepage component as the wrapping component, that’s why we pulled it in here as the root component. For some of the frontend components to work correctly, we require some details of the logged in admin user to perform CRUD operations. This is why we passed down the userName and userId props to the Homepage component.

We need to prevent the CSRF error from occurring in our Vue frontend, so include this snippet of code just before the <title> tag:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
<script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>
</pre>

This snippet will ensure that the correct token is always included in our frontend, Laravel provides the CSRF protection for us out of the box.

At this point, this should be the contents of your resources/views/admin/dashboard.blade.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
<meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
<script> window.Laravel = { csrfToken: 'csrf_token() ' } </script>
<title> Welcome to the Admin dashboard </title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="https://stackpath.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/4.1.3/css/bootstrap.min.css">
<style>
html, body {
background-color: #202B33;
color: #738491;
font-family: "Open Sans";
font-size: 16px;
font-smoothing: antialiased;
overflow: hidden;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>
<div id="app">
<Homepage
:user-name='@json(auth()->user()->name)'
:user-id='@json(auth()->user()->id)'>
</Homepage>
</div>
<script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}"></script>
</body>
</html>
</pre>

Setting up the Homepage view

Open the Homepage.vue file that we created some time ago and include this markup template:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Homepage.vue -->
<template>
<div>
<nav>
<section>
<a style="color: white" href="/admin/dashboard">Laravel-CMS</a> &nbsp; || &nbsp;
<a style="color: white" href="/">HOME</a>
<hr>
<ul>
<li>
<router-link :to="{ name: 'create', params: { userId } }">
NEW POST
</router-link>
</li>
</ul>
</section>
</nav>
<article>
<header>
<header class="d-inline">Welcome, {{ userName }}</header>
<p @click="logout" class="float-right mr-3" style="cursor: pointer">Logout</p>
</header>
<div>
<router-view></router-view>
</div>
</article>
</div>
</template>
</pre>

We added a router-link in this template, which routes to the Create component.

We are passing the userId data to the create component because a userId is required during Post creation.

Let’s include some styles so that the page looks good. Below the closing template tag, paste the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <style scoped>
@import url(https://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Dosis:300|Lato:300,400,600,700|Roboto+Condensed:300,700|Open+Sans+Condensed:300,600|Open+Sans:400,300,600,700|Maven+Pro:400,700);
@import url("https://netdna.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.2.0/css/font-awesome.css");
* {
-moz-box-sizing: border-box;
-webkit-box-sizing: border-box;
box-sizing: border-box;
}
header {
color: #d3d3d3;
}
nav {
position: absolute;
top: 0;
bottom: 0;
right: 82%;
left: 0;
padding: 22px;
border-right: 2px solid #161e23;
}
nav > header {
font-weight: 700;
font-size: 0.8rem;
text-transform: uppercase;
}
nav section {
font-weight: 600;
}
nav section header {
padding-top: 30px;
}
nav section ul {
list-style: none;
padding: 0px;
}
nav section ul a {
color: white;
text-decoration: none;
font-weight: bold;
}
article {
position: absolute;
top: 0;
bottom: 0;
right: 0;
left: 18%;
overflow: auto;
border-left: 2px solid #2a3843;
padding: 20px;
}
article > header {
height: 60px;
border-bottom: 1px solid #2a3843;
}
</style>
</pre>
We are using the scoped attribute on the <style> tag because we want the CSS to only be applied on the Homepage component.

Next, let’s add the <script> section that will use the props we passed down from the parent component. We will also define the method that controls the log out feature here. Below the closing style tag, paste the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script>
export default {
props: {
userId: {
type: Number,
required: true
},
userName: {
type: String,
required: true
}
},
data() {
return {};
},
methods: {
logout() {
axios.post("/logout").then(() => {
window.location = "/";
});
}
}
};
</script>
</pre>

Setting up the Read view

In the resources/assets/js/app.js file, we defined the path of the read component as /admin/dashboard, which is the same address as the Homepage component. This will make sure the Read component always loads by default.

In the Read component, we want to load all of the available posts. We are also going to add Update and Delete options to each post. Clicking on these options will lead to the update and delete views respectively.

Open the Read.vue file and paste the following:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Read.vue -->
<template>
<div id="posts">
<p class="border p-3" v-for="post in posts">
{{ post.title }}
<router-link :to="{ name: 'update', params: { postId : post.id } }">
<button type="button" class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-light">
Update
</button>
</router-link>
<button
type="button"
@click="deletePost(post.id)"
class="p-1 mx-3 float-right btn btn-danger"
>
Delete
</button>
</p>
<div>
<button
v-if="next"
type="button"
@click="navigate(next)"
class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
>
Next
</button>
<button
v-if="prev"
type="button"
@click="navigate(prev)"
class="m-3 btn btn-primary"
>
Previous
</button>
</div>
</div>
</template>
</pre>

Above, we have the template to handle the posts that are loaded from the API. Next, paste the following below the closing template tag:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script>
export default {
mounted() {
this.getPosts();
},
data() {
return {
posts: {},
next: null,
prev: null
};
},
methods: {
getPosts(address) {
axios.get(address ? address : "/api/posts").then(response => {
this.posts = response.data.data;
this.prev = response.data.links.prev;
this.next = response.data.links.next;
});
},
deletePost(id) {
axios.delete("/api/posts/" + id).then(response => this.getPosts())
},
navigate(address) {
this.getPosts(address)
}
}
};
</script>
</pre>

In the script above, we defined a getPosts() method that requests a list of posts from the backend server. We also defined a posts object as a data property. This object will be populated whenever posts are received from the backend server.

