Waylon  Bruen

Waylon Bruen

1626462000

Microservices Authentication Strategies: Theory to Practice

In this article, we will walk through common ways of implementing authentication microservices.

We will have 2 parts:

1. **The theoretical part **talking about OpenID Connect, OAuth 2.0, JWT, etc.

Here I try to save you time wandering through the web and giving you all the basics you need to understand in order to start coding.

2. The practical part, where we will implement two Node.js microservices, one responsible for user authentication via google login, another responsible for greeting the user that has a token created by the previous service. Plus, we add a react js app to interact with those services.

TL;DR: If you’d like to skip the theory straight to the practical part, go here .

The Theory

What is authentication?

Authentication is the answer users give us when we ask them “Who are you?”. For us to believe users, they need to go through a process providing some proof.

For example – by providing a username & password or by using a social login provider.

What is authorization?

Authorization is usually relevant when we already know who the user is, thus the user is authenticated (unless we allow anonymous access, but we won’t get into that use case here).

Our users want to perform certain actions in our system, and the process of checking if they are allowed to do it or not is called authorization.

(Note: The reason we’re talking about this authorization in an authentication article is that these terms are often confused, and we need to understand it to understand concepts like OAuth 2.0 & OpenID Connect)

A good real-world analogy for both of the above would be while checking in a hotel room. Authentication is your passport, and authorization is if I’m allowed to enter a certain room (because I booked it).

#microservices

Microservices Authentication Strategies: Theory to Practice

How To Set Up Two-Factor Authentication in cPanel

What is 2FA
Two-Factor Authentication (or 2FA as it often referred to) is an extra layer of security that is used to provide users an additional level of protection when securing access to an account.
Employing a 2FA mechanism is a vast improvement in security over the Singe-Factor Authentication method of simply employing a username and password. Using this method, accounts that have 2FA enabled, require the user to enter a one-time passcode that is generated by an external application. The 2FA passcode (usually a six-digit number) is required to be input into the passcode field before access is granted. The 2FA input is usually required directly after the username and password are entered by the client.

#tutorials #2fa #access #account security #authentication #authentication method #authentication token #cli #command line #cpanel #feature manager #google authenticator #one time password #otp #otp authentication #passcode #password #passwords #qr code #security #security code #security policy #security practices #single factor authentication #time-based one-time password #totp #two factor authentication #whm

How To Set Up Two-Factor Authentication in cPanel
Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz

1599055326

Testing Microservices Applications

The shift towards microservices and modular applications makes testing more important and more challenging at the same time. You have to make sure that the microservices running in containers perform well and as intended, but you can no longer rely on conventional testing strategies to get the job done.

This is where new testing approaches are needed. Testing your microservices applications require the right approach, a suitable set of tools, and immense attention to details. This article will guide you through the process of testing your microservices and talk about the challenges you will have to overcome along the way. Let’s get started, shall we?

A Brave New World

Traditionally, testing a monolith application meant configuring a test environment and setting up all of the application components in a way that matched the production environment. It took time to set up the testing environment, and there were a lot of complexities around the process.

Testing also requires the application to run in full. It is not possible to test monolith apps on a per-component basis, mainly because there is usually a base code that ties everything together, and the app is designed to run as a complete app to work properly.

Microservices running in containers offer one particular advantage: universal compatibility. You don’t have to match the testing environment with the deployment architecture exactly, and you can get away with testing individual components rather than the full app in some situations.

Of course, you will have to embrace the new cloud-native approach across the pipeline. Rather than creating critical dependencies between microservices, you need to treat each one as a semi-independent module.

The only monolith or centralized portion of the application is the database, but this too is an easy challenge to overcome. As long as you have a persistent database running on your test environment, you can perform tests at any time.

Keep in mind that there are additional things to focus on when testing microservices.

  • Microservices rely on network communications to talk to each other, so network reliability and requirements must be part of the testing.
  • Automation and infrastructure elements are now added as codes, and you have to make sure that they also run properly when microservices are pushed through the pipeline
  • While containerization is universal, you still have to pay attention to specific dependencies and create a testing strategy that allows for those dependencies to be included

Test containers are the method of choice for many developers. Unlike monolith apps, which lets you use stubs and mocks for testing, microservices need to be tested in test containers. Many CI/CD pipelines actually integrate production microservices as part of the testing process.

Contract Testing as an Approach

As mentioned before, there are many ways to test microservices effectively, but the one approach that developers now use reliably is contract testing. Loosely coupled microservices can be tested in an effective and efficient way using contract testing, mainly because this testing approach focuses on contracts; in other words, it focuses on how components or microservices communicate with each other.