We defined next and prev data string properties to store pagination links and only display the pagination options where it is available.

Lastly, we defined a deletePost() method that takes the id of a post as a parameter and sends a DELETE request to the API interface using Axios.


Testing the application

Now that we have completed the first few components, we can serve the application using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

We will also build the assets so that our JavaScript is compiled for us. To do this, will run the command below in the root of the project folder:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm run dev

</pre>

We can visit the application’s URL http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user, and delete a post:


Conclusion

In this part of the series, we started building the admin dashboard using Vue. We installed VueRouter to make the admin dashboard a SPA. We added the homepage view of the admin dashboard and included read and delete functionalities.

We are not done with the dashboard just yet. In the next part, we will add the views that lets us create and update posts.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.


Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 5: Completing our dashboards

In the previous part of this series, we built the first parts of the admin dashboard using Vue. We also made it into an SPA with the VueRouter, this means that visiting the pages does not cause a reload to the web browser.

We only built the wrapper component and the Read component that retrieves the posts to be loaded so an admin can manage them.

Here’s a recording of what we ended up with, in the last article:

In this article, we will build the view that will allow users to create and update posts. We will start writing code in the Update.vue and Create.vue files that we created in the previous article.

When we are done with this part, we will have additional functionalities like create and updating:

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.

Including the new routes in VueRouter

In the previous article, we only defined the route for the Read component, we need to include the route configuration for the new components that we are about to build; Update and Create.

Open the resources/assets/js/app.js file and replace the contents with the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> require('./bootstrap');

import Vue from 'vue'
import VueRouter from 'vue-router'
import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
import Create from './components/Create'
import Read from './components/Read'
import Update from './components/Update'

Vue.use(VueRouter)

const router = new VueRouter({
    mode: 'history',
    routes: [
        {
            path: '/admin/dashboard',
            name: 'read',
            component: Read,
            props: true
        },
        {
            path: '/admin/create',
            name: 'create',
            component: Create,
            props: true
        },
        {
            path: '/admin/update',
            name: 'update',
            component: Update,
            props: true
        },
    ],
});

const app = new Vue({
    el: '#app',
    router,
    components: { Homepage },
});

</pre>

Above, we have added two new components to the JavaScript file. We have the Create and Read components. We also added them to the router so that they can be loaded using the specified URLs.


Building the create view

Open the Create.vue file and update it with this markup template:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Create.vue -->
<template>
<div class="container">
<form>
<div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', (successful ? 'alert-success' : '')]">
<span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Published!</span>
</div>
<div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']">
<span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger">
{{ errors.title[0] }}
</span>
<span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger">
{{ errors.body[0] }}
</span>
<span v-if="errors.image" class="label label-danger">
{{ errors.image[0] }}
</span>
</div>

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
        &lt;input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
        &lt;textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;div class="custom-file mb-3"&gt;
        &lt;input type="file" ref="image" name="image" class="custom-file-input" id="image" required&gt;
        &lt;label class="custom-file-label" &gt;Choose file...&lt;/label&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;button type="submit" @click.prevent="create" class="btn btn-primary block"&gt;
        Submit
      &lt;/button&gt;
    &lt;/form&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/template&gt;

</pre>

Above we have the template for the Create component. If there is an error during post creation, there will be a field indicating the specific error. When a post is successfully published, there will also a message saying it was successful.

Let’s include the script logic that will perform the sending of posts to our backend server and read back the response.

After the closing template tag add this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script>
export default {
props: {
userId: {
type: Number,
required: true
}
},
data() {
return {
error: false,
successful: false,
errors: []
};
},
methods: {
create() {
const formData = new FormData();
formData.append("title", this.$refs.title.value);
formData.append("body", this.$refs.body.value);
formData.append("user_id", this.userId);
formData.append("image", this.$refs.image.files[0]);

      axios
        .post("/api/posts", formData)
        .then(response =&gt; {
          this.successful = true;
          this.error = false;
          this.errors = [];
        })
        .catch(error =&gt; {
          if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
            if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
              this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
              this.successful = false;
              this.error = true;
            }
          }
        });

      this.$refs.title.value = "";
      this.$refs.body.value = "";
    }
  }
};
&lt;/script&gt;

</pre>

In the script above, we defined a create() method that takes the values of the input fields and uses the Axios library to send them to the API interface on the backend server. Within this method, we also update the status of the operation, so that an admin user can know when a post is created successfully or not.


Building the update view

Let’s start building the Update component. Open the Update.vue file and update it with this markup template:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/app/js/components/Update.vue -->
<template>
<div class="container">
<form>
<div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', successful ? 'alert-success' : '']">
<span v-if="successful" class="label label-sucess">Updated!</span>
</div>

      &lt;div :class="['form-group m-1 p-3', error ? 'alert-danger' : '']"&gt;
        &lt;span v-if="errors.title" class="label label-danger"&gt;
          {{ errors.title[0] }}
        &lt;/span&gt;
        &lt;span v-if="errors.body" class="label label-danger"&gt;
          {{ errors.body[0] }}
        &lt;/span&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
        &lt;input type="title" ref="title" class="form-control" id="title" placeholder="Enter title" required&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
        &lt;textarea class="form-control" ref="body" id="body" placeholder="Enter a body" rows="8" required&gt;&lt;/textarea&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;button type="submit" @click.prevent="update" class="btn btn-primary block"&gt;
        Submit
      &lt;/button&gt;
    &lt;/form&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/template&gt;

</pre>

This template is similar to the one in the Create component. Let’s add the script for the component.

Below the closing template tag, paste the following:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script>
export default {
mounted() {
this.getPost();
},
props: {
postId: {
type: Number,
required: true
}
},
data() {
return {
error: false,
successful: false,
errors: []
};
},
methods: {
update() {
let title = this.$refs.title.value;
let body = this.$refs.body.value;

      axios
        .put("/api/posts/" + this.postId, { title, body })
        .then(response =&gt; {
          this.successful = true;
          this.error = false;
          this.errors = [];
        })
        .catch(error =&gt; {
          if (!_.isEmpty(error.response)) {
            if ((error.response.status = 422)) {
              this.errors = error.response.data.errors;
              this.successful = false;
              this.error = true;
            }
          }
        });
    },
    getPost() {
      axios.get("/api/posts/" + this.postId).then(response =&gt; {
        this.$refs.title.value = response.data.data.title;
        this.$refs.body.value = response.data.data.body;
      });
    }
  }
};
&lt;/script&gt;

</pre>

In the script above, we make a call to the getPosts() method as soon as the component is mounted. The getPosts() method fetches the data of a single post from the backend server, using the postId.

When Axios sends back the data for the post, we update the input fields in this component so they can be updated.

Finally, the update() method takes the values of the fields in the components and attempts to send them to the backend server for an update. In a situation where the fails, we get instant feedback.


Testing the application

To test that our changes work, we want to refresh the database and restore it back to a fresh state. To do this, run the following command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed

</pre>

Next, let’s compile our JavaScript files and assets. This will make sure all the changes we made in the Vue component and the app.js file gets built. To recompile, run the command below in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm run dev

</pre>

Lastly, we need to serve the application. To do this, run the following command in your terminal window:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

If you had the serve command running before, then you might need to restart it.

We will visit the application’s http://localhost:8000 and log in as an admin user. From the dashboard, you can test the create and update feature:


Conclusion

In this part of the series, we updated the dashboard to include the Create and Update component so the administrator can add and update posts.

In the next article, we will build the views that allow for the creation and updating of a post.

The source code for this project is available here on Github.


Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue - Part 6: Adding Realtime Comments

In the previous part of this series, we finished building the backend of the application using Vue. We were able to add the create and update component, which is used for creating a new post and updating an existing post.

Here’s a screen recording of what we have been able to achieve:

In this final part of the series, we will be adding support for comments. We will also ensure that the comments on each post are updated in realtime, so a user doesn’t have to refresh the page to see new comments.

When we are done, our application will have new features and will work like this:

The source code for this project is available here on Github.

Prerequisites

To follow along with this series, a few things are required:

  • A Pusher account. Sign up here.
  • Basic knowledge of PHP.
  • Basic knowledge of the Laravel framework.
  • Basic knowledge of JavaScript (ES6 syntax).
  • Basic knowledge of Vue.

Adding comments to the backend

When we were creating the API, we did not add the support for comments to the post resource, so we will have to do so now. Open the API project in your text editor as we will be modifying the project a little.

The first thing we want to do is create a model, controller, and a migration for the comment resource. To do this, open your terminal and cd to the project directory and run the following command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan make:model Comment -mc

</pre>

The command above will create a model called Comment, a controller called CommentController, and a migration file in the database/migrations directory.


Updating the comments migration file

To update the comments migration navigate to the database/migrations folder and find the newly created migration file for the Comment model. Let’s update the up() method in the file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./database/migrations/*_create_comments_table.php
public function up()
{
Schema::create('comments', function (Blueprint $table) {
$table->increments('id');
$table->timestamps();
$table->integer('user_id')->unsigned();
$table->integer('post_id')->unsigned();
$table->text('body');
});
}
</pre>

We included user_id and post_id fields because we intend to create a link between the comments, users, and posts. The body field will contain the actual comment.


Defining the relationships among the Comment, User, and Post models

In this application, a comment will belong to a user and a post because a user can make a comment on a specific post, so we need to define the relationship that ties everything up.

Open the User model and include this method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/User.php
public function comments()
{
return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
}
</pre>

This is a relationship that simply says that a user can have many comments. Now let’s define the same relationship on the Post model. Open the Post.php file and include this method:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Post.php
public function comments()
{
return $this->hasMany(Comment::class);
}
</pre>

Finally, we will include two methods in the Comment model to complete the second half of the relationships we defined in the User and Post models.

Open the app/Comment.php file and include these methods:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Comment.php
public function user()
{
return $this->belongsTo(User::class);
}

public function post()
{
    return $this-&gt;belongsTo(Post::class);
}

</pre>

Since we want to be able to mass assign data to specific fields of a comment instance during comment creation, we will include this array of permitted assignments in the app/Comment.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> protected $fillable = ['user_id', 'post_id', 'body'];
</pre>

We can now run our database migration for our comments:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan migrate

</pre>

Configuring Laravel to broadcast events using Pusher

We already said that the comments will have a realtime functionality and we will be building this using Pusher, so we need to enable Laravel’s event broadcasting feature.

Open the config/app.php file and uncomment the following line in the providers array:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> App\Providers\BroadcastServiceProvider

</pre>

Next, we need to configure the broadcast driver in the .env file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> BROADCAST_DRIVER=pusher

</pre>

Let’s pull in the Pusher PHP SDK using composer:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ composer require pusher/pusher-php-server

</pre>

Configuring Pusher

For us to use Pusher in this application, it is a prerequisite that you have a Pusher account. You can create a free Pusher account here then login to your dashboard and create an app.