Syntax and semantics construct how components communicate with each other. By defining syntax and semantics in a standardized way and testing microservices based on their ability to generate the right message formats and meet behavioral expectations, you can rest assured knowing that the microservices will behave as intended when deployed.

#testing #software testing #test automation #microservice architecture #microservice #test #software test automation #microservice best practices #microservice deployment #microservice components

Testing Microservices Applications

The Service Mesh in the Microservices World - DZone Microservices

The software industry has come a long journey and throughout this journey, Software Architecture has evolved a lot. Starting with 1-tier (Single-node), 2-tier (Client/ Server), 3-tier, and Distributed are some of the Software Architectural patterns we saw in this journey.

The Problem

The majority of software companies are moving from Monolithic architecture to Microservices architecture, and Microservices architecture is taking over the software industry day-by-day. While monolithic architecture has many benefits, it also has so many shortcomings when catering to modern software development needs. With those shortcomings of monolithic architecture, it is very difficult to meet the demand of the modern-world software requirements and as a result, microservices architecture is taking control of the software development aggressively. The Microservices architecture enables us to deploy our applications more frequently, independently, and reliably meeting modern-day software application development requirements.

#microservice architecture #istio #microservice best practices #linkerd #microservice communication #microservice design #envoy proxy #kubernetes architecture #api gateways #service mesh architecture

The Service Mesh in the Microservices World - DZone Microservices
Tia  Gottlieb

Tia Gottlieb

1597438200

What Is a Microservice Architecture? Why Is It Important Now?

We have been building software applications for many years using various tools, technologies, architectural patterns and best practices. It is evident that many software applications become large complex monolith over a period for various reasons. A monolith software application is like a large ball of spaghetti with criss-cross dependencies among its constituent modules. It becomes more complex to develop, deploy and maintain monoliths, constraining the agility and competitive advantages of development teams. Also, let us not undermine the challenge of clearing any sort of technical debt monoliths accumulate, as changing part of monolith code may have cascading impact of destabilizing a working software in production.

Over the years, architectural patterns such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Microservices have emerged as alternatives to Monoliths.

SOA was arguably the first architectural pattern aimed at solving the typical monolith issues by breaking down a large complex software application to sub-systems or “services”. All these services communicate over a common enterprise service bus (ESB). However, these sub-systems or services are actually mid-sized monoliths, as they share the same database. Also, more and more service-aware logic gets added to ESB and it becomes the single point of failure.

Microservice as an architectural pattern has gathered steam due to large scale adoption by companies like Amazon, Netflix, SoundCloud, Spotify etc. It breaks downs a large software application to a number of loosely coupled microservices. Each microservice is responsible for doing specific discrete tasks, can have its own database and can communicate with other microservices through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to solve a large complex business problem. Each microservice can be developed, deployed and maintained independently as long as it operates without breaching a well-defined set of APIs called contract to communicate with other microservices.

#microservice architecture #microservice #scaling #thought leadership #microservices build #microservice

What Is a Microservice Architecture? Why Is It Important Now?
Waylon  Bruen

Waylon Bruen

1626462000

Microservices Authentication Strategies: Theory to Practice

In this article, we will walk through common ways of implementing authentication microservices.

We will have 2 parts:

1. **The theoretical part **talking about OpenID Connect, OAuth 2.0, JWT, etc.

Here I try to save you time wandering through the web and giving you all the basics you need to understand in order to start coding.

2. The practical part, where we will implement two Node.js microservices, one responsible for user authentication via google login, another responsible for greeting the user that has a token created by the previous service. Plus, we add a react js app to interact with those services.

TL;DR: If you’d like to skip the theory straight to the practical part, go here .

The Theory

What is authentication?

Authentication is the answer users give us when we ask them “Who are you?”. For us to believe users, they need to go through a process providing some proof.

For example – by providing a username & password or by using a social login provider.

What is authorization?

Authorization is usually relevant when we already know who the user is, thus the user is authenticated (unless we allow anonymous access, but we won’t get into that use case here).

Our users want to perform certain actions in our system, and the process of checking if they are allowed to do it or not is called authorization.

(Note: The reason we’re talking about this authorization in an authentication article is that these terms are often confused, and we need to understand it to understand concepts like OAuth 2.0 & OpenID Connect)

A good real-world analogy for both of the above would be while checking in a hotel room. Authentication is your passport, and authorization is if I’m allowed to enter a certain room (because I booked it).

#microservices

Microservices Authentication Strategies: Theory to Practice