Once you have created an app, we will use the app details to configure pusher in the .env file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> PUSHER_APP_ID=xxxxxx
PUSHER_APP_KEY=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PUSHER_APP_SECRET=xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER=xx

</pre>

Update the Pusher keys with the app credentials provided for you under the Keys section on the Overview tab on the Pusher dashboard.


Broadcasting an event for when a new comment is sent

To make the comment update realtime, we have to broadcast an event based on the comment creation activity. We will create a new event and call it CommentSent. It is to be fired when there is a successful creation of a new comment.

Run command in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> php artisan make:event CommentSent

</pre>

There will be a newly created file in the app\Events directory, open the CommentSent.php file and ensure that it implements the ShouldBroadcast interface.

Open and replace the file with the following code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Events/CommentSent.php
<?php

namespace App\Events;

use App\Comment;
use App\User;
use Illuminate\Broadcasting\Channel;
use Illuminate\Queue\SerializesModels;
use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PrivateChannel;
use Illuminate\Broadcasting\PresenceChannel;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Events\Dispatchable;
use Illuminate\Broadcasting\InteractsWithSockets;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Broadcasting\ShouldBroadcast;

class CommentSent implements ShouldBroadcast
{
    use Dispatchable, InteractsWithSockets, SerializesModels;

    public $user;

    public $comment;

    public function __construct(User $user, Comment $comment)
    {
        $this-&gt;user = $user;

        $this-&gt;comment = $comment;
    }

    public function broadcastOn()
    {
        return new PrivateChannel('comment');
    }
}

</pre>

In the code above, we created two public properties, user and comment, to hold the data that will be passed to the channel we are broadcasting on. We also created a private channel called comment. We are using a private channel so that only authenticated clients can subscribe to the channel.


Defining the routes for handling operations on a comment

We created a controller for the comment model earlier but we haven’t defined the web routes that will redirect requests to be handled by that controller.

Open the routes/web.php file and include the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./routes/web.php
Route::get('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');
Route::post('/{post}/comments', '[email protected]');
</pre>

Setting up the action methods in the CommentController

We need to include two methods in the CommentController.php file, these methods will be responsible for storing and retrieving methods. In the store() method, we will also be broadcasting an event when a new comment is created.

Open the CommentController.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./app/Http/Controllers/CommentController.php
<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use App\Comment;
use App\Events\CommentSent;
use App\Post;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class CommentController extends Controller
{
    public function store(Post $post)
    {
        $this-&gt;validate(request(), [
            'body' =&gt; 'required',
        ]);

        $user = auth()-&gt;user();

        $comment = Comment::create([
            'user_id' =&gt; $user-&gt;id,
            'post_id' =&gt; $post-&gt;id,
            'body' =&gt; request('body'),
        ]);

        broadcast(new CommentSent($user, $comment))-&gt;toOthers();

        return ['status' =&gt; 'Message Sent!'];
    }

    public function index(Post $post)
    {
        return $post-&gt;comments()-&gt;with('user')-&gt;get();
    }
}

</pre>

In the store method above, we are validating then creating a new post comment. After the comment has been created, we broadcast the CommentSent event to other clients so they can update their comments list in realtime.

In the index method we just return the comments belonging to a post along with the user that made the comment.


Adding a layer of authentication

Let’s add a layer of authentication that ensures that only authenticated users can listen on the private comment channel we created.

Add the following code to the routes/channels.php file:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> // File: ./routes/channels.php
Broadcast::channel('comment', function ($user) {
return auth()->check();
});
</pre>

Adding comments to the frontend

In the second article of this series, we created the view for the single post landing page in the single.blade.php file, but we didn’t add the comments functionality. We are going to add it now. We will be using Vue to build the comments for this application so the first thing we will do is include Vue in the frontend of our application.

Open the master layout template and include Vue to its <head> tag. Just before the <title> tag appears in the master.blade.php file, include this snippet:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <!-- File: ./resources/views/layouts/master.blade.php -->
<meta name="csrf-token" content="{{ csrf_token() }}">
<script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}" defer></script>
</pre>

The csrf_token() is there so that users cannot forge requests in our application. All our requests will pick the randomly generated csrf-token and use that to make requests.

Related: CSRF in Laravel: how VerifyCsrfToken works and how to prevent attacks

Now the next thing we want to do is update the resources/assets/js/app.js file so that it includes a template for the comments view.

Open the file and replace its contents with the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> require('./bootstrap');

import Vue          from 'vue'
import VueRouter    from 'vue-router'
import Homepage from './components/Homepage'
import Create   from './components/Create'
import Read     from './components/Read'
import Update   from './components/Update'
import Comments from './components/Comments'

Vue.use(VueRouter)

const router = new VueRouter({
    mode: 'history',
    routes: [
        {
            path: '/admin/dashboard',
            name: 'read',
            component: Read,
            props: true
        },
        {
            path: '/admin/create',
            name: 'create',
            component: Create,
            props: true
        },
        {
            path: '/admin/update',
            name: 'update',
            component: Update,
            props: true
        },
    ],
});

const app = new Vue({
    el: '#app',
    components: { Homepage, Comments },
    router,
});

</pre>

Above we imported the Comment component and then we added it to the list of components in the applications Vue instance.

Now create a Comments.vue file in the resources/assets/js/components directory. This is where all the code for our comment view will go. We will populate this file later on.


Installing Pusher and Laravel Echo

For us to be able to use Pusher and subscribe to events on the frontend, we need to pull in both Pusher and Laravel Echo. We will do so by running this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm install --save laravel-echo pusher-js

</pre>

Laravel Echo is a JavaScript library that makes it easy to subscribe to channels and listen for events broadcast by Laravel.

Now let’s configure Laravel Echo to work in our application. In the resources/assets/js/bootstrap.js file, find and uncomment this snippet of code:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> import Echo from 'laravel-echo'

window.Pusher = require('pusher-js');

window.Echo = new Echo({
     broadcaster: 'pusher',
     key: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_KEY,
     cluster: process.env.MIX_PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER,
     encrypted: true
});

</pre>

The key and cluster will pull the keys from your .env file so no need to enter them manually again.

Now let’s import the Comments component into the single.blade.php file and pass along the required the props.

Open the single.blade.php file and replace its contents with the code below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> {{-- File: ./resources/views/single.blade.php --}}
@extends('layouts.master')

@section('content')
&lt;div class="container"&gt;
  &lt;div class="row"&gt;
    &lt;div class="col-lg-10 mx-auto"&gt;
      &lt;br&gt;
      &lt;h3 class="mt-4"&gt;
        {{ $post-&gt;title }} 
        &lt;span class="lead"&gt;by &lt;a href="#"&gt;{{ $post-&gt;user-&gt;name }}&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/span&gt;
      &lt;/h3&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;p&gt;Posted {{ $post-&gt;created_at-&gt;diffForHumans() }}&lt;/p&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;img class="img-fluid rounded" src="{!! !empty($post-&gt;image) ? '/uploads/posts/' . $post-&gt;image : 'http://placehold.it/750x300' !!}" alt=""&gt;
      &lt;hr&gt;
      &lt;div&gt;
        &lt;p&gt;{{ $post-&gt;body }}&lt;/p&gt;
        &lt;hr&gt;
        &lt;br&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      @auth
      &lt;Comments
          :post-id='@json($post-&gt;id)' 
          :user-name='@json(auth()-&gt;user()-&gt;name)'&gt;
      &lt;/Comments&gt;
      @endauth
    &lt;/div&gt;
  &lt;/div&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;
@endsection

</pre>

Building the comments view

Open the Comments.vue file and add the following markup template below:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <template>
<div class="card my-4">
<h5 class="card-header">Leave a Comment:</h5>
<div class="card-body">
<form>
<div class="form-group">
<textarea ref="body" class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>
</div>
<button type="submit" @click.prevent="addComment" class="btn btn-primary">
Submit
</button>
</form>
</div>
<p class="border p-3" v-for="comment in comments">
<strong>{{ comment.user.name }}</strong>:
<span>{{ comment.body }}</span>
</p>
</div>
</template>
</pre>

Now, we’ll add a script that defines two methods:

  1. fetchComments() - this will fetch all the existing comments when the component is created.
  2. addComment() - this will add a new comment by hitting the backend server. It will also trigger a new event that will be broadcast so all clients receive them in realtime.

In the same file, add the following below the closing template tag:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> <script>
export default {
props: {
userName: {
type: String,
required: true
},
postId: {
type: Number,
required: true
}
},
data() {
return {
comments: []
};
},

  created() {
    this.fetchComments();

    Echo.private("comment").listen("CommentSent", e =&gt; {
        this.comments.push({
          user: {name: e.user.name},
          body: e.comment.body,
        });
    });
  },

  methods: {
    fetchComments() {
      axios.get("/" + this.postId + "/comments").then(response =&gt; {
        this.comments = response.data;
      });
    },

    addComment() {
      let body = this.$refs.body.value;
      axios.post("/" + this.postId + "/comments", { body }).then(response =&gt; {
        this.comments.push({
          user: {name: this.userName},
          body: this.$refs.body.value
        });
        this.$refs.body.value = "";
      });
    }
  }
};
&lt;/script&gt;

</pre>

In the created() method above, we first made a call to the fetchComments() method, then we created a listener to the private comment channel using Laravel Echo. Once this listener is triggered, the comments property is updated.


Testing the application

Now let’s test the application to see if it is working as intended. Before running the application, we need to refresh our database so as to revert any changes. To do this, run the command below in your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan migrate:fresh --seed

</pre>

Next, let’s build the application so that all the changes will be compiled and included as a part of the JavaScript file. To do this, run the following command on your terminal:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ npm run dev

</pre>

Finally, let’s serve the application using this command:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"> $ php artisan serve

</pre>

To test that our application works visit the application URL http://localhost:8000 on two separate browser windows, we will log in to our application on each of the windows as a different user.

We will finally make a comment on the same post on each of the browser windows and check that it updates in realtime on the other window:


Conclusion

In this final tutorial of this series, we created the comments feature of the CMS and also made it realtime. We were able to accomplish the realtime functionality using Pusher.

In this entire series, we learned how to build a CMS using Laravel and Vue.

The source code for this article series is available here on Github.


Learn More

Build a Basic CRUD App with Laravel and Vue

Fullstack Vue App with Node, Express and MongoDB

Build a Simple CRUD App with Spring Boot and Vue.js

Build a Basic CRUD App with Laravel and Angular

Build a Basic CRUD App with Laravel and React

PHP Programming Language - PHP Tutorial for Beginners

Vuejs 2 Authentication Tutorial

Vue Authentication And Route Handling Using Vue-router

Vue JS 2 - The Complete Guide (incl. Vue Router & Vuex)

Nuxt.js - Vue.js on Steroids

MEVP Stack Vue JS 2 Course: MySQL + Express.js + Vue.js +PHP

Build Web Apps with Vue JS 2 & Firebase

Originally published by Neo Ighodaro at https://pusher.com

Common mistakes to avoid while working with Vue.js for Beginners

Common mistakes to avoid while working with Vue.js for Beginners

Include template compiler

My first issue was a pretty basic one. The first thing to do in order to use Vue.js is to import it. If you follow the official guide and use an inline template for your component, you will get a blank page.

import Vue from 'vue';
var vm = new Vue({
  el: '#vm',
  template: '<div>Hello World</div>',
});

boilerplate.js

Note that this issue doesn’t occur when you define templates with the render function or SFC (Single File Component).

Actually, there are many Vue builds. The default build exported by the NPM package is the runtime-only build. It doesn’t bring the template compiler.

For some background information, the template compiler works exactly like JSX for React. It replaces template strings with function calls to create a Virtual DOM node.

// #1: import full build in JavaScript file
import Vue from 'vue/dist/vue.js';

// OR #2: make an alias in webpack configuration
config.resolve: {
  alias: { vue: 'vue/dist/vue.js' }
}

// OR #3: use render function directly
var vm = new Vue({
  el: '#vm',
  render: function(createElement) {
    return createElement('div', 'Hello world');
  }
});

template-compiler.js

With SFCs, this issue does not occur. Both vue-loader and vueify are tools used to handle SFCs. They generates plain JavaScript components using the render function to define the template.

To use string templates in components, use a full Vue.js build.

In summary, to fix this issue, specify the correct build during import, or make an alias for Vue in your bundler configuration.

You should note that using string templates reduces your app performance, because the compilation occurs at runtime.

There are many more ways to define a component template, so check out this article. Also, I recommend using the render function in Vue instance.

Keep property’s reactivity

If you use React, you probably know its reactivity relies on calling the setState function to update the value of properties.

Reactivity with Vue.js is a bit different. It’s based on proxying the component properties. Getter and setter functions will be overridden and will notify updates to the Virtual DOM.

var vm = new Vue({
  el: '#vm',
  template: `<div>{{ item.count }}<input type="button" value="Click" @click="updateCount"/></div>`,
  data: {
    item: {}
  },
  beforeMount () {
    this.$data.item.count = 0;
  },
  methods: {
    updateCount () {
      // JavaScript object is updated but
      // the component template is not rendered again
      this.$data.item.count++;
    }
  }
});

broken-reactivity.js

In the code snippet above, the Vue instance has a property called item (defined in data). This property contains an empty literal object.

During the component initialization, Vue creates a proxy under the get and set functions attached to the item property. Thus, the framework will watch value changes and eventually react.

However, the count property isn’t reactive, because it wasn’t declared at initialization time.

Actually, proxifying only occurs at component initialization time, and thebeforeMount lifecycle function triggers later.

Besides, the item setter isn’t called during count definition. So the proxy won’t trigger and the count property will have no watch.

beforeMount () {
  // #1: Call parent setter
  // item setter is called so proxifying is propaged
  this.$data.item = {
    count: 0
  };
  
  // OR #2: explicitly ask for watching
  // item.count got its getter and setter proxyfied
  this.$set(this.$data.item, 'count', 0);
  
  // "Short-hand" for:
  Vue.set(this.$data.item, 'count', 0);
}

fixed-reactivity.js

If you keep the item.count affectation in beforeMount, calling Vue.set later won’t create a watch.

The exact same issue also occurs with arrays when using direct affection on unknown indexes. In such cases, you should prefer array proxifyed functions such as push and slice.

Also, you can read this article from the Vue.js Developer’s website.

Be careful with SFC exports

You can use Vue regularly in JavaScript files, but you can also use Single File Components. It helps to gather JavaScript, HTML, and CSS code in a single file.

With SFCs, the component code is the script tag of a .vue file. Still written in JavaScript, it has to export the component.

There are many ways to export a variable/component. Often, we use either direct, named, or default exports. Named exports will prevent users from renaming the component. It will also be eligible for tree-shaking.

/* File: user.vue */
<template>
  <div>{{ user.name }}</div>
</template>

<script>
  const User = {
    data: () => ({
      user: {
        name: 'John Doe'
      }
    })
  };
  export User; // Not work
  export default User; // Works
</script>

/* File: app.js */
import {User} from 'user.vue'; // Not work
import User from 'user.vue'; // Works (".vue" is required)

sfc-export.js

Using named exports is not compatible with SFCs, be mindful about this!

In summary, exporting a named variable by default might be a good idea. This way, you will get more explicit debug messages.

Don’t mix SFC components

Putting code, template, and style together is a good idea. Besides, depending on your constraints and opinions, you may want to keep the separation of concerns.

As described in the Vue documentation, it’s compatible with SFC.

Afterward, one idea came to my mind. Use the same JavaScript code and include it in different templates. You may point it as a bad practice, but it keeps things simple.

For instance, a component can have both read-only and read-write mode and keep the same implementation.

/* File: user.js */
const User = {
  data: () => ({
    user: {
      name: 'John Doe'
    }
  })
};
export default User;

/* File: user-read-only.vue */
<template><div>{{ user.name }}</div></template>
<script src="./user.js"></script>

/* File: user-read-write.vue */
<template><input v-model="user.name"/></template>
<script src="./user.js"></script>

sfc-mix.js

In this snippet, both read-only and read-write templates use the same JavaScript user component.

Once you import both components, you will figure out that it doesn’t work as expected.

// The last import wins
import UserReadWrite from './user-read-write.vue';
import UserReadOnly from './user-read-only.vue';

Vue.component('UserReadOnly', UserReadOnly);
Vue.component('UserReadWrite', UserReadWrite);

// Renders two times a UserReadOnly
var vm = new Vue({
  el: '#vm',
  template: `<div><UserReadOnly/><UserReadWrite/></div>`
});

sfc-mix-import.js

The component defined in user.js can only be used in a single SFC. Otherwise, the last imported SFC which uses it will override the previous.

SFCs allow splitting code in separate files. But you can’t import thoses files in multiple Vue components.

To make it simple, don’t reuse JavaScript component code in multiple SFC components. The separate code feature is a handy syntax, not a design pattern.

Thanks for reading, hope my experience has been useful to make you avoid the mistakes I made.

If it was useful, please click on the ? button a few times to make others find the article and show your support! ?

Building A Tailwind CSS Component Library for Vue.js

Building A Tailwind CSS Component Library for Vue.js

Install

npm

npm install @advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue

yarn

yarn add @advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue

Usage

import Vue from 'vue';
// styles for transitions and other base options
import '@advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue/dist/tailwindcss-vue.css';
import TailwindcssVue from '@advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue';

Vue.use(TailwindcssVue);

Base Theme Expectations

Use of this project assumes you are using PostCSS and Tailwind CSS in your Vue project.

postcss.config.js

// replace './tailwind.config.js' to your own config path
module.exports = {
	plugins: [
		require('tailwindcss')('./tailwind.config.js'),
		require('autoprefixer')
	]
};

tailwind.config.js

This file is likely to change to base color scheme without the need for custom color names

const { colors } = require('tailwindcss/defaultTheme');
// variant defaults
// https://tailwindcss.com/docs/configuring-variants/#default-variants-reference
module.exports = {
	theme: {
		extend: {
			spacing: {
				'9': '2.25rem',
				'11': '2.75rem',
				'14': '3.5rem',
				'18': '4.5rem'
			},
			fontSize: {
				'xxs': '0.625rem'
			},
			stroke: {
				...colors
			}
		},
		container: {
			center: true
		}
	},
	variants: {
		borderColor: ['responsive', 'hover', 'focus', 'first', 'last'],
		borderRadius: ['responsive', 'first', 'last'],
		borderWidth: ['responsive', 'first', 'last'],
		margin: ['responsive', 'before', 'first', 'last'],
		textColor: ['responsive', 'hover', 'focus', 'before']
	},
	plugins: [
		function({ addVariant, e }) {
			addVariant('before', ({ modifySelectors, separator }) => {
				modifySelectors(({ className }) => {
					return `.${e(`before${separator}${className}`)}:before`;
				});
			});
		}
	]
};

Developing/Running Locally

Clone the repo to your computer then change to the project directory. Once in the root of the project, use the install command with your dependency manager of choice (yarn or npm).

cd tailwindcss-vue
npm install

or

cd tailwindcss-vue
yarn install

The project is set up with a Vue SPA playground to test components. In the root of the project directory you can run the development server with the serve command.

npm run serve

or

yarn serve

You can also build the project and serve it to another local project using npm link or the equivalent yarn link. While still in the root of the project directory, run the build:bundle command.

npm run build:bundle

or

yarn build:bundle

This will add the build to the 'dist' folder as a consumable library. Once completed, run the npm link command.

npm link

Next, in the project you wish to link, run the npm link tailwindcss-vue in the same directory as the package.json file. This will add the project to the global scope to be referenced as a traditional installed npm package (import TailwindcssVue from '@advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue').

npm link @advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue

Local Docs

This project is bundled with VuePress to generate its documentation. You can run it locally by running the docs:dev run command. The docs are currently a work-in-progress.

npm run docs:dev

or

yarn docs:dev

GitHub

advanced-data-machines/tailwindcss-vue

Originally published at vuejsexamples.com

Vue.js Composition API Starter Guide with Example

Vue.js Composition API Starter Guide with Example

Vue.js Composition API Starter Guide with Example

With Vue.js 3.0 comes the new Vue Composition API. You can try it now with Vue.js 2.0! In this video I explain what it is, and how to convert an example over to using the API. WATCH THE TUTORIAL TO FIND OUT!

👉 Source code
https://github.com/ErikCH/Vue-composition-example

<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/zPViRHZfKv4" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>

Accessing the virtual DOM using render functions in Vue JS

Accessing the virtual DOM using render functions in Vue JS

In this post, we will look at how to use render functions to unleash the power of JavaScript by using templates in Vue.

Before you start

This post is suited for developers of all stages including beginners. Here are a few things you should already have before going through this article.

You will need the following on your pc:

  • Node.js version 10.x and above installed. You can verify if you do by running the command below in your terminal/command prompt:
<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">node -v </pre>
  • A code editor: Visual Studio Code is highly recommended
  • Vue’s latest version, installed globally on your machine
  • Vue CLI 3.0 installed on your machine. To do this, uninstall the old CLI version first:
<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">npm uninstall -g vue-cli </pre>

then install the new one:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">npm install -g @vue/cli </pre>
  • Download a Vue starter project here
  • Unzip the downloaded project
  • Navigate into the unzipped file and run the command to keep all the dependencies up-to-date:
<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">npm install </pre>

Introduction: How Vue works in browsers

Vue JS has a focus on the view layer of your JavaScript projects and that is why the templates are provided to show your presentation (markup language). The node is the smallest unit of constructs in the DOM, so when template code like this is sent to the DOM, the browser breaks it all down to nodes:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"><div> <h1>My first heading is this </h1> <p>The paragraph text stays here </p> </div> </pre>

So the heading is a node and the header text is a child node inside the header node, just as the paragraph is a node and the text in it is a child node. To update these nodes, Vue, provides a template to write the presentation code while it assembles the nodes.

So for a paragraph like the one above, you simply write this in the template section:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"><p>The paragraph text stays here </p> </pre>

Or use a render function to create it, like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">render: function (createElement) { return createElement('p', 'The paragraph text stays here') } </pre>

You can quickly notice the level of abstraction you get with Vue as you compare both methods. The render function, however, closer to the compiler as the template code will still need transcribing to JavaScript.

How Vue manages nodes

To monitor and properly manage these nodes, Vue JS builds a virtual DOM where it does the dirty work of keeping up with nodes and how they change from the point of mounting onInit to when they are un-mounted (at onDestroy) as virtual nodes. A virtual DOM is simply a component tree of all the virtual nodes.

Render function

This is the function in JavaScript used inside a Vue component to perform tasks like creating an element. Here we see the function that is shown above:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">render: function (createElement) { return createElement('p', 'The paragraph text stays here') } </pre>

You see that the argument createElement is used to create a new element in the DOM, behind the scenes it returns a virtual node. Virtual nodes are called VNodes in Vue JS.

The render function’s createElement accepts up to three parameters:

  1. The first parameter is called the render element, it is required for createElement to work, it can be a string or even a function. It is usually an HTML tag name, a component option or a function that resolves to a tag name.
  2.  The second parameter is the definition of the component or the HTML tag name in the last parameter. It is usually an object and it is an optional parameter. It is a data object that corresponds to the parameter that will be created in the DOM.
  3. The third parameter is the children parameter, it can either be a string or an array of the data value or child node of the first parameter.

Demo

To illustrate the render function, let us see a sample example, if you read this post from the start you will have downloaded the starter project, unzipped and opened it up in your VS Code application. Open your App.vue file and make sure it looks like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"><template> <div id="app"> <p>{{greetings}} </p> </div> </template> <script> import Test from './components/Test.vue' export default { name: 'app', components: { Test }, data(){ return { greetings: 'The paragraph text stays here' } } } </script> <style> #app { font-family: 'Avenir', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale; text-align: center; color: #2c3e50; margin-top: 60px; } </style> </pre>

This is exactly what we had as our first code sample at the start of this post. To use the render function approach, remember it is a pure JavaScript concept in Vue so open up the main.js file, it should look like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">import Vue from 'vue' import App from './App.vue' Vue.config.productionTip = false new Vue({ render: h => h(App), }).$mount('#app') </pre>

This is where the default mounting statement is kept by Vue and how the app.vue file is the root component. Add this code block before the new Vue code block, just immediately after the third line:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">import Vue from 'vue' import App from './App.vue' Vue.config.productionTip = false Vue.component('Hello', { render(createElement){ return createElement('p', 'The rendered paragraph text stays here'); } }) new Vue({ render: h => h(App), }).$mount('#app') </pre>

This creates a new Vue component called Hello and then creates a paragraph element inside it. The paragraph will look exactly as if you opened a new .vue file like the Test component in the project directory. To test it out, go back to the app.vue file and add the Hello component in the template and watch it appear in your browser.

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"><template> <div id="app"> <p>{{greetings}} </p> <Hello /> </div> </template> </pre>

Here is what it will look like in the browser:

Utilizing the power of JavaScript

You can leverage your knowledge of JavaScript to really control the virtual DOM as you already know that using the render function gives you direct control to the Vue virtual DOM. You can add a data object with values and then use this to refer to it like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">Vue.component('Hello', { render(createElement){ return createElement('p', this.greetings); }, data(){ return { greetings: 'The paragraph text stays here' } } }) </pre>

This displays the created paragraph with the text specified in the data object.

Using props

You can also make use of your favorite Vue JS constructs like props, for instance. If your app.vue template section has a car property like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false"><template> <div id="app"> <p>{{greetings}} </p> <Hello car=" driving a Ferari"/> </div> </template> </pre>

You can make reference to it using the props in the main.js file like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">Vue.component('Hello', { render(createElement){ return createElement('p', this.greetings + this.car); }, data(){ return { greetings: 'The paragraph text stays here' } }, props: ['car'] }) </pre>

Here is what it will look like in the browser:

Creating nested components

You can also nest elements with the render function like this:

<pre class="ql-syntax" spellcheck="false">Vue.component('Hello', { render(createElement){ return createElement('ul', [createElement('li',[createElement('p', 'I am a nested list item')])]); }, data(){ return { greetings: 'The paragraph text stays here' } }, props: ['car'] }) </pre>

Here is what it will look like in the browser:

You can see the Vue instance API and the render function documentation here.

Conclusion

This has been a good introduction into accessing the Vue virtual DOM with render functions. It is a very direct way to communicate with the DOM and with knowledge of both Vue and JavaScript itself, you can comfortably have total control over the DOM. Happy hacking!

Recommended Reading


An API Gateway Example Bringing Together Vue.js, Express, and Postgres

Building Micro Frontends with React, Vue, and Single-spa

How to implement client-side pagination in Vue.js

Accessing the virtual DOM using render functions in Vue.js

Template in Vue.js

Accessible Form Validation with ARIA and Vue.js

How to use PWA plugin in Vue CLI 3.0

Going Serverless with Vue.js

What React Hooks Mean for Vue developers